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It was a winter evening in 1926 when A. C. 
Reynolds first shared with a small group of 
Asheville residents his dream of a college 
for local students who wanted more than a high 
school diploma. It was clear that they would 
have to make that dream come true themselves 
and, little more than a year later, Biltmore Ju- 
nior College opened its doors to 86 freshmen. 

That ongoing commitment, coupled with 
a long-standing liberal arts tradition, superior 
faculty, and dedicated students, has carried the 
institution through several name and location 
changes; the stretch from a two- to a four-year 
program; the transition from college to univer- 
sity; political upheavals; budget crunches; build- 
ing spurts; and the addition of new programs 
and faculty to meet students' changing needs 
and numbers. 

The campus has changed considerably since 
the fall of 1927. Instead of cramped quarters 
in the basement of Biltmore High School, 
the university's 265 hilltop acres feature well- 
equipped laboratories, an excellent library, 
spacious art studios and galleries, dormitories 
for those students who choose to live on cam- 
pus, a sports complex, and enough classrooms 
to accommodate a student body that has in- 
creased by 3,300 percent. Although the list of 
majors now includes select career-track and pre- 
professional programs, the focus remains a 
liberal arts education. Faculty continue to be 
those dedicated to teaching and distinguished 
by scholarship. Class size remains small, and 
community support is still as strong as ever. 

{continued on back flap) 





of North 
Carolina at 


Digitized by 

the Internet Archive 

in 2014 


of North 
Carolina at 



William Edward Highsmith 

The University of North Carolina at Asheville 

© 199 1 The University 
of North Carolina at Asheville 
All rights reserved 
Manufactured in the 
United States of America 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 
Highsmith, William Edward. 
The University of North Carolina at Asheville : the first sixty 
years / William Edward Highsmith. 
p. cm. 
Includes index. 
isbn 0-9629356-0-3 (cloth : alk. paper) 
. University of North Carolina at Asheville — History. I. Tide. 
LD3929.5.H54 1991 


And to A. C. Reynolds, Charles A. Lloyd, 
J. J. Stevenson, Jr., Virginia Bryan Schreiber, 
and all the others who, in the early days, 
kept the dream alive when they 
had nothing but the dream. 


Preface | ix 
Chapter One. Pioneering and Struggling | i 
Chapter Two. The War Years and the Return of the Veterans | 17 
Chapter Three. On the Mountaintop | 3 2 
Chapter Four. A New Campus - A New Beginning | 49 
Chapter Five. Getting Under Way | 66 
Chapter Six. The Late Sixties | 8 2 
Chapter Seven. Merging with the University | 93 

Chapter Eight. A New System | 108 
Chapter Nine. Restructuring the University | 137 
Chapter Ten. A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress | 163 
Chapter Eleven. A New Atmosphere | 206 
Chapter Twelve. Gathering Momentum | 220 
Chapter Thirteen. The Roaring Eighties | 238 


A. Enrollment Trends of the University of North Carolina System | 293 
B. The University of North Carolina at Asheville 
Boards of Trustees | 294 
Index I 297 

A section of photographs follows page 132. 


This book was written with several different audiences in mind: the 
alumni, who may be reminded of what was going on when they were 
students; the students and faculty who joined the UNCA community 
recently and have little or no knowledge of the earlier days; and future 
faculty and students, who should know of the events and decisions that 
have made UNCA what it is and what it will become. 

In writing, I have concentrated on the academic developments and 
political events in the state that have been so important to the institution. 
There are also several people who must be recognized. Although they are 
not faculty members, these individuals have served Asheville-Biltmore 
College and the University of North Carolina at Asheville for many years, 
and it is impossible to think of the institution operating without their 
effective work. Many people have performed valuable service and gready 
deserve recognition, but space restrictions allow me to include only a few 
whose work has had institutionwide impact. 

Carolyn Frady is the senior employee on the campus, having started as 
the president's secretary in August 1962. She was my secretary and then 
administrative assistant for twenty-two years, and she serves in the same 
capacity for Chancellor David G. Brown. She personifies such words as 
diplomacy, efficiency , and dedication. 

William H. Pott has been with the university since July 1969, first as 
business manager and then as vice-chancellor for finance. As a state audi- 
tor who had reviewed the school's books several times, he knew how 


x : Preface 

badly we needed someone in that position. One of the best ways to under- 
stand what he does would be to sit in on an exit interview conducted by 
the state auditors. Such meetings are always pro forma because no one can 
find anything wrong with the management of the state's funds, and they 
often end up with everyone laughing over the paucity of errors. 

Samuel Millar retired in early 1986 as superintendent of the physical 
plant, but no one will ever forget the explosive personality who accom- 
plished more on a stringent budget than anyone ever thought possible. 
He loved the campus, the buildings and landscaping alike, and he will 
long be remembered by those of us who worked with him for fifteen 

Mary Miller, the calm and efficient director of personnel, has been at 
UNCA since 1963. She always takes time to treat each person who comes 
to her as if there were nothing more important than to respond to that 
person's inquiries. 

Jo Cadle has been presiding with quiet perfection over the registrar's 
office for many years. In an administrative office where there is no margin 
for error, her record for accuracy was legendary long before the age of the 

Jacquelyn Peterson, administrative assistant to the vice-chancellor for 
academic affairs, joined the staff in 1964, and her work has been a model 
of pleasant efficiency. She commutes every day from Burnsville and is 
never late, regardless of the weather. When there is snow and people in 
Asheville are calling to see if classes have been canceled, Jackie Peterson is 
at her desk answering the phones. 

John Neuse, the director of accounting, has been working with total 
dedication to accuracy and service since the early sixties. He and William 
Pott make an excellent team and have worked well together for eighteen 
years. He is affectionately known as Mr. Clean, a nickname that describes 
his competence and professionalism. 

Sandra Ochsenreiter has been secretary to three public relations officers 
in her years at UNCA. She is a happy, bubbly person who makes friends 
for the university in whatever she does. It would be difficult to imagine 
the Office of Public Information without her effervescence. 

Joyce Williamson has managed the bookstore since the early sixties. 
Because of the growth of the campus, the store has expanded to more 
than twenty times its original size, but her management capabilities have 
kept pace with the job. 

Preface : xi 

Howard Harmon, who has been supervisor of grounds since 1971, 
thoroughly appreciates my dream and that of the original landscape^ 
Charles G. "Buzz" Tennent. We all share the desire to make the campus a 
place of unique beauty. Since Tennent 's death, Harmon has admirably 
shouldered the responsibility for all the landscaping, including planning 
and supervising. He has made inspired use of such magnificent gifts as six 
thousand choice rhododendrons and azaleas from Wells Nursery in 
Brevard and fifteen thousand tulips from Biltmore House and Gardens. 

I am deeply indebted to several people whose administrative decisions 
made this book possible. Among them are President Emeritus William C. 
Friday, who worked with me and the appropriate boards to allow me to 
remain as research professor after retiring as chancellor; Chancellor David 
G. Brown and Vice-Chancellors Laurence Dorr and Jeffrey Rackham, 
who showed great leniency when it came to my schedule; and Dr. Milton 
Ready, who was chairman of the department of history during the time I 
was teaching and actively researching and who helped me think through 
what needed to be told. He is the director of the Southern Highlands 
Research Center, a repository of material that has been very valuable in the 
writing of this book. 

I am pleased to acknowledge my indebtedness to Karl Straus, Helen 
Zageir, Ruth Feldman, and Dr. Sprinza Weizenblatt for making research 
funds available throughout this project. 

I also am indebted to Susan Elliott, who has been the typist for the 
manuscript for many months. She has demonstrated friendliness and a 
high level of efficiency in working with me on this project, and the fact 
that some of this was done under adverse conditions makes her contribu- 
tion even more valuable. 

Words are incapable of expressing my deep and abiding indebtedness to 
my wife, Allene. She has been with me when everything was going well, 
and she has stood by me when situations looked bleak. She loved the 
faculty and staff, and nothing made her happier than entertaining them at 
the chancellor's residence. I could not have written this book without her 
unwavering love and support. 

William E. Highsmith 
March 1987 



Pioneering and Struggling 

The postwar era in Asheville really began on November n, 19 19, the first 
anniversary of the armistice that ended the Great War. The city was cov- 
ered with flags and bunting as each store, bank, and other enterprise 
joined in the celebration. Bands played, and a parade moved through the 
main streets of the city. A few Confederate veterans led the way, followed 
by a rather sizable contingent of men who had served in the Spanish- 
American War. Then came the real heroes of the day, the regiments from 
Asheville and western North Carolina that had been part of the Thirtieth 
Division. They marched to form a military square around the Zebulon 
Vance Monument in the center of Pack Square. People from all over 
western North Carolina had come to Asheville for the occasion. 

Postwar Asheville did not go back to being the peaceful town of the 
early twentieth century. Asheville was unique for a city of its size, boasting 
such showplaces as Biltmore House, the Grove Park Inn, and Seely Castle, 
and it had caught the eye of land developers and investors, principally 
from south Florida. They realized that people would come to the moun- 
tain city in much larger numbers for their health, and they saw the scenic 
land as a mecca for tourists. As a result, they considered the city well 
suited to bigger, better buildings and subdivisions. Within a few years, 
Asheville was a boomtown. As in the boomtowns of the Great West, 
something of value had been discovered — confidence in the future. 

Confidence could not be bought and sold, but land could, and a real 
estate boom dominated Asheville in the early twenties. Frank Coxe, whose 


2 : Pioneering and Struggling 

family had been prominent in business and real estate for several genera- 
tions, has lived in Asheville since the start of the twentieth century. He 
tells of the frenzied rush to buy land, of people carrying options on parcels 
of land to the courthouse to record them and selling the options on the 
street before they even got there — for considerable profit. The Asheville 
Citizen regularly ran advertisements announcing new subdivisions and 
land-investment organizations for local investors. Some guaranteed prof- 
its of $100,000 in a very short time. 

The tide started to turn in the summer of 1926, after a hurricane devas- 
tated Miami and ruined many of the developers who had been dealing 
heavily in Asheville. Suddenly there were more sellers than buyers of land, 
and prices subsided within a few months. But the boomtown attitude did 
not really collapse until the Great Crash of 1929. 

By the mid-twenties the city school system was growing so rapidly that 
it was causing a great deal of difficulty for the city school board and the 
superintendent. At that time there were two high schools in Asheville. 
Hall Fletcher High School served West Asheville. Asheville High School, 
located on Oak Street, had been built for 800 to 900 students. By the 
mid-twenties, the enrollment was 1,400 and growing, and the school 
board, composed of F. L. Conder, Mrs. S. B. Sullivan, W. Vance Brown, 
and William M. Smathers, had many discussions with Wilfred L. Brooker, 
the city superintendent, concerning a solution to the problem. After con- 
sulting with members of the city council and the chamber of commerce, 
the school board decided to use the two buildings for junior high schools 
and to build a new, consolidated high school. 

One of the innovative aspects of this decision was the plan to design the 
new building so one wing could be used for a junior college. Some people 
referred to that level as the twelfth and thirteenth grades, because school 
systems operated then on an eleven-year basis. At that time, few school 
districts in the country had considered incorporating higher education 
within a city school system, and it was a pioneering effort for those in- 
volved with the new city high school to include a junior college, with free 
tuition for Asheville residents, in their plans. 

Members of the city council reviewed and approved the proposal. The 
junior college was to have its own wing, complete with classrooms, labo- 
ratories, assembly hall, and offices. A vote on the issue was set for Septem- 
ber 28, 1926. The total bond referendum presented to the people of 
Asheville was for $1.5 million, which included the purchase of land be- 

Pioneering and Struggling : 3 

tween Victoria Road and the newly cut McDowell Street. The vote was 
overwhelmingly in favor of building a large high school that would serve 
as a community center and junior college, as well as a high school. Shortly 
after the election, the city school board named Douglas Ellington the 
architect for the building. Ellington designed the building so it faced 
McDowell Street rather than Victoria Road. It was to be ready for occu- 
pancy by the fall of 1928. The cost of the building itself was $650,000. 

Once the construction contracts had been awarded, the city school 
board and Superintendent Brooker began preparing for the merger of the 
high schools and assumed responsibility for developing a curriculum and 
hiring faculty for the new junior college. 

Meanwhile, all was not quiet in the county school system. Some dra- 
matic changes had been taking place in the system while city officials were 
promoting and planning the new school building. The citizens of Bun- 
combe County awakened on the morning of March 31, 1926, to headlines 
in the Asheville Citizen announcing that the county superintendent of 
schools had been arrested for debauching a member of his faculty. He was 
charged with having had an affair with a teacher who was married to a 
doctor at the Veterans Administration. He was alleged to have promised 
her a better job in return. The superintendent protested that he was inno- 
cent but submitted his resignation to the county school board. It was 
accepted at a special meeting of the board held on April 6, 1926. At the 
same meeting, the board named Alonzo Carlton Reynolds superintendent 
of schools. 

It would have been difficult to find anyone more qualified under these 
circumstances than A. C. Reynolds. He had already served a term as 
superintendent of Buncombe County schools and had been president of 
Cullowhee Normal and Industrial School. 

Reynolds was aware of what was taking place within the city school 
system when he accepted the position. He talked with several members of 
the county school board, particularly to members of the school committee 
in the Biltmore district, where a new high school was being built. One of 
Reynolds's major supporters was Thomas M. Howerton, an engineer and 
contractor who was, at the time, constructing the tunnel that replaced the 
crooked climb over Beaucatcher Mountain, allowing rapid access be- 
tween the downtown area and East Asheville. Howerton lived on Busbee 
Road in Biltmore Forest, and he and his wife were both active on the 
Biltmore district school committee. Several meetings were held in the 

4 : Pioneering and Struggling 

Howertons' home concerning the possibility of establishing a county ju- 
nior college. Reynolds, the Howertons, and their friends did not think it 
right for the city to offer a junior college education free to citizens of 
Asheville while the other young people of Buncombe County were denied 
the same opportunity. 

In July 1927, at the Buncombe County Courthouse and at the call of 
Reynolds, Howerton, and supporters, a public meeting was held to gauge 
the strength of public support for a junior college. Results were over- 
whelming. Reynolds and his associates proceeded immediately with plans 
they had already formulated to establish a junior college in the Biltmore 
district. If they moved quickly, they could have a county college in opera- 
tion before the new city high school building, with its junior college, 
opened in 1928. They succeeded because Biltmore High School was one 
year closer to completion than Asheville High School was. 

Reynolds made some important administrative adjustments in the Bilt- 
more school district. W. H. Jones was to be the principal of the new 
Biltmore High School, but Reynolds changed his title to superintendent 
and put him in charge of Biltmore Elementary School, Biltmore High 
School, and what was to be called Buncombe County Junior College. 
That made W. H. Jones the first chief executive officer of the junior 
college. S. B. Conley was named dean of men. Several faculty positions 
were filled, and on September 7, 1927, Buncombe County Junior College 
opened its doors. Meanwhile, the Asheville High School building was still 
under construction. 

The plan was to have Buncombe County Junior College provide the 
first two years of a collegiate education. Students could then transfer to 
four-year colleges and universities. At the same time, school officials rec- 
ognized that some students would be satisfied with two years of college, 
and preparations were made to include vocational tracks, such as indus- 
trial arts, prenursing, teacher education, and secretarial science. 

Buncombe County Junior College opened in 1927 with eighty-six stu- 
dents enrolled. It is not an exaggeration to say that the overwhelming 
majority of these students would never have had a chance at work beyond 
the high school level had it not been for the junior college. They came 
from Candler, Weaverville, Black Mountain, and various rural communi- 
ties surrounding Asheville. 

Commuting to the college was not that difficult. Students could travel 
by streetcar to Pack Square, transfer to Biltmore Road, then walk from the 

Pioneering and Struggling 5 

end of the streetcar line to the new Biltmore building. A few of the 
students owned cars, and it was their practice to stop along the way and 
pick up fellow students. During the early years of the junior college, the 
streetcar company sold students ten tickets for twenty-five cents. 

Classes were held in the basement and the students had access to various 
facilities within the school building. The cafeteria was also in the base- 
ment. One complaint the junior college students had was that they were 
not allowed to eat until all the other students had eaten. 

The students immediately began organizing and raising funds for the 
extracurricular activities they wanted. They shared the playing fields with 
Biltmore High School and soon had football, basketball, and baseball 
teams, a glee club, an international relations club, and a newspaper called 
the Highlander. 

In 1928 Virginia Bryan joined the faculty and became dean of women. 
Her relationship with the school would last for decades. She taught En- 
glish and creative-writing courses. The students were so pleased with the 
results of their work that they wanted to have them published. Accord- 
ingly, in 1929, Dean Bryan began publishing Bluets. The publication, 
named for the mountains' forget-me-not flower, was enormously success- 
ful for many years. 

The fact that Buncombe County residents had never actually voted for a 
junior college did not go unnoticed. Two people, in what became known 
as the Zimmerman case, brought suit against the county school board, 
charging that the board had no authorization to operate a junior college 
and that funds for the institution were being taken from the regular bud- 
get of the county school system. The Zimmerman case became well known 
after it was appealed all the way to the North Carolina Supreme Court. 
The court ruled that a school board had every right to establish and 
finance a junior college if it considered postsecondary instruction a valu- 
able and necessary part of the educational system. The Zimmerman case 
was widely cited for years and became legendary as the junior college 
movement grew throughout the country. 

While Buncombe County Junior College was completing its first year, 
construction of the new Asheville High School continued. It was com- 
pleted on schedule and opened in 1928. The junior college was named the 
College of the City of Asheville. It had its own separate administration, 
faculty, laboratories, and assembly hall. It shared the athletic facilities with 
the high school students. 

6 : Pioneering and Struggling 

Following the lead that had been established a year earlier at Buncombe 
County Junior College, the students quickly organized football and bas- 
ketball teams. They expected the college to grow rapidly and become as 
large as the high school. 

The College of the City of Asheville enrolled 132 students during its 
first year. The Asheville Citizen began encouraging an athletic rivalry be- 
tween the two junior colleges. Actually, the schools played only one foot- 
ball game, which the county team, with its additional year of experience, 
won easily. 

In the fall of 1928, and again in 1929, there were two junior colleges 
serving Asheville and Buncombe County. Talk soon began about merging 
the institutions at Asheville High School's superior facilities, but it never 
amounted to much because each system insisted on maintaining its own 
college. Given the situation that existed during those two years, it would 
seem that the College of the City of Asheville had the better chance of 
survival. It had a strong and extensive curriculum that included eight 
courses in English, fourteen in history, eight in Latin, and mathematics 
courses through calculus. The sixty semester hours required for gradua- 
tion included twelve in English, six in mathematics, six in history, six in a 
foreign language, six in science, and twenty-four in electives. Every effort 
was made to provide the students at both junior colleges with activities 
that were not directly related to the degree-credit curriculum. In March 
1930 a basketball tournament was held for junior colleges from the entire 
Southeast. Students from schools as far away as Florida came to play 
basketball, and both local teams competed as well. 

The stock market crash and the Great Depression destroyed the College 
of the City of Asheville. Asheville was hit hard and quickly by these two 
economic catastrophes. Both school boards now had the problem of oper- 
ating school systems with greatly reduced revenues. A. C. Reynolds had 
been employed as Buncombe County's superintendent of schools in 1926 
at a salary of $6,000. In 1930 his salary was cut to $2,400. At the same 
time, the city school board was forced to lay off teachers and had great 
difficulty finding the revenue to pay those who remained. 

In the fall of 1930, the College of the City of Asheville simply did not 
open. Meanwhile, the Buncombe County school system no longer had 
funds for teacher salaries and other expenses to operate the county junior 
college on a tuition-free basis. The result was that in the fall of 1930, the 
faculty of Buncombe County Junior College determined they would con- 

Pioneering and Struggling : 7 

tinue to teach but could no longer provide education free of charge. 
Tuition was established at $100 a semester, and enrollment immediately 
dropped. Inasmuch as the Buncombe County school system provided no 
financial support, the decision was made to change the name of the col- 
lege to Biltmore Junior College, since it was being operated entirely as a 
part of the Biltmore school district. The faculty of Biltmore Junior Col- 
lege accepted, on a transfer basis and at face value, all the credits earned by 
students of the College of the City of Asheville who wanted to transfer. 

With the demise of the College of the City of Asheville, Buncombe 
County was left with only one publicly supported junior college, but it 
was already attracting some good students. They enrolled for a variety of 
reasons, but most did not have the funds to go away to college. Many of 
these early students would make names for themselves and important 
contributions to the public welfare in the years to come. 

The first graduating classes had valedictorians — the students with the 
highest grades. Each class also elected one person to speak for the class. 
The 1929 graduates chose Roy A. Taylor, and the 1930 class chose Gor- 
don Greenwood. Their leadership would continue for many decades after 
they graduated. 

Taylor was involved in debating and a variety of other school activities. 
Greenwood, nicknamed Jack, was an excellent athlete and starred in foot- 
ball, basketball, and baseball. 

Biltmore Junior College athletic teams played against teams from Mars 
Hill, Lees-McRae, and other junior colleges, and the local newspapers 
were generous in their coverage of the games. 

The hardest years for the college were the Depression years of the thir- 
ties. Although there were some faculty who came and stayed for only a 
year or two, several kept the school alive through the hardest times. A. C. 
Reynolds, the county superintendent, gave up that position in 1933 and 
was elected by the faculty as president of the college, which allowed him to 
devote his time to raising support for the school. Charles A. Lloyd was a 
professor of English and a very important person to the school through- 
out the thirties. He was a public figure who continually tried to improve 
the use of basic English. He had a radio program called "Our Mother 
Tongue," which ran for years, and he published a book entitled We Who 
Speak English. Virginia Bryan continued the publication of Bluets in con- 
junction with her creative-writing course. J. J. Stevenson, Jr., taught the 
social sciences and was also the bursar of the college. These people kept 

8 : Pioneering and Struggling 

the college alive at a time when it would have been easy to simply fold up 
and blame the Depression, as many other institutions were doing. They 
were dedicated teachers, and they knew the junior college offered many 
local students their only chance to receive some form of education beyond 
high school. By the early thirties, the school had abandoned some of the 
instructional programs and was concentrating entirely on academic-paral- 
lel or college-transfer programs. Many of the students from those early 
years became prominent citizens, such as Claude DeBruhl, Gertrude Ram- 
sey, and Mary Cordell, who later married Martin Nesbitt. 

After A. C. Reynolds became president in 1933, he began negotiating 
with the Asheville City School Board to find a better place for the college. 
In early 1934 he began to consider the possibilities at the David Millard 
Junior High School, on Oak Street near the First Baptist Church. It was 
centrally located, so students would find it much easier to get to than 
Biltmore. By 1934 Asheville High School was moving along nicely, but 
the junior high schools, particularly David Millard, had a small number of 
students enrolled for the size of the buildings. David Millard actually 
housed only the seventh and eighth grades, and about half of the facilities 
were unused. 

Reynolds also needed some kind of board. The county school board 
was no longer directly involved; the school was really run by Reynolds and 
the faculty, with no board of directors or trustees to represent the leader- 
ship of the area. Reynolds called on the community to consider support 
for the college, which was barely holding itself together. In early 1934 a 
meeting was held at the home of Curtis Bynum on Macon Avenue. The 
situation was obvious: if the school was to survive, it would be necessary 
for some group other than the faculty to have legal responsibility. Both 
school boards had all they could handle at the time in trying to keep the 
public schools open and providing their teachers some kind of pay. After 
several meetings, a board of trustees was formed, with Dr. H. G. Brook- 
shire as chairman. A charter was filed with the North Carolina secretary of 
state and bylaws were drawn up by the board of trustees. The faculty and 
Reynolds then turned over to the newly created board all legal authority 
for the college. 

At that time there were slightly fewer than 150 students enrolled in the 
college. Courses were being offered in economics, education, English, 
dramatics, French, German, history, Latin, mathematics, mechanical 
drawing, biology, chemistry, physics, sociology, and psychology. A sub- 

Pioneering and Struggling : 9 

stantial portion of the teaching was done by part-time members of the 
faculty, a practice that would be continued for many years. By 1934 the 
college had accumulated a library of approximately three thousand vol- 
umes. From early on, the students were allowed access to Pack Memorial 
Library, which greatly expanded the availability of supplemental reading 

By the early thirties, the literary magazine Bluets had become well 
known as exemplary student creative writing. The publication took first 
place for three years in a row in a competition at the Southeastern Junior 
College Association. In 1934, for the first time, it entered a nationwide 
contest conducted by the Columbia University School of Journalism in 
New York and took third place. The honors would continue for many 

The newly created board of trustees, with Dr. H. G. Brookshire as 
chairman, began considering the serious needs of the college. Other well- 
known local citizens served on the board, including C. Fred Brown, Cur- 
tis Bynum, and Clarence Morgan. The board's ex officio members in- 
cluded the chairman of the county commission; the mayor of Asheville; 
the superintendent of the city schools, who at that time was R. H. 
Latham; the superintendent of county schools, Frank Wells; and the secre- 
tary of the Asheville Area Chamber of Commerce, Fred L. Weede. 

After extensive discussion, the Asheville City School Board and the 
college trustees reached an agreement that the college would move its 
operation to the David Millard School. The school board approved the 
plan, but not until August 18, 1934. The junior college had less than one 
month to pack up all the belongings accumulated during seven years at 
Biltmore High School and move to the new location. 

In the fall of 1934, President Reynolds was confronted with internal 
problems that were almost as difficult to deal with as those that had 
already been surmounted. A section of the junior high school had been 
restricted to the use of Biltmore Junior College. However, the students 
were becoming quite discontented about rules that they considered juve- 
nile, focusing particularly on one specific issue: they wanted a formal 
school dance to be held on the college property. Reynolds emphatically 
refused, telling the students that dancing created sexual passion and led to 
immorality. The students considered Reynolds's statement nothing less 
than an assault on their common decency. Of the more than 150 students 
enrolled, approximately half became involved in a strike. Some students 

io : Pioneering and Struggling 

asked to meet with the board of trustees and requested the resignation of 
President Reynolds. This intense conflict lasted for several weeks. Reyn- 
olds appeared before the board of trustees, which had been in existence 
for only a few months, and told the members that if they, as the legal 
authority of the institution, allowed the students to have a dance in the 
name of the college, he would immediately resign his position. After due 
deliberation, the board decided to back Reynolds and denied a petition 
that had been signed by a substantial number of students. The matter 
ended with that decision. Students who wanted to dance could do so on 
their own, but there were no school-sponsored dances as long as A. C. 
Reynolds was in charge. 

The first class to have its graduation in the David Millard School was 
unusual in that there were three valedictorians: Sadie Markowitz, Graham 
Ponder, and Evelyn Reynolds. Each had accumulated a straight A average 
during the two years at Biltmore College. They were also involved in 
other activities — for example, Sadie Markowitz served as the editor of 
Bluets. During that same year, the Biltmore Players, who wrote and pro- 
duced their own plays, won two awards at the drama festival held every 
year in Chapel Hill. 

The newly created board of trustees and the city school board had 
worked out a financial arrangement for the college to use the David 
Millard School. The college was assigned seven rooms on two floors in 
return for a $ioo-a-month payment to the city toward the development 
of a bond for security against any damage. Within two years, it was appar- 
ent that the college board was not going to be able to raise money or give 
any real assistance to the school. Dr. Brookshire, the chairman, initiated 
discussions with the Asheville City School Board in May 1936. The plan 
was to remove the junior college from the trustees' jurisdiction, abolish 
that board, and turn over to the city school board all responsibility for 
running the college. The city board went on record as favoring the con- 
tinuance of the college, but meetings went on for several weeks before the 
decision was made. On June 23, 1936, the city school board agreed to 
include Biltmore Junior College in the city system. The members of the 
Asheville City School Board who signed the certificate of incorporation of 
Asheville-Biltmore College on August 15, 1936, were Mrs. Robert Rus- 
sell, Mrs. Howard G. Etheridge, Carl C. Proffitt, William M. Smathers, 
and Edward N. Wright. Although the legal name of the school became 
Asheville-Biltmore College, it was popularly called Biltmore College for 
many years, and the former name remained in the catalogs until 1945. 

Pioneering and Struggling 1 1 

The faculty worried that the North Carolina Department of Public 
Instruction would not grant the institution accreditation. One reason for 
their concern was that each college was required to have a minimum 
income of $5,000 per year over and above the collection of tuition and 
fees. The faculty doubted that $5,000 would be available from the city and 
wrote to Dr. J. Henry Highsmith, the superintendent of the Department 
of Public Instruction. He replied that the college's accreditation was in no 

A. C. Reynolds announced that he would resign as president as soon as 
the Asheville City School Board was able to assume responsibility for the 
operation of the college. The board, with Edward Wright as chairman, 
voted unanimously to accept responsibility for Biltmore College on the 
following basis: (1) all property owned by the college would be assigned 
to the city school system, (2) existing debts would be paid by Biltmore 
College before the school system assumed responsibility, (3) the college 
would assume no financial obligation without the approval of the city 
school board, (4) all tuition and fees collected by Biltmore College would 
be turned over to the business manager of the city schools for disburse- 
ment, (5) control and management of the college would be entirely in the 
hands of the Asheville City School Board. 

R. H. Latham, superintendent of the city schools, then made the rec- 
ommendation to the school board that a dean be named following the 
resignation of A. C. Reynolds and that it be Charles A. Lloyd, who had 
been with the school for several years. Latham also recommended that 
J. J. Stevenson be the bursar, but the position went to Albert H. Roberts 
when Stevenson refused. In addition to Stevenson, the other full-time 
members of the faculty were Virginia Bryan, in English, and W. Ernest 
Merrill, in chemistry and biology. 

Enrollment edged slowly upward for several years after the college be- 
came part of the city school system. Tuition and fees were set at $1 10 per 
year. Many students who would become prominent in later years attended 
A-B College in the late thirties, while it was located at David Millard. In 
1939 the first edition of the Summit^ the Biltmore College annual, was 
presented. The editor, Bill Horton, later became prominent in the com- 
munity and was at one time vice-mayor of Asheville. Leroy Love became a 
successful Wall Street attorney. Perry Alexander, a member of the class of 
1939, was an affluent businessman in Asheville for four decades after his 
graduation. John Shuford went on to law school, represented the district 
in the General Assembly, became a prominent attorney, and was chairman 

1 2 : Pioneering and Struggling 

of the Democratic party in Buncombe County for many years. The 1939 
freshman class elected James M. Hall, Jr., as its president, an office he held 
during his sophomore year as well. He later became a civic leader and 
served as the chief executive officer of the Carolina Power and Light 
Company for western North Carolina. Sadie June Love was secretary of 
the freshman class. She too was prominent in civic affairs after she married 
Bruce A. Elmore, an attorney who served as a trustee and chairman of the 
board of trustees many years later. Henry Baker, a freshman in 1938-39, 
later became the head of the Prudential Life Insurance Corporation for 
the area. The leading literary person to attend A-B College at this time 
was Wilma Dykeman, who earned a national reputation writing about 
southern Appalachia. Richard Kaplan, who was there in the late thirties, 
has been on the staff of the Asheville Citizen-Times for many years. 

Although the school was small, there was a liveliness about it, and 
students took their studies and activities seriously Probably the most ac- 
tive student group was the staff that produced Bluets, since the publication 
was achieving prominence in junior college circles. Each year six or eight 
people would work with Virginia Bryan in selecting the poems, short 
stories, and other articles written by students in their creative-writing 
classes. A group called the Masqueteers wrote and produced their own 
plays. They competed annually in Chapel Hill against other junior col- 
leges and brought back numerous awards over the years. The international 
relations club had plenty to discuss in the late thirties as international 
conflict became more ominous in both Europe and the Orient. The club 
was composed of twenty-five to thirty young people. Their purpose was 
to stay informed about international developments that would have an 
impact on the United States. Almost without exception, every member of 
that club served in the armed forces a few years later. 

Football was abandoned in 1937 for financial reasons, but the basket- 
ball team continued to play a restricted schedule with the other junior 
colleges in the area. 

In 1940 a change in the public school system had a drastic effect on the 
college. A proposal to add a twelfth year of public school was approved, 
which meant that grades 10, 11 and, 12 would be at Lee H. Edwards 
High School. The school had been called Asheville High School from 
1928 until 1935, when the popular young principal, Lee H. Edwards, 
died. Shortly thereafter, the school was renamed in his honor. The addi- 
tion of the twelfth grade meant that ninth graders who had previously 
attended Lee Edwards would go back to Hall Fletcher and David Millard. 

Pioneering and Struggling 1 3 

Since space at David Millard would be needed exclusively for the junior 
high school, there would be no more room for A-B College. All of this 
was outlined in a letter from R. H. Latham, city superintendent of 
schools, to Dean Lloyd. The city schools would retain their responsibility, 
but it would be necessary for the college to find another location. At this 
time the school began to look at the possibility of using space owned by 
the Asheville Normal and Teachers College, a school with an interesting 

It had its origins in the 1880s, when the Reverend and Mrs. Lewis 
McKendrick Peace moved to Asheville from New York City, where they 
had been operating a settlement house. They became infatuated with the 
area and bought approximately thirty-one acres of land where Memorial 
Mission Hospital is now located. They opened a boardinghouse and 
quickly became aware that most of the young women coming to Ashe- 
ville had little or no education. The girls' school that the Reverend Peace 
conceived of went through several name changes over the years. In 1887 
he leased the property to the Home Mission Board of the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States, which assumed the responsibility of operat- 
ing a school. Within a short period of time, the school had seventy 
boarders and forty day pupils. The girls ranged in age from five to twenty 
years. The school had definite religious overtones and was oriented to- 
ward practical work. Dr. Thomas Lawrence, a Bible scholar from Scotland 
hired by the Home Mission Board, served as president of what was called 
the Normal and Collegiate Institute for fifteen years, retiring in 1907 at 
the age of seventy-five. During those years he gathered funds from Pres- 
byterian churches and the Home Mission Board. Gradually a fine campus, 
composed of industrial arts buildings, academic buildings, and several 
dormitories, emerged. Professor Edward P. Childs succeeded Lawrence as 
president and continued to run the institution in much the same vein. 

Dr. John E. Calfee became the president in 19 16 and remained in the 
position for more than twenty years. During this period, the enrollment 
grew to approximately four hundred students, and the school began to 
concentrate on the training of teachers. An important teacher for many 
years was Florence Stephenson. The dormitory that was built and named 
in her honor was purchased by the Norburn brothers after World War II 
and the demise of the institution for the purpose of making it into a 
hospital. Florence Stephenson Hall became the Victoria Wing of Memo- 
rial Mission Hospital and remained standing until the fall of 198 1. 

The Home Mission Board changed the name of the school to Asheville 

1 4 : Pioneering and Struggling 

Normal and Teachers College in 193 1 and established a bachelor of sci- 
ence degree in education. The college placed its entire emphasis on 
teacher training. By the late thirties, however, students were becoming 
restless with the severely limited program, particularly with the restric- 
tions on their personal freedom. For example, they could visit with their 
own families only during certain specified hours on Sunday afternoons, 
and their mail was not delivered until it had been read by someone in 
the president's office. They staged a sit-down strike, refusing to attend 
classes until some remedy was given. In 1937 Dr. Calfee resigned as 
president. His resignation, coupled with declining enrollment, crystallized 
the Home Mission Board's decision to cut off funds and let the school 
stand or fall on its own. Dr. Frank C. Foster became president. 

When the financial support from the Home Mission Board was termi- 
nated, Dr. Foster and the local board made a considerable, but largely 
futile, effort to secure support for the teachers college from the people 
of Asheville and surrounding areas. By 1941, therefore, when Asheville- 
Biltmore College was looking for a place to operate, it had only to go 
across town to find a school that had been in operation for many decades 
but was now struggling to survive. An agreement was reached that Law- 
rence Hall, a four-story wooden building, would be leased to A-B College 
and the classes would be scheduled so that the two schools would not 
interfere with each other. In the fall of 1940, A-B College moved once 
again and occupied Lawrence Hall. 

When the transfer was made, the enrollment of A-B College was 160. It 
rose to 187 during the 1941—42 academic year. 

Charles A. Lloyd, who had been a professor and dean for many years, 
died on November 10, 1940. It is difficult to exaggerate the importance 
of his contribution during the years he served the institution. He was a 
scholarly and gentle man who was dedicated to the continuance of the 
college. He was greatly missed, particularly because his death came so 
shortly after the move to Asheville Normal. The city school board asked 
J. J. Stevenson, Jr., to take Lloyd's place. Stevenson served as dean during 
the remainder of the years at Asheville Normal School and throughout 
most of the war years. 

After the move, the college was still under the authority of the city 
school board, with William M. Smathers as chairman. R. H. Latham was 
still superintendent of the city schools and represented the board in its 
relationship with the college. Other members of the board were E. B. 

Pioneering and Struggling : 1 5 

Roberts, W. Arthur Goodson, W. Randall Harris, and Mrs. T. Allen Lu- 
ther. The school had seven full-time faculty and about fifteen part-time 
faculty. The full-time faculty who moved to the new location in the fall of 
1940 were Dean J. J. Stevenson, who taught history and government, 
Virginia Bryan, who taught English and was dean of women, E. Ray 
Mann in mathematics and physics, W. Ernest Merrill in biology and chem- 
istry, Francis S. Wilder in economics and sociology, W. A. Jones in mod- 
ern languages, and Adele Lowrance in secretarial science. The new presi- 
dent of Asheville Normal was seriously concerned about survival. The 
institution did not have financial support from the city, except for the 
money that A-B College paid to rent space. 

The two years that A-B College was at Asheville Normal were not 
happy years. There were frequent conflicts about the regulations that ap- 
plied to the two different student bodies. It was also becoming increas- 
ingly doubtful that, without the support from the Home Mission Board, 
Asheville Normal would be able to continue in operation. The physical 
plant and facilities were good, though Lawrence Hall was in a state of 
disrepair. Had it been possible, A-B College would have purchased all the 
land and buildings owned by Asheville Normal. It was said that the entire 
property could have been bought for $60,000, an extremely low price for 
the value. Unfortunately, that amount of money simply was not available 
during the early war years. After two years of holding classes in Lawrence 
Hall, the A-B College once again began looking for a new home. Ashe- 
ville Normal existed for two more years. In 1944 it closed its campus and 
became one of the schools that joined to form Warren Wilson College. 

When it became apparent that A-B College would not stay after the 
1941—42 academic year at the campus that had recently been renamed 
Asheville College, Superintendent R. H. Latham discussed the problem 
with the school board. In late July 1942 A-B College had no place to go. 
A special committee, headed by D. Hiden Ramsey, was established to find 
space. The group found a facility that, with some renovation, could be 
used as a site for the college. 

By 1942 nearly all the men were gone, and the enrollment of the college 
was dropping rapidly. The amount of space needed was therefore much 
less than had originally been necessary. The facility selected was the Bun- 
combe County Children's Home on Merrimon Avenue. The Buncombe 
County Board of Commissioners had been operating a facility at the cor- 
ner of Merrimon and Gracelyn avenues that aimed at supporting, reclaim- 

1 6 : Pioneering and Struggling 

ing, and educating the indigent children of the county. The county had 
purchased a sizable number of acres on Woolsey Avenue in 1905, which 
later became Merrimon Avenue, for $5,000. A board of directors com- 
posed of prominent citizens was established. The children were lodged in 
a wooden home until 1922, when a modern brick structure was con- 
structed, providing space for twenty-two girls and twenty-three boys. Sev- 
eral community groups had assumed responsibility for the children's 
home, among them the Children's Welfare League and the Civitan Club. 
By 1942 only a small number of children remained in the home, and they 
were only there on temporary assignment. The welfare programs of the 
thirties, the employment increase that resulted from the war effort, and 
the federal programs of aid to families with dependent children had 
greatly reduced the need for that facility. An agreement was reached be- 
tween the city school board and the county to make the facility available to 
A-B College. The county's contribution was the commissioners' agree- 
ment to let the school operate in the building rent free, with the county 
paying for the utilities. The city school board assumed the responsibility 
for maintaining the building and for making whatever renovations were 
necessary in order to make it satisfactory for A-B College. The principal 
problems were providing adequate teaching space and installing equip- 
ment for scientific laboratories. These problems delayed the move, and it 
was not until October 1942 that A-B College moved its operation once 
again, this time to the building on Merrimon Avenue, where it was to stay 
for seven years. 



The War Years and the 
Return of the Veterans 

The move of the college to the former Children's Home on Merrimon 
Avenue was accomplished easily because the college did not have much in 
the way of equipment and library books, but the next several years were as 
difficult as the early forties had been. The problem was the absence of 
operating money After the fall of 1942, nearly all the male students at the 
college became members of the various armed services. The enrollment in 
1942-43 was about one hundred students and was dropping steadily. 
Even so, the students in the war years maintained high morale and re- 
ceived outstanding instruction. J. J. Stevenson continued for several years 
as dean. He was a quiet, scholarly man, a good teacher, and an excellent 
person to keep the school going under the most trying conditions. An- 
other faculty member at the time was C. A. Sumner, who taught drama on 
a part-time basis. He wrote plays during the war, some of which were 
published and produced, but his primary responsibility was working for 
the Asheville newspapers. Sarah Vaughn, an Army wife, did an excellent 
job of teaching chemistry and biology, but she left as soon as the war was 
over. Virginia Bryan continued to offer courses in basic English and cre- 
ative writing. Because of gasoline rationing, none of the students regularly 
drove to school. Streetcars had been abandoned before this time, but the 
city buses that replaced them made regular runs up and down Merrimon 
Avenue. There was a small snack shop in the building, but it was not 
adequate even for the small enrollment. Lord's Drug Store became the 
hangout, and students went there between classes for soft drinks and 


1 8 : The War Years 

lunch. There were no evening classes because transportation was too diffi- 
cult. Although the college did not have an adequate library, students had 
access to Pack Memorial Library, and many went there to study after 

A few men attended A-B College for a short time while they waited to 
be called into service, and many earned outstanding reputations later on. 
Among them were John Ehle, Max Cogburn, and Blanton Wright. In 
order to help with the program, Virginia Bryan frequendy tutored stu- 
dents at her home. One of the prominent students at A-B College during 
this time was John Bridges, who had enrolled after graduating from Ashe- 
ville High School. When he contracted polio, he did not drop out. Faculty 
and fellow students took him the assignments, which allowed him to 
maintain his place and graduate with his class. From there he went on to 
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he completed his 
baccalaureate degree in 1947. Bridges has said that his academic prepara- 
tion was as good or better than that of those who transferred from other 
colleges or those who had spent their first two years at Chapel Hill, and he 
attributed that to the individual tutoring and attention he had received at 
A-B College. 

Bluets continued to give students experience in proofreading, selecting 
items for publication, and dealing with printers. On the third floor of the 
building there was a little space where the drama club held rehearsals; it 
continued the tradition of going to Chapel Hill for the statewide com- 

A-B College students developed a real sense of community during the 
war years. They all knew one another, and the wartime adversities drew 
them close together. They also shared a commitment to higher education. 
The faculty recognized that and used these years productively. 

The students were probably never fully aware of the school's serious 
financial situation, although they realized how small enrollment was. The 
classes averaged fewer than ten students. R. H. Latham, who was superin- 
tendent of the city school system and therefore responsible for the college, 
wrote a letter to the Honorable L. Lyons Lee, mayor of Asheville, on May 
6, 1943. It would not be possible to convey the intensity of concern by 
simply summarizing the letter. It read: 

My dear Mayor Lee: 

Since City Manager Burdette is out of the city, the Board of Trust- 
ees instructed me as secretary to write you regarding the critical situa- 

The War Years : 19 

tion now facing Biltmore College. The urgency of conditions will not 
permit delay, as immediate action is necessary if this institution is to 
be prevented from closing. 

You are acquainted with the fact that from 193 6-1 942, City 
Council has contributed annually $5,000 for the support of Biltmore 
College. This year, however, only $2,500 was appropriated. This may 
have been because Buncombe County, in September 1942 turned 
over to the college, without any rental charged, the building formerly 
occupied by the children's home. This may have been regarded as 
equivalent to an appropriation of $2,500 on the part of the county. 
The plain fact, however, is just this: the college cannot operate on less 
than $5,000 over and above its revenues from tuition and fees. This 
is true not only from the standpoint of its accreditation by the De- 
partment of Education of the State of North Carolina but also from 
the inability of the college to meet its budget on less than this 
amount. When the college occupied the David Millard Building, it 
paid no rental fee and received $5,000 from the city. While it is true 
that [Asheville] Biltmore paid Asheville College $3,000 for use of its 
facilities for the school years 1940-41 and 1941—42, this was too 
heavy a drain on its resources, even though this amount included all 
services such as upkeep, library, heat, light, water, and janitor supplies 
and services. The matter boils down to this; unless Biltmore College 
can be assured an appropriation of $5,000 for the next year, it must 
cease operation at the end of the present school term. 

It is necessary for the Board of Trustees to know immediately 
whether or not this appropriation will be made for two reasons. 

First, in fairness to the teachers, they must know whether or not 
they will have positions at Biltmore College next year so that they can 
be looking for employment elsewhere if the college ceases operation. 

Secondly, in fairness to the students who expect to attend Biltmore 
College next year, they must have this information so that they can 
plan to go to some other school or seek employment if the school 
ceases operation. 

With reference to the unpaid balance of $2,500 upon which the 
college is depending, there remains just this to be said. It will be 
impossible for the college to balance its budget and make certain 
essential improvements without this amount. The Board of Trustees 
and the Dean of the college who are responsible for the administra- 
tion of the school counted in good faith upon receiving the full 

20 : The War Years 

$5,000 and they feel a grave injustice would be committed if the 
college should not be given the full amount of the annual appropria- 
tion and, because of this, should be compelled to default on obliga- 
tions contingent with its operation. 

The Board of Trustees has always looked to City Manager Bur- 
dette, the mayor, and City Council for the support of Biltmore Col- 
lege. It has been this group which has had the vision to see the need 
and the possibilities of this institution. You gentlemen can count on 
the Board of Trustees, in concert with the progressive citizens of 
Asheville, to have recognized the fact that the city cannot progress 
and has every right to assume itself unless its educational advance- 
ment keeps pace with its economic development. In view of the fact 
that the excellent reward of Biltmore College throughout the past 
sixteen years bids fair to move forward to greater achievements now 
that it has its own campus, it would be nothing short of calamitous 
for Biltmore College to be forced to close its doors when it can be 
saved for so small an amount of money. 

The Board of Trustees, along with the alumni of the college and in 
common with the many friends of Biltmore, earnestly hope that the 
City Council can take immediate steps to provide the balance of the 
funds necessary to meet the budget for this year and can give assur- 
ance that an appropriation of $5,000 will be provided annually for 
the continued operation beyond Monday, May 24. We hope you can 
give us an answer on or before that date so that the members of the 
faculty of Biltmore College may be informed. Please accept my per- 
sonal thanks for your interest and help in this matter. It is on the basis 
of such interest as you, the City Manager, and the City Council have 
demonstrated, that one can express the conviction that Biltmore Col- 
lege will, year by year, become an increasing source of pride to the 
citizens of Asheville. 

Cordially yours, 
R. H. Latham, Secretary 
Board of Trustees of 
Biltmore College 

The letter to Mayor Lee and the city council worked. The school 
opened its doors the following fall, and $5,000 from the city was part of 
the budget. 

The War Years : 2 1 

It is almost impossible for those familiar with the budgets of contempo- 
rary colleges and high schools to understand how Biltmore College was 
able to operate on such limited funding. A brief review of the budget for 
1943-44, which was the lowest point in enrollment in the institution's 
history, illustrates the perilous finances. During the fall semester, there 
were seventy-eight students. That spring, only sixty-seven students were 
enrolled. Tuition collected from students amounted to $6,000, and the 
appropriation from the city was another $5,000. Counting a few of the 
sources of income, operational funds amounted to a total of $14,272. The 
salary of a full-time faculty member was about $1,800. In 1943-44 Vir- 
ginia Bryan received a salary of $1,800, which was identical to the salary 
she had received as a new member of the faculty in 1928. In addition to a 
similar base salary, }. J. Stevenson, Jr., received $450 for his services as 
dean for the 1943-44 school year. 

On April 23, 1944, at a regular meeting of the school board, which was 
sitting as trustees for A-B College, J. J. Stevenson resigned as dean, effec- 
tive at the end of the academic year. A committee was formed to work on 
plans for Biltmore College and to secure the services of another dean. 
The two people appointed to that committee were Superintendent R. H. 
Latham and Charles G. "Buzz" Tennent, who had become a member of 
the Asheville City School Board just the year before. One of Latham's 
proposals was that A-B College move back to Lee H. Edwards High 
School and become an integrated part of the school system. Although 
there would be no assumption of money from the city schools, city school 
officials would have legal responsibility for the college. They would collect 
the tuition and fees and receive the funds from the city council. Though 
the board authorized Latham to call Dr. J. Henry Highsmith at the North 
Carolina Department of Public Instruction to determine if a college could 
be absorbed and run by the city school system, other members of the 
school board did not agree with Latham's proposal. Pat Burdette, the city 
manager, wanted to leave the college where it was, feeling that the prob- 
lems of low enrollment and low funds would disappear once the war was 
over. He thought things could stay as they were if the city would continue 
to contribute $5,000 a year. His position reflected the views of a majority 
of city council and school board members in the summer of 1944. 

The board persuaded Dr. William H. Morgan to accept the position of 
dean. Members also increased the salary that had been paid to Dean 
Stevenson and told Morgan that the raise to $3,000 would be contingent 

22 : The War Years 

upon the availability of funds. Morgan, who had become quite familiar 
with Biltmore College when it was located on the campus of Asheville 
Normal and Teachers College, assumed his responsibilities in the fall of 
1944. It was during this time that Virginia Bryan received approval for a 
leave of absence to teach for two years at the University of Tennessee. 

During the last year of the war, another important personnel change 
occurred. Superintendent of city schools R. H. Latham resigned, and the 
board selected J. W. Byers, superintendent of Red Springs city schools, to 
be his successor. In the summer of 1945, the Asheville City School Board 
added some members to serve on the board of trustees for the college. 
Dean William H. Morgan was the ex officio secretary of the board, which 
was composed of Chairman C. Fred Brown, Captain Robert Lee Smith, 
W. Randall Harris, John Carroll, J. W. Byers, Martin Nesbitt, Mrs. M. A. 
James, and Natalie Hampton. One of the board's first acts was to make it 
clear that from that point on, that the college would be called Asheville- 
Biltmore College, which had been its legal name since 1936. Until the 
board's action in 1945, it had continued to be called simply Biltmore 

In spite of enrollment and budgetary problems, the school survived the 
critical war years. At the time, few people recognized the enormous im- 
portance of a congressional act titled the Servicemen's Readjustment Act 
of 1944 and better known as the GI Bill. When the war ended, Biltmore 
College, like colleges all over the country, was suddenly inundated by large 
numbers of students whose education had been interrupted or who had 
never attended college before. The GI Bill, which paid their tuition and 
fees and provided some spending money, was one of the most significant 
pieces of social legislation in American history. It had its impact on col- 
leges and universities all over the country, and it certainly had its effect on 
Asheville-Biltmore College. 

At the beginning of the 1946 academic year, enrollment rose to 250. 
The increase caused by returning veterans made it necessary to look at the 
availability of building space and faculty. Dr. William H. Morgan resigned 
as dean in the summer of 1946, and Clarence Gilbert, who had been 
teaching government, was asked to replace him. The postwar faculty were 
almost all new, including Edward Merrill in English, John Miller in social 
sciences, Cathleen Godwin in English, Cornelia Ann Serota in biology, 
William W. Hanaman in mathematics, George Caldwell in mathematics 
and physics, Louise Williams as librarian and Spanish instructor, and Hil- 

The War Years : 23 

degard Honeywell as German and French teacher. Adele Lowrance taught 
secretarial science courses, and C. A. Sumner taught art and drama. Not 
all were full-time members of the faculty. 

Dean Gilbert quickly became aware of the limitations of the facility. The 
board of trustees recognized the necessity of providing a gymnasium, an 
auditorium, and more classrooms. Federal funds were now available for 
such facilities, and A-B College was eligible because of the large percent- 
age of students who were there on the GI Bill. A two-story government- 
surplus building, which was actually a large Quonset hut, was purchased 
and placed behind the existing structure. The board also authorized Gil- 
bert to obtain equipment to resume athletic programs. A small snack shop 
and student lounge were opened, with students doing a great deal of the 
work. A new and revitalized student council wanted to improve the 
Merrimon Avenue campus, and a considerable effort went into planning 
for expansion and renovation of the facilities. It was apparent that with 
250 students the college was rapidly reaching its capacity. The school was 
different now in that large numbers of men were enrolled. For the first 
time in the history of the institution there were parking problems: after 
the war everyone who could possibly do so was obtaining an automobile. 
Plans were made to reintroduce basketball in 1946 and football and base- 
ball in 1947. There were no sports scholarships at the time, and many of 
the students were veterans who really wanted to play. 

Another big change during the early postwar years erupted on May 22, 
1947 at a meeting of the board of trustees. This story received big head- 
lines in theAsheville Citizen. The members present were Chairman C. Fred 
Brown, Natalie Hampton, Martin Nesbitt, J. W. Byers, T. C. Roberson 
(Byers and Roberson had been made ex officio members because of their 
positions as superintendents of city and county schools), Dr. B. F. Mor- 
gan, Mrs. M. A. James, and Captain Robert Lee Smith. Dean Gilbert 
presented to the board his proposal for faculty members for the following 
year. In it he eliminated C. A. Sumner, the long-term part-time drama 
instructor, and Adele Lowrance, who taught secretarial science courses. 
Gilbert wanted to use the funds saved from their salaries to employ more 
full-time faculty members in the basic academic disciplines. The board 
refused to accept his request and reappointed the instructors with in- 
creases in salaries. Dean Gilbert resigned on the spot. The board would 
not back down, but members asked Gilbert to stay on at a higher salary. 
Gilbert said that a higher salary for a new dean was fine, but that he would 

24 : The War Years 

not accept any pay from a board that forced the chief executive officer to 
retain faculty members whose salaries could be used to better advantage 
elsewhere in the college. 

Several students were present at that meeting. The majority supported 
Gilbert and projected a fight between the dean and Chairman C. Fred 
Brown, who were both Democratic candidates for the Asheville City 
Council. The students organized a parade down Merrimon Avenue into 
town, maintaining that Gilbert's civil rights were being violated and 
charging that he was maneuvered out of his position as dean because he 
was running against the chairman of the board. Gilbert reiterated that he 
was simply trying to get rid of faculty who had small classes and to pre- 
pare the school for accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools. The students went to the city council and complained, but 
there was little left to do when Gilbert refused to reconsider his resigna- 
tion. The board of trustees appointed R. A. Tomberlin to operate the 
school on a temporary basis during the 1947 summer session and selected 
a search committee to find a qualified person to serve the college as a 
president, because enrollment now justified having a president rather than 
a dean. 

Virginia Bryan resigned in order to marry A. E. Schreiber, and Lutrelle 
Wishart, a former resident of Asheville, took Bryan's place. Her tenure 
lasted for approximately thirty-five years. Mary Miller was employed as a 
Spanish instructor, and she also remained with the school for many years. 
William W. Hanaman was named dean of men, and Cornelia Ann Scrota 
was named dean of women. Two coaches were also hired in 1947: Herbert 
Coman as head football coach and Floyd Woody as head basketball coach 
and assistant football coach. To add to the changes during the summer of 
1947, C. Fred Brown resigned as chairman of the board of trustees and 
Captain Robert Lee Smith was elected to succeed him. 

The search committee completed its work, and the board elected Dr. 
Glenn L. Bushey as the president of the college. He began his duties on 
September 1. Bushey, from Pennsylvania, had a doctorate in education 
from Temple University and was the first chief executive officer in the 
history of the school who had the formal educational background and 
teaching experience needed by the president of a small but rapidly grow- 
ing college. 

When the college opened in September 1947, it seemed like an entirely 
new place. The forty-two-member football team was already holding prac- 

The War Years : 25 

tice sessions, and it is almost impossible for one familiar with current costs 
to understand how this was done on the $1,800 that Coach Coman had 
to work with. Coman soon had a junior college schedule for the year. 
Games were played in Memorial Stadium, but the practices were held at 
W. T. Weaver Park on Merrimon Avenue. It was the student's responsi- 
bility to get himself to practice sessions and games, and few knew what an 
athletic scholarship was. 

With enrollment up over 250, the students were now able to form 
organizations they had been forced to forgo during the lean years. There 
had been no college newspaper for years, so it took several issues before 
the students decided to call it the Campus Crier. The editor was Herbert 
Wallace, and the business manager was Richard Wynne. The school an- 
nual, the Summit, had been abandoned in 1941 and was not reinstated 
until 1947, when a small edition with a paper cover came out. Bluets had 
continued during the years, largely because of the persistence of Virginia 
Bryan and Lutrelle Wishart. Charlie "Choo-Choo" Justice, one of the all- 
time-great football players and one of Chapel Hill's most exciting stars, 
worked out with the football team during the summer and early fall before 
heading back to Chapel Hill. A debating society was organized, with John 
Giezentanner as its first president. Debates against other junior colleges in 
the area were scheduled, with the first debate being against Mars Hill 

By the middle of October, the football team was already doing well, 
having defeated Mars Hill 1 2-0, Lees-McRae 1 2-6, Brevard College 1 2- 
6, and Gardner- Webb College 13-0. Nicholas Bonarrigo was named edi- 
tor of Bluets, which had a staff of twelve. The veterans formed their own 
organization, with more than a hundred members. It is interesting to note 
that at this early date, when the school was just trying to get back on its 
feet, the veterans established as one of their primary aims the development 
of a four-year college, even though the junior college was not at the time 
accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. 

College assemblies continued, occasionally with some very interesting 
programs. In November 1947 Artus Moser played and sang folk music. 
The musician had recorded 350 songs for the Library of Congress, all of 
them authentic folk songs of southern Appalachia. 

Roy A. Taylor was named president of the alumni association that same 
month, and he spelled out the organization's specific goals for the college. 
The first was to become accredited as a junior college by the Southern 

26 : The War Years 

Association of Colleges and Schools. Next was to become a four-year 
college. Mary Nesbitt was elected vice-president, Ilene Gambill secretary, 
and Margaret Hensley treasurer. President Bushey met with the alumni 
association and enumerated the advantages to Asheville of a four-year 
college. At that time, little serious discussion could take place because the 
facilities were barely adequate for the junior college. 

The enrollment was close to three hundred, a remarkable increase from 
the 1943-44 academic year, when the enrollment had dropped to sixty- 
seven. Approximately half of the students were there on the GI Bill, and 
they were asking for and receiving new courses. Courses were added in 
journalism, radio, organic chemistry, advanced biology, and hygiene, 
which was required of all students. The international relations club was 
revived. The glee club was reorganized, and dramatic shows were taken on 
the road. The surplus Quonset hut was filled to capacity. 

In the fall of 1947 the American Association of University Women took 
on the responsibility of obtaining 2,500 books for the library. The college 
needed at least 2,000 reference books but had only 600, and the AAUW 
drive was aimed at strengthening the library's reference section. The com- 
mittee was chaired by Mrs. S. D. Foster, and members told their friends 
that cash donations would be accepted gladly if they did not have books 
suitable for a college library. The drive more than doubled the number of 
usable reference books. 

Although the State Department of Public Instruction still required the 
college to clear only $5,000 above and beyond tuition and fees, it was 
apparent that that amount was much less than what was needed for a 
budget that would justify accreditation by the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Schools. Captain Robert Lee Smith and a committee from 
the board of trustees approached the city council and asked that the fig- 
ure be raised to $15,000, They wanted the college to be accredited and 
needed equipment in many fields, particularly in the sciences. Specifically, 
they needed a budget of $52,000 to operate the institution. Mayor Cla- 
rence Morgan promised a serious look, but the money was neither avail- 
able nor forthcoming. During the year, some money was raised, and al- 
most $5,000 was spent on repairs and new equipment, but the school still 
needed furniture, typewriters, chairs, an improved library, and laboratory 
equipment. The facilities could not accommodate the student population 
of nearly three hundred during the 1947-48 year. At the same time, the 
school began to recognize the need to attract the best and brightest stu- 

The War Years : 27 

dents of the area. The board adopted a policy to begin in the fall of 1948 
that would provide $100 scholarships each to the valedictorian and saluta- 
torian of each high school in the county. 

The school's growth emphasized the necessity of having representation 
on a board beyond that of the city school board representatives. The result 
was that in the summer of 1948 a new charter was filed with the secretary 
of state providing for a board of directors. Four members would be 
named by the county commissioners, four by the city council, and two by 
the alumni association. The mayor, the chairman of the county commis- 
sioners, and the chairmen of the city and the county school boards would 
be ex officio members. Dr. B. F. Morgan was the chairman of the county 
board. The requirements for graduation were increased from sixty to 
sixty-four hours, and the program was expanded during December 1948 
to include new courses in general business, premedical technology, and 
prenursing. The popular radio courses were expanded. 

In the fall of 1948 Johnny Tipton was elected president of the Student 
Government Association, and a band was formed. One of the highlights 
of the year was the purchase of a fine registered English bulldog named 
Puck. He made his debut at the homecoming football game, where Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore defeated Mars Hill College 19-7. 

It is interesting to compare the enrollments of other institutions in 
the fall of 1948. A-B College had a little more than 300 students. The en- 
rollments of other colleges in the state at the time were as follows: West- 
ern Carolina Teachers College — 550, Pembroke College — 116, Mars Hill 
College — 931, Gardner- Webb College — 400, Appalachian State Teachers 
College — 964, University of North Carolina — 7,603, North Carolina 
State College — 5,227, Wilmington College — 500, Charlotte College — 

Student activities were becoming better organized as adjuncts to the 
basic curriculum. The international relations club did a radio program 
each week over WWNC, during which students discussed important cur- 
rent topics. Radio station WWNC gave other students the opportunity to 
develop their broadcasting skills and also to publicize the activities of the 
college. The drama club was active, and the newspaper was published on 
the first and fifteenth day of each month. The Asbeville Citizen in an 
editorial on February 1, 1948, proclaimed that Asheville needed a four- 
year college. President Bushey discussed that topic at meetings of the 
Optimists Club, the Junior League, the AAUW, and other forums. 

28 : The War Years 

The Campus Crier was enthusiastic about the new school spirit and 
complimented the cheerleaders on their bright new sweaters and skirts 
and the excitement they added to the games. The football team was doing 
well, winning ten of its twelve games that year. In the 1947—48 season 
A-B had several athletes on the All-State Junior College Football Team. 
The basketball team was getting under way, playing the same junior col- 
lege schedule that the football team played. The debaters went to a tour- 
nament in Fredericksburg, Virginia, sponsored by the University of Vir- 
ginia, where they entered contests of extemporaneous speaking, public 
address, poetry reading, declamation, dramatic reading, oration, and book 
reports. Sixty-five colleges participated, and A-B College came home with 
several top honors. 

The weekly assemblies gave students opportunities to hear informative 
speakers. In October 1948, George Foster of George Washington Univer- 
sity spoke on the organizational structure and responsibilities of the 
United Nations. 

Student activities and the expanding enrollment increased the need for 
significandy more space. The old county home building and the federal 
surplus building were not adequate to provide for a student population 
that officials assumed would soon reach four to five hundred. Space was 
one of the school's most critical problems, and no one could come up 
with a plausible solution. It would cost a great deal of money to construct 
a new building, and it was not practical to add on to the cramped facilities 
at the corner of Merrimon and Gracelyn avenues. The problem continued 
to plague both the president and the board of directors and was on the 
minds of the students. Although no one was aware of it yet, help was on 
the way. 

The 1948-49 academic year was a critical year in the history of the 
institution. After that year, things would never be the same again. The 
year started with the regular and normal expansion of existing programs. 

The football and basketball teams received considerable support from 
the newspapers and the public. They played at Memorial Stadium, but 
they continued to hold practices at Weaver Park on Merrimon Avenue. 
The men would dress out in the old YMCA building, where Clyde Sav- 
ings and Loan is now located, hurry to Weaver Park, go through their 
scrimmages, then rush back on their own to the YMCA, shower, change 
clothes, and get home as best they could. Aware by now that other schools 
gave athletic scholarships, players began to inquire about them, and the 

The War Years : 29 

board promised to consider them if and when they could be financed. 
The Central Labor Union helped the football team by pledging to sell 
one thousand tickets at $5 each for A-B football games. Actually, that 
amounted to a significant contribution, since the price of admission was 
normally $1. 

In the fall of 1948, Rob Thines was elected president of the sophomore 
class, and Smiley Courtney became president of the freshman class. Sam- 
uel McGuire was the new registrar and business manager. A graduate of 
Bowling Green College, McGuire had previously worked for the Ameri- 
can Enka Corporation. 

The 1948 season might have turned into one of memorable propor- 
tions had A-B College made it to the Little Rose Bowl in Pasadena. The 
team lost a heartbreaking game 14-7 to the Georgia Military Academy, a 
school with one of the best junior college teams in the country. 

In February 1949 the students had the privilege of having Carl Sand- 
burg as visiting speaker at a weekly assembly. He sang songs, played the 
guitar, talked about his life, and read some of his poetry. 

That winter something happened to solve the school's space problem. 
Evelyn Seely was the daughter of E. W. Grove, who had built the Grove 
Park Inn, outlined Grove Park, and built the Grove Arcade in downtown 
Asheville. Her husband, Fred Seely, had worked with his father-in-law on 
several ventures. The Seelys had built Overlook Mansion on Town Moun- 
tain Road, which was better known as Seely Castle. 

After the death of her husband, Evelyn Seely moved into an apartment 
in the Battery Park Hotel, then operated by her son, Fred Seely, Jr., but 
she did not want to see the home they had built deteriorate from lack of 
use. She told the board of directors that she would sell the property to the 
college for $125,000 and would contribute $50,000 of that amount. The 
board immediately took that as a challenge. The members calculated that 
they would need approximately $175,000 to purchase and renovate the 
property. The board reached out to the community and asked Mayor 
Clarence Morgan to chair a fund-raising committee. Other members of 
the committee were John Carroll, Mrs. M. A. James, L. A. Owen, and 
Dales Y. Foster. In addition to the central committee, there were many 
other committees that met with all of the organized groups in the commu- 
nity to get pledges. College officials emphasized several points in their 
drive to acquire the money for Seely Castle. First, the school had been 
meeting the needs of the area for more than twenty years, struggling to 

30 : The War Years 

survive without ever having real public support; nevertheless, A-B had 
maintained a good faculty and a good program. There were no such 
colleges in Charlotte or Wilmington during the war years, nor did any 
other city in North Carolina try to operate a junior college. While the 
school had relatively few alumni who graduated from four-year institu- 
tions, it was making an important contribution to the community because 
so many of the students would have had a great deal of difficulty going 
elsewhere. It was at this time that the term "College in the Sky" came into 
use because Overlook Mansion, or Seely Castle, was a magnificent place 
with spectacular views of Chunn's Cove and the eastern mountains. There 
were about twenty-seven acres of property, and the school wanted to 
purchase additional acreage in the Chunn's Cove area. In the spring of 
1949 the board held an open house at Seely Castle for anyone who 
wanted to come and look. The newspaper estimated that between 2,500 
and 3,000 people attended. Some people were interested in the college; 
others simply wanted to see Seely Castle. 

A practical step toward implementing the plan was a decision by the 
Buncombe County Board of Commissioners to deed to the college the 
property on Merrimon Avenue that the school had been using since 1942. 
The reasoning was obvious: if the college owned this valuable property, it 
could be sold and the profits used to make Seely Castle suitable for the 
college's use. The deed was transferred in June 1949 to the college, and 
shortly thereafter the property was sold for $47,000. The money was 
added to the funds being held for the purchase of the castle. On July 24, 
1949, the Asheville Citizen published a picture of Captain Robert Lee 
Smith, chairman of the board of directors, giving the first installment 
check to Evelyn Seely. The witnesses were M. H. Mullin, a member of the 
citizens' committee, Fred Seely, Jr., and Dr. Glenn Bushey. The Merrimon 
Avenue property was sold to the Home Mission Committee of the Ashe- 
ville Presbytery and eventually became what is now Grace Covenant Pres- 
byterian Church. 

The fund-raising drive actually overshot its goal by $2,000. A total of 
1,464 people contributed to the fund to buy Seely Castie. Once the 
money had been raised, it was time once again to move A-B College, but 
this time it was with a very different attitude. Previous moves had been 
dictated by circumstances, and the school had moved realizing that the 
new facilities would soon be inadequate. With student enrollment not yet 
at five hundred, Seely Castie, with its spectacular location and its magnifi- 

The War Years : 3 1 

cent views, would be an exciting place. The school was truly to become a 
College in the Sky. 

An event of such magnitude could not occur without significant formal 
recognition. College officials planned a grand dedication for the new 
property. Three separate events were scheduled, and almost everyone 
who was associated in any way with the board or with the fund-raising 
became involved. Seely Hall was formally dedicated by Captain Robert 
Lee Smith, the chairman of the board of directors of Asheville-Biltmore 
College, on Sunday afternoon, November 13, 1949. The dedication ser- 
mon was delivered by Dean John Keith Benton of the School of Religion 
at Vanderbilt University. The Monday evening dedication ceremony was 
more academic, with the address by President Clyde A. Milner of Guilford 
College. On Tuesday evening, a banquet was held in the Battery Park 
Hotel for all who had been involved, and Chancellor Walter C. Jackson of 
the North Carolina College for Women at Greensboro was the principal 
speaker. Colleges were invited from all over the Southeast to come and 
share this glorious occasion with Asheville-Biltmore College. It was truly 
the beginning of a new day. 

When Dr. Bushey turned in to the board his report for the year, it was a 
glowing statement. However, while the report highlighted all that had 
been done to make the casde available to the college, it also pointed out 
that the purchase of the Overlook property had solved only a few of the 
more obvious problems. The school, in order to compete with other 
institutions in obtaining students, needed dormitories, a gymnasium, an 
athletic field, a music building, faculty offices and houses, a student union 
building, real library space, an auditorium, a radio-broadcasting studio, 
and an amphitheater. Although Seely Casde opened up many new oppor- 
tunities, the college still had a long way to go to acquire the facilities that 
would make it a college capable of attracting students from places other 
than Asheville and Buncombe County. 



On the Mountaintop 

During the early fall of 1949, there was a great deal of excitement as 
people explored the new buildings, found their way around, and discov- 
ered what a beautiful place Overlook was. Because of the location, the 
college had to find new solutions for transportation and parking. 

Essentially it was the same college that had existed on Merrimon Ave- 
nue. Dr. Glenn Bushey was president, and William W. Hanaman was the 
academic dean. Cornelia Serota was the dean of women, Samuel McGuire 
the registrar and business manager, and Elizabeth Wright the librarian. 
There were few changes in the faculty. Lutrelle Wishart taught English, 
and Hanaman, in addition to his responsibilities as academic dean, also 
taught mathematics. Adele Lowrance taught secretarial science and busi- 
ness. Artus Moser and Reeves Wells taught social sciences. Mary Miller 
taught French and Spanish, Frank Lambert chemistry, and A. L. Worley 
mathematics and science. The coaches were the same and had the same 
responsibilities. Herbert Coman taught biology and served as dean of men 
and head football coach. Floyd Woody was assistant football coach and 
head basketball coach. In 1952 Joseph Max Parsons replaced Hanaman as 
academic dean and mathematics instructor. 

The move to Seely Castle introduced everyone to a new personality, 
Doc Howington. He had been the caretaker of Seely Castle when the 
Seelys lived there, and he continued to live in a little cottage on the 
property after Mr. Seely died and Mrs. Seely moved away. He literally 
went with the property. Doc Howington had worked at the place for so 


On the Mountaintop : 3 3 

long that he was caretaker, watchman, counselor of students, and chief 
janitor. The day was over when Doc closed the gates. Anyone returning to 
the campus after the gates were closed had to ring a bell. In a matter of 
moments, Doc would appear with his gun and his dog. Unless he was 
satisfied that people had a legitimate reason to be admitted, they had to 
go away. There may have been other reasons for Doc's nighttime care of 
the place. Rumor had it that Doc had built a still at the castle after Evelyn 
Seely moved out. He saw no reason to close it down just because a college 
had moved in. Some of the boys found out about the still and struck a 
deal. They would not divulge Doc's secret; instead, they would supply 
crucial items from the chemistry lab in return for a share of the moon- 

The board of directors, which had been expanded significantly the year 
before, continued with Captain Robert Lee Smith as chairman and Mar- 
tin Nesbitt as vice-chairman. There were six ex officio members represent- 
ing the city and county governments and schools, plus sixteen additional 
leading citizens. Full-time and part-time faculty were divided into eleven 
standing committees: advisory, curriculum, social activities, library, public 
relations, student government, audiovisual education, commencement, 
public relations, athletics, and admissions. This basic organization contin- 
ued throughout the years on the mountain, although there were some 
personnel changes from time to time. The board of directors remained 
essentially the same until 1958, when an entirely new structure brought 
about change. 

The big tasks in the fall of 1949 were adapting what had been a large 
private home to classrooms and getting used to working in the new set- 
ting. Transportation was really not much of a problem because by then the 
automobile shortage and gas rationing were over. Students hitchhiked up 
and down the road, and it was common practice to pick them up and take 
them to the big gate on Town Mountain Road. Although Town Mountain 
Road was one of the streets that was cleared and sanded sooner than 
others in Asheville, the steep route was often covered with snow and ice. 
President Bushey lived above the college, and when it was snowing early 
in the morning he would drive down to the bottom of the hill and see if 
he could make it back. If he could, and if it did not look as though 
conditions would get worse, classes would be held. If he could not make it 
back up the hill, he would stop somewhere and call the radio stations to 

34 : On the Mountaintop 

cancel classes. Because of the early clearing of the road, not much time was 
lost to snow during the years at Seely Casde. 

Although there was no endowment to fund scholarships, A-B College 
gave out as many tuition scholarships as possible in order to attract good 
students. There were no elaborate regulations governing the distribution 
of these awards. The school was unable to get many local people and 
organizations to award scholarships, so most of the scholarship money to 
students was simply a reduction of income to the institution. In order for 
the school to be competitive on the playing fields, it had been necessary to 
add some athletic scholarships, but they paid only tuition for the athletes. 
Here the college received some financial assistance from the Angels of 
Biltmore, an organization aimed at supporting athletics, particularly 

The student organizations continued to expand. Bluets changed its 
board every year, but Lutrelle Wishart continued as faculty adviser. Mary 
Miller served in the same capacity for the Summit and had a staff of about 
fifteen people. The student council was composed of representatives of 
the two classes, with Arms Moser as faculty adviser. Ralph Barnshack was 
president of the organization the first year that the school was on the 
mountain. There was an honorary mathematics fraternity, Sigma Mu Pi. 
Other organizations included the Classical Coeds, a debate club, a busi- 
ness club, and a group calling itself the Weepers that was composed of all 
students interested in journalism and who worked on the Campus Crier. 
There was a music club and a glee club. Radio was a crucial medium at 
the time, and interested students broadcast regular programs at WWNC. 
They called themselves the A-B Libbers and used radio extensively to keep 
the public informed about the college. The drama club continued to write 
and produce plays and take them to Chapel Hill for state competition. 
After several years of work led by librarian Elizabeth Wright, the college 
acquired a chapter of Phi Theta Kappa, the most prestigious academic 
society among junior colleges. 

The football, basketball, and baseball teams were members of the Caro- 
linas Junior College Conference. The football team did very well and was 
at one time highly ranked in the Southeast by the Atlanta Constitution, 
which classified junior college football teams. In 1949-50, the A-B Col- 
lege basketball team under Floyd Woody won the Western Division 
Championship. They played other junior colleges of the area such as 
Charlotte, Brevard, Lees-McRae, Spartanburg, Belmont Abbey, Gardner- 

On the Mountaintop : 3 5 

Webb, and Mars Hill. Additionally, both the football and the basketball 
teams played junior varsity teams from several of the nearby four-year 

By 1950, at A-B College as at other junior colleges across the country, 
the number of veterans enrolled began to dwindle. This development 
created some severe problems because the school had anticipated a cer- 
tain level of enrollment in order to maintain itself in Seely Casde. Fortu- 
nately, in 195 1 both the city and the county raised their contributions to 
$10,000 per year. This necessary assistance replaced much of the revenue 
that the school had been receiving from the veterans. 

William S. Jenkins became the business manager in 195 1 and remained 
in that position for seventeen years. He had a difficult job in seeing that 
the school maintained its financial integrity and was at the same time able 
to perform its mission. Sometimes he may have gotten a little tightfisted: 
Karl Wilsman, who taught psychology part-time and who, with his part- 
ner, Jackson Owen, did the testing and counseling for the college, tells of 
going into the business office to get a piece of chalk. Jenkins broke the 
chalk in half, gave Wilsman one of the halves, and told him to be careful 
with it. 

When it became obvious that the cost of a football program was becom- 
ing prohibitive, the program was suspended for a year, then brought back 
and tried again. Herbert Coman, accurately reading the situation, re- 
signed and went to Asheville High School, as did Floyd Woody. Later, 
each embarked on other career paths. During 1953-54, members of the 
Angels of Biltmore became upset because the board of directors could not 
tell them with certainty if a football program would be possible. Finally, in 
exasperation, they simply withdrew their support. Leaders of the Angels 
of Biltmore were John Giezentanner and Claude DeBruhl. It is not diffi- 
cult to understand their frustration. They wanted the school to continue 
football, but with falling enrollment and the increasing expenses of up- 
keep and repair of Seely Casde, the board was not able to identify funds to 
continue the sport. The board finally announced that there would be no 
1954 season, and after that there were no more efforts to provide football 
at Asheville-Biltmore College. 

The school, even with the smaller enrollment, offered most of the out- 
lets that students needed. It was a commuter institution, and the variety of 
clubs and organizations, all of which were voluntary, were about as much 
as a student population of 250-300 could handle. It was difficult to 

3 6 : On the Mountaintop 

provide a full range of night classes, but there were a few. It is interesting 
to note that one student, Don Taylor, who later became involved in many 
Buncombe County activities and was at one time president of the alumni 
association, completed his course of study for the associate degree in two 
years and never took a single day course. He was working all of that time. 
Such accomplishments, however, were rare. Another student during this 
period was Donald Jones, who later became principal of Lee Edwards 
High School and superintendent of the Asheville city schools. 

After the first year or two on the mountain, the college was experienc- 
ing the same basic problems it had faced on Merrimon Avenue. The 
school was small and had little money. Seely Castie needed constant and 
expensive repairs. The roof had to be replaced, but money was so limited 
that the job had to be split into four sections over the years. The boiler 
was old and unpredictable, and plaster constandy fell from the walls and 
ceilings. Annually it was necessary for the directors to borrow money 
from the Bank of Asheville or Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, hoping 
to repay the loans from the tuition of the following year. All of the deci- 
sions concerning school activities were dictated by the size of the budget. 
It is difficult to look back now and see how the administration was able to 
maintain a respectable program with the kind of budget that was available 
in the fifties. 

There was one effort made to provide the school with some stable funds 
to augment the budget. The project lasted for a couple of years but failed 
to produce any benefits. The plans were somewhat exaggerated but, had 
they been successful, they could conceivably have made a great contribu- 
tion to the college and the community. 

Hubert Hayes was a local playwright and writer. He had written the 
script for an outdoor drama based on the life of Daniel Boone. The board 
was approached and gave its blessing to the idea of working with a sepa- 
rate corporation to turn the script into a play called Thunderland and 
present it to the public as a tourist attraction. The college owned some 
property in the Chunn's Cove area that it had acquired in 1949 after the 
purchase of the castle, and the idea was to have the corporation build an 
impressive amphitheater on the property. Many people in the community 
believed that such an attraction would benefit the college, so they joined 
the corporation and bought shares of stock. Names of stars such as Forrest 
Tucker for the role of Daniel Boone were discussed. Joseph McKinnon, 
whose long career in carnival and circus work had taught him a great deal 

On the Mountaintop 37 

about promotion, had retired in Asheville. He would produce the show. 
Thunderland played on for a couple of years. Unfortunately, the cost was 
high, the income was less than anticipated, and the episode ended in 
1953. Whether or not it would have been possible to make Thunderland 
into a real tourist attraction along the lines of Unto These Hills and Horn in 
the West is entirely speculative. The fact remains that it was tried, it failed, 
and some of the investors lost a considerable amount of money. The 
school itself never received any money, although members of the board 
and their friends had invested heavily. 

By the mid-fifties, some extremely important developments were occur- 
ring in North Carolina. For several years Roy Taylor, who had graduated 
with the first class in 1929 and was a representative in the North Carolina 
General Assembly, had tried unsuccessfully to get state funds for Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore College. It was becoming apparent that a municipality the 
size of Asheville could not operate a college on its own that would provide 
students with the variety of programs they needed. Asheville-Biltmore 
College had been trying to do so since 1927. The junior colleges estab- 
lished in Wilmington and Charlotte in 1947 quickly discovered how diffi- 
cult it was to provide a full range of college services with tuition and 
municipal funds alone. 

One of the significant changes in the state occurred in 1955 with the 
creation of the North Carolina Board of Higher Education, representing 
the state's interests and needs in planning and coordinating education 
beyond high school. D. Hiden Ramsey of Asheville was the first chairman 
of the board, and the first executive director was Dr. Harris Purks. It was 
only after the Board of Higher Education began its studies of North 
Carolina's needs that the General Assembly began to examine its responsi- 
bilities for higher education in the metropolitan areas. There already was a 
state system of higher education, the Consolidated University of North 
Carolina, with campuses in Chapel Hill, Raleigh, and Greensboro. There 
were three original teachers colleges that had greatly expanded their pro- 
grams. There were five baccalaureate-level institutions that had been es- 
tablished for black students. The head of each institution went directly to 
Raleigh and appeared before the Appropriations Committee and the 
Higher Education Committee to plead his case for a sound budget. The 
availability of funds would then depend on the decisions made by the 
General Assembly for each college. Everyone recognized that there was no 
overall plan in the state or any coordination among the institutions, other 

3 8 : On the Mountaintop 

than the three that constituted the Consolidated University of North 
Carolina. The Board of Higher Education, beginning in 1955, took a 
necessary step toward the development of coherent planning on a state- 
wide basis. An enormous number of the young people who had been born 
after World War II would, within a few years, be attending college. The 
questions were whether the colleges would be ready for those students 
and whether they would be able to provide the kinds of programs that 
such a large number of students would need. The Board of Higher Educa- 
tion, however, did not have any real authority when it came to its dealings 
with the various institutions. Its function was planning and coordinating, 
not decision making. Even so, the studies that were made became impor- 
tant bases for future decisions. 

The 1955 General Assembly began making some small grants to the 
community colleges that were struggling at that time. Asheville, Char- 
lotte, and Wilmington each received $11,656 in state funds. President 
Bushey expressed his gratitude to the General Assembly for the contribu- 
tion, but indicated the need for a real program of state aid to those local 
colleges that were trying to meet the needs of growing metropolitan areas. 

The turning point in the history of Asheville-Biltmore College, and for 
Wilmington and Charlotte colleges as well, was legislation passed by the 
General Assembly in 1957. The Community College Act established a 
statewide plan for organizing the noncomprehensive and academically 
oriented public junior colleges. The legislation should not be confused 
with the Omnibus Higher Education Act of 1963, which set up the 
present statewide network of community colleges and technical institutes. 
At that time Asheville-Biltmore College had been offering a minimum 
program to the students of the area for thirty years and was almost entirely 
dependent on tuition and community support. The other institutions, 
although much younger, faced the same problems. The Community Col- 
lege Act of 1957 would make much greater sums of state money available 
to the schools. 

There were several important provisions of the Community College Act 
of 1957: (1) the institutions must be under the jurisdiction of the North 
Carolina Board of Higher Education, (2) each institution must change its 
board to include twelve members who would have no direct relationship 
with local school boards. In other words, the close tie between the col- 
leges and city school boards would be broken, and the institutions would 
become new types of state schools. 

On the Mountaintop : 39 

These funds would be made available only on a matching basis. That 
meant that before any state funds could come to Asheville-Biltmore Col- 
lege, it would be necessary to have a public vote of support. This act gave 
the college's board of directors its first opportunity to go to the public for 
a bond referendum and present its case in an organized and systematic 
way, pointing out that the school would be part of the state's new system 
of community colleges. The chairman of the board since July 1950 had 
been Robert F. Phillips, better known as Robin. He remained chairman 
for a total of thirteen years. Phillips, a corporate attorney for the Carolina 
Power and Light Company, was dedicated to the development of the 
college. He and other board members immediately contacted city council 
and county commission members to discuss a bond referendum that 
would make a powerful difference to A-B College. 

The 1957 General Assembly appropriated $1.5 million to be made 
available to three colleges: $375,000 for Asheville-Biltmore College, 
$575,000 for Charlotte College, and $550,000 for Wilmington College. 
The money was contingent upon the passage of local bond issues that 
would then be added to the state funds. Funds would also be made avail- 
able for operating expenses on a matching basis and according to a for- 
mula that paid approximately $3.50 for each semester hour delivered. 
Because these too would be provided only on a matching basis, there 
needed to be a provision for operating expenses as well as a capital bond 

When the Community College Act and the bond referendum were 
passed, the overall plan was to divide the cost of operating the new com- 
munity colleges so that one-third would be paid by student tuition and 
fees, one-third by the community college district, which was the county, 
and one-third by the state. 

Both D. Hiden Ramsey, chairman of the Board of Higher Education, 
and Dr. Purks felt strongly that the state should not support vocational or 
occupational training programs that could not be clearly defined as higher 
education. Therefore, the available funds went only to those courses that 
were part of what was known as the college-transfer program. Although 
the title of the measure, the Community College Act of 1957, would 
indicate otherwise, the fact was that it existed for the purpose of establish- 
ing a state system of tax-supported junior colleges. 

The local board's original idea was to have a bond referendum for 
$250,000 and raise $250,000 in private and corporate donations. After 

40 : On the Mountaintop 

several months of working on this proposal, board members concluded 
that the private-money goal could not be reached and that the only way to 
raise the funds needed to expand the college was through a $500,000 
bond issue. Community leaders supported the idea of a bond referendum 
and agreed to put it on the regular ballot for the November 4, 1958, 
election. The board then immediately began an aggressive campaign to 
persuade the citizens of Buncombe County to support the bond refer- 

The contemplation of a $500,000 referendum was by far the largest 
single issue ever to confront the college. For more than thirty years the 
school had struggled along on a subsistence level. During the earlier fif- 
ties, T. C. Roberson had moved through the city begging and borrowing 
money in order to meet the payroll. It was impossible to amass any con- 
tingency money for emergencies. John Reynolds and other directors have 
vivid memories of the occasion when faulty bookkeeping caused a short- 
fall approaching $5,000 in the snack shop. The college was almost forced 
to close, and was saved only by personal donations from the directors and 
a few interested citizens, and the patience of the banks. Now, because of 
the state enactment, it would be possible for the college to make a genuine 
break from its impoverished past and obtain funds for the construction of 
an adequate campus. It was an opportunity that simply could not be 

Since the Community College Act of 1957 required a substantial 
change in the governing board, the old board of directors that had been 
established in 1948 and had been changed from time to time during the 
following decade, was abandoned. A new board of trustees that did not 
represent ex officio members from the city and county governments was 
established. This board drew its authority from the Board of Higher 
Education rather than from any local political jurisdiction. Members of 
the new board were J. Alfred Miller, Thomas G. Ford, Gertrude Ramsey, 
J. W. Byers, Roy A. Taylor, John M. Barnes, Virginia Dameron, John M. 
Reynolds, Robert F. "Robin" Phillips, Louis Lipinsky, Sr., Lawrence C. 
Merchant, and Manly E. Wright. 

On January 30, 1958, the first meeting of the new board was held, and 
Robin Phillips was elected temporary chairman. Roy A. Taylor was elected 
temporary secretary. A nominating committee was appointed to bring to 
the next meeting recommendations for the board offices. This board 
would remain fairly constant from 1958 to 1963, when it was reorga- 

On the Mountaintop 4 1 

nized. As anticipated, Phillips was elected chairman and Taylor vice- 

Since the Community College Act had no provisions governing the 
posts of secretary and treasurer, members decided to recruit individuals 
from outside the board, thereby increasing the number of people directly 
involved with board activities. The elected secretary was O. E. Starnes, Jr., 
and the treasurer was William J. Reece, Jr. This was the board that eventu- 
ally brought the college into full compliance with the Community College 
Act and directed two successful bond drives in Buncombe County. 

The bond referendum committee was organized, with Louis Lipinsky 
and John Reynolds serving as cochairmen. They asked a well-known and 
highly respected person in Asheville, Morris McGough, to be the general 
campaign manager, and trustee Virginia Dameron consented to coordi- 
nate the campaign. They had a small fund of about $4,000, some of it 
borrowed, to print fliers and brochures. With this ammunition, the com- 
mittee began its drive to get the $500,000 bond issue on the general 
election ballot of November 4, 1958. The entire board of trustees consti- 
tuted a speakers bureau, and many of the students also became involved in 
addressing local organizations. They sought support from all the groups 
and organizations they could identify in the area. The newspaper, Western 
Carolina Industries, the Asheville Area Chamber of Commerce, and all of 
the groups associated with education, such as the AAUW and the League 
of Women Voters, were contacted and indicated their support. 

Large advertisements were placed in the Asheville paper the week be- 
fore the election. The college considered the election important enough to 
cancel classes that day, and students with brochures and handouts were 
carefully assigned to every polling place in Buncombe County. There was 
only one incident during the entire day: one of the students distributing 
literature about the college was wearing a campaign button for one of the 
candidates, but the problem was easily taken care of as soon as it was 
reported to campaign headquarters. 

When the vote tally was completed, the college had won an overwhelm- 
ing victory. The vote was more than three to one in favor of the bond 
referendum. It was one of the happiest days in the history of the college. 

During the months preceding the November balloting, there had been 
talk about moving the school to a more accessible and convenient loca- 
tion. A committee was established to consider several possible sites. 
Among them were a plot just south of Biltmore School, another in the 

42 : On the Mountaintop 

vicinity of the municipal golf course in East Asheville, and a site between 
Merrimon Avenue and Broadway in North Asheville. A suggestion that 
the college be moved into the Asheville city hall was short-lived because of 
legal restrictions. It was determined that the Biltmore location was too 
small to accommodate the needs of the college. The area in the eastern 
part of the city was in a floodplain. The North Asheville site was dismissed 
because of the lack of access roads. In order for the bond issue to pass, 
however, the board of trustees had to establish the location, so members 
voted to use the money raised and the matching state funds to construct 
two new buildings and renovate the castie to make it more suitable for 
college use. This decision was made in April, and the county voted on the 
$500,000 bond issue for the purpose of enlarging and improving the 
college at its Seely Casde location. 

Although there was a celebration when the bond referendum passed, 
several of the trustees remained uncomfortable about the college's moun- 
tain location. The money available from the county and state would make 
for a much nicer place, but the location itself was severely limited. The 
site, including the Chunn's Cove acreage, measured only sixty-eight acres, 
and much of the land was so steep that building institutional facilities 
there was impractical. Some board members believed the college would 
never amount to more than a junior college of six hundred or seven 
hundred students if the proceeds of the bond referendum and the state's 
matching funds were spent on the Seely Casde facility. 

John Reynolds was one of several board members interested in a much 
larger college, one that could, in time, achieve four-year status. Although 
he had not served on the ad hoc committee that reviewed the alternative 
locations, Reynolds had toured some of the areas himself and believed the 
North Asheville site was a more practical choice. The lack of access roads 
on this wooded, abandoned farmland did not seem to him an insurmount- 
able obstacle. Reynolds was a nephew of the college's founder, A. C. 
Reynolds, and he had a longtime interest in the expansion of educational 
opportunities in the area. Possibly his family's connection with the college 
from its beginning made him particularly sensitive to its future. However, 
several of the ad hoc committee members had not been board members, 
and the community leaders saw no problem with the Seely Castle site, so 
the architectural firm of Six Associates started working on preliminary 
plans for expansion. 

During a Sunday afternoon golf game, Reynolds and Alfred Miller, 

On the Mountaintop : 43 

another board member, began to discuss the long-term future of the col- 
lege if the money was spent at Seely Castie. Miller said he was concerned 
about the possibility of growth on land with limited building sites, so 
Reynolds drove him over to King Street, off Merrimon Avenue, in his 
Jeep. The two men rode down to the end of the street and across the open 
terrain of the abandoned farm. Most of the land was owned by Landon 
Roberts, a civic-minded local attorney. The remainder was owned by heirs 
of the Kimberly estate. Most of them still lived in Asheville, and Reynolds 
thought they would not be adverse to the ambitions of the college. Be- 
cause he knew most of the owners, he also believed the land could be 
purchased at a reasonable price. Miller agreed that using the funds to 
begin building a completely new campus made sense, and the two men 
worked out a plan to persuade other board members to reconsider the 
location of the college and recognize this site's potential. 

The first board members they took to see the prospective site were J. W. 
Byers, who had been city superintendent of education and was familiar 
with the needs of academic institutions, and Roy Taylor, vice chairman of 
the board. As they walked around the site, Byers turned when he reached 
a certain spot and said to Reynolds, "We'll put the administration building 
right here." Taylor agreed that the location was more practical than the 
acreage surrounding Seely Casde. Over a period of several weeks, Reyn- 
olds transported enough board members over the site in his Jeep to con- 
vince the majority that a move would benefit the college. One member 
who did not need a personal tour was Virginia Dameron, who had to park 
far down the mountain and walk up for a board meeting. Breathless, she 
fell into a chair beside Reynolds and told him she didn't need to see the 
land; the climb had convinced her that a mountainside was no place for a 
college. Nevertheless, she went along when Reynolds took Gertrude Ram- 
sey to see the property, and both women agreed the move would be 
advantageous. Finally, Chairman Robin Phillips, who had been commit- 
ted to having the college remain on Sunset Mountain, asked for a tour of 
the proposed site. He and Dr. Bushey were the last two persons to tour 
the property. Well over a majority had come to believe it would be a 
desirable location for Asheville-Biltmore College. 

A special meeting of the board of trustees was called for December 5, 
1958, in the directors' room of the First Union National Bank and Trust 
Company. Every member of the board was present, along with President 
Bushey, Bill Jenkins, the business manager, and O. E. Starnes, the board 

44 : On the Mountaintop 

secretary. The members who still believed the college should remain at the 
Seely Castle location pointed out that Six Associates was already design- 
ing the new buildings, and they argued that the community had voted for 
the bond issue with the understanding that the college would remain 
where it was. The majority, however, enumerated the advantages of re- 
locating and expressed certainty that the voters were more interested in 
building a college than they were in where it was situated. J. W. Byers 
then moved to thank the people who had been working toward a more 
desirable location and asked that the board be authorized to enter into 
negotiations with the owners of the property. The motion was carried 

Manly Wright was authorized to begin negotiations with Landon Rob- 
erts, who owned 91.9 acres of the land. Part of the property owned by the 
heirs of the Kimberly estate was under option to W. W. Richards of 
Raleigh, who planned to develop a housing subdivision called Spray Mills 
on a 49.9 acre tract. Board member J. Gerald Cowan, the regional vice 
president of Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, used his professional 
connections to contact Richards. He explained how much the community 
needed the site for a new college campus, and Bichards agreed to give up 
his option and his plans for future development. 

It should be noted that during 1959 the landowners, who could have 
taken a different attitude, sold their property to the college at rock-bot- 
tom prices. Landon Roberts probably lost money on the transaction, but 
he was delighted to have the land become the new home for the college. 
The Kimberly heirs were also cooperative. Two small amounts of acreage 
to assure access to the property were purchased from Mrs. Cora Parker 
and Eugene V. Kaplan. The accumulated parcels amounted to 16 1.9 acres, 
and the college paid an average of almost $1,000 per acre, for a total of 

The board then asked Six Associates, the firm that had been so helpful 
during the bond campaign by illustrating, free of charge, what could be 
done to improve Seely Casde, to begin working on plans for the new 
campus instead. 

One of the objections initially raised about the North Asheville prop- 
erty was that there were no access routes into the area. An extension of 
Edgewood Road was necessary, as well as an extension beyond King 
Street. One large street also needed to be built as soon as possible to 
connect Broadway with Merrimon Avenue. Land for the right-of-way for 

On the Mountaintop 45 

a four-lane street to be called W. T. Weaver Boulevard was given by the 
Verne Rhoades family. This street, named in memory of Mrs. Rhoades's 
father, was completed after the other access routes had been built. All of 
this was part of the work Six Associates had to do in planning the new 

The plans were approved by the board of trustees. The funds remaining 
after the purchase of the land, approximately $700,000, would cover the 
construction of two buildings. When Six Associates had the plans at a 
satisfactory point, the board of trustees held a formal ground breaking, on 
January 16, i960, attended by representatives of the Board of Higher 
Education, local officials, civic leaders, and many other friends of the 

The board of trustees was aware that further growth would have to 
await additional financing, and so it decided to mount a second bond 
campaign. This was a bold alternative for people to consider on the heels 
of a recent successful bond vote. Several board members — Chairman 
Robin Phillips, John Reynolds, Louis Lipinsky, and Manly Wright — held 
a meeting in the office of City Manager Weldon Weir. Among the influen- 
tial community leaders present were Fleming Talman and Coke Candler. It 
became clear that many had reservations about asking the public to vote 
on a second bond issue so soon. As he listened, Louis Lipinsky became 
disgusted with their negativism. The normally reserved and soft-spoken 
community leader rose and told the group that if all they were going to do 
was find reasons to prevent the growth of Asheville-Biltmore College, he 
would leave the meeting. He asked Reynolds to leave with him. Taken 
aback, the group pressured Lipinsky to return to his seat and promised to 
hold a public hearing on the matter. 

The hearing was held in the city hall shortly thereafter. Reynolds made 
an impassioned speech urging acceptance of a $750,000 bond issue, plus 
a 4-cents-per-$ioo evaluation for the operating funds that would be 
matched by the state. Lipinsky followed with a quieter but no less persua- 
sive speech, and several other board members and interested community 
members also spoke. Surprisingly, there were few objections to the pro- 
posal. The major question on the minds of the large audience was how 
soon Asheville-Biltmore College could become a four-year institution. 

The experience of the 195 8 campaign was so fresh that the same organi- 
zation was used, and a special referendum was called for February 14, 
1 96 1. The results of the second referendum were approximately the same; 

46 : On the Mountaintop 

almost a three-to-one majority voted in favor of the bond, as well as the 
four-cent tax. The people were informed that this money would mean an 
additional $1.5 million for capital construction and would allow the col- 
lege to build facilities that would make it a much more attractive and 
functional campus. 

In the months preceding the November 1958 vote on the first bond 
referendum, the board had briefly considered establishing a separate ju- 
nior college for black students as part of Asheville-Biltmore College. All 
of the black organizations in the city and county immediately opposed the 
idea and threatened legal action if the plan was pursued. The principal 
spokesman for the various organizations was a prominent and respected 
attorney, Ruben J. Dailey. He reminded the board that the three campuses 
of the University of North Carolina were already accepting black students 
and that the creation of a separate section of the college based on race 
would be in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment and the 1954 Su- 
preme Court decision, Brown v. Board of Education ofTopeka, which ruled 
that de jure segregation of public schools must be ended with all deliber- 
ate speed. Once the attitude of the black organizations was known, noth- 
ing further was said about any kind of racially separated institution. 

In February 1961 the Campus Crier showed its support of the bond 
referendum by listing a number of A-B College alumni who had gone on 
to important positions. Among them were William Reeves, principal of 
North Buncombe High School; Charles Lloyd, the son of Professor 
Charles A. Lloyd and a professor at Davidson College; James Fish, a 
professor at Mars Hill; Donald Jones, principal at Lee H. Edwards High 
School; James Owen, principal of Black Mountain Elementary School; 
Martin Nesbitt, principal of Oakley Elementary School; John Easley, pro- 
fessor at Chapel Hill; Richard Wynne of the Asheville Citizen; Wilma Dyke- 
man, a noted writer; Major General Albert Boyd; Henry Baker of Pru- 
dential Insurance; Gordon Greenwood, Roy Taylor, and John Shuford, all 
of whom had served in the General Assembly, and Taylor was congress- 
man for the Eleventh District. Also included were Morris Lipinsky, man- 
ager of Bon Marche, and John Bridges of the Pack Memorial Library. 

The actual vote on February 14, 1961, was 7,200 for and 2,713 against 
the referendum, with 6,345 people supporting the four-cent tax and 
2,820 voting against it. Shortly after the bond referendum was passed, the 
board of trustees authorized Six Associates to go ahead with further plans 
for the development of the campus and indicated the sequence in which 

On the Mountaintop : 47 

the gymnasium, the maintenance building, and the student center should 
be constructed. About the same time, City Manager Weldon Weir prom- 
ised to expedite work on W. T. Weaver Boulevard, the new street that 
would cut through the college property and connect Broadway with 
Merrimon Avenue. 

Shortly after the ground breaking, work began on access roads, utilities, 
and the construction of the two original buildings. The science building 
was constructed at an overall cost of about $8 per square foot. Since 
working scientists had no part in the planning, the laboratories were only 
marginally more sophisticated than those in recentiy built high schools. 
Even so, the facility's chemistry, biology, and physics laboratories were a 
great improvement over those at Seely Castie. There was a large recreation 
area and snack shop in the basement where students could meet. There 
were three stories in all, counting the basement, with classrooms and 
laboratories on each. Champion Paper and Fibre Company pledged a gift 
of $10,000 for much-needed equipment for the chemistry laboratories. 

The second building that was constructed faced south and was sepa- 
rated into two wings. The east wing held the offices of the president, 
business manager, registrar, and dean of the college. The upper floor of 
the east wing included a conference room and space that could be used as 
double or triple offices until more room was ready. The upper story of the 
west wing was to be the library; the lower floor contained classrooms and 
a few small offices. 

The R. L. Coleman Company submitted the low bid for the construc- 
tion of both buildings, and work began shortly after the ground breaking. 
Throughout i960 and the first half of 1961, students, faculty, and board 
members waited eagerly for the completion of the access roads, the utili- 
ties, and the first two buildings. Many people came often to watch the 
construction and to dream of the institution that would eventually exist at 
this new location. By the summer of 1961 the buildings were inhabitable. 
This was the fifth move the college had made and the only one for which 
there was adequate time for preparation. Even so, there was a great deal 
of happy confusion as the school's property was moved down from the 
mountain. Packing and transporting the library's holdings presented the 
major problem. It was hard work for everyone, but an exhilarating experi- 
ence for the students, faculty, and board members alike. 

The college opened its new doors for registration in September 1961. 
The carefully planned dedication was held on Sunday afternoon, October 

48 : On the Mountaintop 

8, 1 96 1. The Board of Higher Education, the board of trustees, and 
Governor Terry Sanford took part in the ceremony. The principal speakers 
were Governor Sanford, L. P. McClendon, chairman of the Board of 
Higher Education, and Dr. John T. Caldwell, the new chancellor of North 
Carolina State College. It was an impressive occasion. People saw what 
their votes had generated and realized it would be possible to build a 
college that would be a worthy addition to higher education in North 



A New Campus - A New 

The fall of 1961 resembled that of 1949. While there was a new campus, 
the college was offering basically the same courses, Dr. Bushey was still 
president, and Lutrelle Wishart, Mary Miller, Dean Joseph Parsons, and 
Cornelia Serota were still full-time members of the faculty. The whole 
roster of part-time professors made the move from Seely Castle. Signifi- 
cant differences did, however, exist. 

From 1957 to 1958, A-B College experienced an enrollment increase of 
only 4 percent. Enrollment rose 22 percent from 1958 to 195 9, and from 
1959 to i960 there was an increase of 30 percent. The first enrollment on 
the new campus numbered 484 students. This increase emphasized the 
point that the people who carried the bond referenda had made: they 
wanted a quality college in Asheville. 

There was also a significant difference in the budget levels compared 
with the struggling days of the mid-fifties, before the infusion of state 
money The operational budget from 1961 to 1962 was $238,600. That 
figure did not include any of the funds that went into the construction 
of new buildings. Of that budget, $63,000 came from the state, and 
$63,000 came from the city and county, thanks to the four-cent tax. Stu- 
dent tuition and fees amounted to a little more than $1 1 1,000. It was not 
a great budget for a large and flourishing institution, but it was certainly a 
far cry from the meager budgets with which the institution had been 
struggling. It demonstrated the great increase in county and state funds 
and illustrated just how important state participation was in the continued 


50 : A New Campus 

development of the community college. There were only two buildings on 
the campus when the students and faculty started classes in September 
1 96 1, but everyone knew that others were on the way The 1961 bond 
referendum for $750,000 and matching funds from the state would make 
additional facilities possible, and those who were there could look forward 
to the rapid emergence of something resembling a real campus. The gym- 
nasium and the maintenance building were soon contracted, and con- 
struction began on both in the early summer of 1962. 

During the first year, just as in 1949, people quickly adjusted to the new 
facilities and the transportation patterns, which were quite different from 
those needed to get to Seely Castie. A great deal of hope was expressed 
during the 1961 bond referendum that, although there was no provision 
for it in the current vote, Asheville-Biltmore College could soon become a 
four-year institution authorized to give the baccalaureate degree. The 
same reasoning was going on in other areas of North Carolina as people 
observed the growing number of high school graduates. 

An unexpected event occurred during the 1961-62 academic year. Dr. 
Glenn L. Bushey, who had been president of the college since September 
1, 1947, resigned in April 1962 to accept a deanship at Chattanooga 
College. As president of A-B College, Dr. Bushey had witnessed and 
initiated some very important changes. He was a thoughtful, gentie, and 
patient man. At the same time, he had a vision of what the institution 
could become, and he understood how much Asheville, as the urban 
center of western North Carolina, needed a college far beyond the limited 
junior college of two hundred or three hundred students over which he 
had presided for so many years. He was a person who had been faithful to 
his charge, and he left behind many good friends who admired all he had 
done. The time had come for officials to begin thinking about converting 
the college to a four-year, baccalaureate institution. 

Not long after the announcement of Dr. Bushey's resignation, at an 
academic meeting, I saw an old friend and former fellow graduate student, 
Dr. Otis A. Singletary. At that time, he was chancellor of the North 
Carolina College for Women. He reviewed some of the things that were 
happening in higher education in the state and told me he had submitted 
my name to the board of trustees of A-B College for consideration. About 
a month later, John Reynolds, chairman of the search committee, called. 
I was then serving as dean of the faculty at Jacksonville University in 
Florida. Coincidentally — and I assume this is why Dr. Singletary offered 
my name — Jacksonville University had just gone through a conversion 

A New Campus : 5 1 

from a junior college to a four-year program. As chief academic officer, I 
was quite familiar with the process. I accepted Reynolds's invitation, flew 
to Asheville, looked at the two buildings already constructed and the 
blueprints for the others, and talked at length with the members of the 
board of trustees. It was apparent that there was an opportunity in Ashe- 
ville, to work as part of the state system, to build an institution of high 
quality. There was also a need, as expressed by the vote of the people, for 
such an institution. On June 20, 1962, the board of trustees elected me 
president of Asheville-Biltmore College. I accepted the post because it 
seemed to be a great opportunity to be involved in building something 
genuinely worthwhile. That expectation, I believe, has been fulfilled. 

The idea of expanding A-B College to a four-year institution had been 
discussed off and on for years. When the veterans first returned from 
World War II, the need was obvious. However, there was no realistic way 
to think in terms of a four-year college when it was difficult enough to 
maintain a budget for fewer than three hundred students. It is necessary to 
review some of the important statewide developments of 1961 and 1962, 
since they are central to understanding the process by which Asheville- 
Biltmore College became a four-year state institution. This is not the time 
to go into a full-scale study of the famous Carlyle Commission, but those 
parts that had immediate or ultimate impact on A-B College must be 

Governor Terry Sanford appointed a commission to analyze compre- 
hensively the need for education beyond the high school level in the state 
of North Carolina. He did not want the study conducted by people who 
would then be responsible for administrating their own recommenda- 
tions, since too many opportunities for self-service existed in such a situa- 
tion. At the same time, a good planning committee required people who 
were professionally involved in higher education. The panel was called 
the Governor's Commission on Education beyond the High School. The 
chairman was Irving E. Carlyle, a distinguished citizen from Winston- 
Salem. Other well-known people who served on the Carlyle Commission 
and who would continue to make important contributions to higher edu- 
cation were President William C. Friday of the Consolidated University; 
President Leo Jenkins of East Carolina College; President Bonnie Cone of 
Charlotte College; Dr. William Archie, executive director of the Board of 
Higher Education; and L. P. McClendon of Greensboro, chairman of the 
Board of Higher Education. 

There were many other respected and able citizens capable of examining 

52 : A New Campus 

the state's future needs. Both President Bushey and Manly Wright, vice- 
chairman of the board of trustees, appeared before the Carlyle Commis- 
sion and talked about Asheville and its environs, what Asheville-Biltmore 
College had done since 1958, the type of future it could have as a four- 
year institution, and how badly one was needed. They pointed out that, 
for the foreseeable future, the high schools within twenty-five to thirty 
miles of Asheville would be graduating more than four thousand students 
per year. At the time, graduates had to leave the area if they wanted to go 
beyond the first two years of college, and not many of those students had 
been coming to A-B College because of the severely limited program. But 
as a state four-year institution with the new buildings that would soon be 
completed, the college could expect an entirely different picture. For rea- 
sons still unknown, the Carlyle Commission got the impression that al- 
though there was a good deal of interest in having A-B College become a 
four-year school, there was no particular hurry. Commission members 
were also concerned because enrollment was considerably lower at A-B 
College than at the other two community colleges that were being consid- 
ered — Wilmington College and Charlotte College. When the Carlyle 
Commission finally completed its report and presented it to Governor 
Sanford in August 1962, it contained enormously important recommen- 
dations regarding the future of higher education in the state. 

First, the report recommended that the Consolidated University, which 
at that time consisted of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 
North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering in Raleigh, 
and North Carolina College for Women in Greensboro, should be the 
capstone of higher education in the state and the only institutions autho- 
rized to offer the doctoral degree. The commission further recommended 
that new campuses be added to the Consolidated University when there 
was justification for such change and when such additions were approved 
by the Board of Higher Education. There was no limit placed upon the 
number of campuses making up the Consolidated University. The com- 
mission also recommended that North Carolina College for Women in 
Greensboro be made coeducational and that the name be changed to the 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro. In the interest of consis- 
tency, it also recommended that North Carolina State change its name to 
the University of North Carolina at Raleigh. 

Another recommendation was that a community college system be 
started with fourteen nonresidential two-year programs to be scattered 

A New Campus : 5 3 

throughout the state. The community colleges would offer college-trans- 
fer programs equivalent to the first two years of most four-year institu- 
tions and terminal programs oriented to specific vocations and crafts. The 
commission also recommended that Wilmington College and Charlotte 
College be made state four-year institutions beginning July 1, 1963. 
Asheville-Biltmore College would also become a four-year state institu- 
tion when it had an enrollment of seven hundred full-time equivalent 

At this time, it would be wise to note that "full-time equivalent" is a 
term that is central to the operations of all higher education institutions. 
It starts with the assumption that a person who is, on the last day of 
registration and at the end of the drop/add period, enrolled for as many as 
twelve semester hours will be counted as one full-time student. But there 
are hundreds of students in all the institutions who do not take the full 
twelve-semester-hour load or more, so partial units are measured. A per- 
son who takes twelve semester hours is counted as a full-time student. A 
person who enrolls for nine, ten or eleven semester hours of credit per 
semester is considered three-quarters of a student. A student who takes 
six, seven, or eight semester hours is counted as one-half of a student. 
Those enrolled for fewer than six hours are counted as one-quarter of a 
student. The number of full-time students plus the sum of all the part- 
time students equals the full-time equivalent enrollment, or FTE. As a 
result, it would be necessary for Asheville-Biltmore College to have con- 
siderably more than seven hundred students enrolled in order to have an 
FTE of seven hundred. 

When the Carlyle Commission's report was received on the A-B Col- 
lege campus, it was studied with great care. The institution's financial 
structure simply would not support expansion to that degree. Even 
though it was not the intent of the Carlyle Commission members, their 
report was, in effect, saying that A-B College could not become a four- 
year school. Funding came from tuition and the county tax that had been 
limited by the 1961 bond referendum. The law as of 1957 specified that 
the state could match what an institution received from its local and 
regional constituency, but it could not exceed that amount. The money 
generated by student tuition and produced by the four-cent tax, even 
when matched by state and county funds, was simply not enough to 
permit much growth on the part of the college if it was to maintain a solid 
program. Another weakness in establishing an arbitrary figure of seven 

54 : A New Campus 

hundred before conversion to four-year status could be made was the 
danger that it might lead to relaxed admission and retention standards. If 
enrollment was all-important, it could overpower the need to maintain 
standards that had real collegiate value. 

When the Carlyle Commission's report was received in Asheville, the 
chairman of the board of trustees, Robin Phillips, was in the hospital. I 
contacted the vice-chairman of the board, Manly Wright, and told him we 
needed to have a few trustees meet soon to discuss the document, given its 
potentially profound impact on the college. Wright immediately asked 
John Reynolds, Gerald Cowan, and Louis Lipinsky to join us in the grill 
room of the Country Club of Asheville the next afternoon. I took the 
report, read those recommendations, and pointed out how extraordinarily 
difficult it would be for the school to achieve an FTE of seven hundred 
and how problematic that recommendation would prove if it became fixed 
in law Everyone immediately recognized that something had to be done 
promptiy. Wright contacted Robin Phillips and called a special meeting of 
the board of trustees. The result was a formal letter to Governor Sanford 
signed by Chairman Phillips, Vice-Chairman Wright, and myself. Wright 
then contacted the governor's office and made an appointment for us to 
see Governor Sanford. 

Very early one morning, Reynolds, Wright, and I drove to Raleigh to 
meet with the governor. He listened carefully to our statements and read 
the formal letter from the Asheville-Biltmore board. He grasped the prob- 
lem immediately and turned to Wright and said, "I see exacdy what you're 
talking about. Now don't worry about it, Manly You're going to get your 
four-year college." It was with a sense of elation that we drove back to 
Asheville. At the same time, we realized we still needed the approval of the 
Board of Higher Education and the General Assembly of North Carolina. 

A few weeks later, Governor Sanford reviewed the Carlyle Commis- 
sion's report at a homecoming at Methodist College and oudined the 
legislative proposals he planned to present to the General Assembly. To 
begin with, he would recommend that Wilmington College, Charlotte 
College, and Asheville-Biltmore College be converted immediately to 
four-year state institutions. He dropped the FTE restriction set by the 
Carlyle Commission and put the three institutions on the same footing. 
These recommendations were drafted in the form of a bill called the Om- 
nibus Higher Education Act of 1963. In addition to the changes in the 
university and the new campuses, the bill also provided for the fourteen 

A New Campus 


new community colleges that would be scattered throughout the state in 
strategic locations. This system of community colleges, including tech- 
nical and terminal programs, as well as college-transfer programs, has 
grown to the point that there are now fifty-eight institutions statewide. 

Another important fact in this story was that one of A-B College's 
best-known alumni, Gordon Greenwood, was a member of the General 
Assembly. The 1930 graduate had gone on to the University of Illinois to 
complete his degree in journalism and then had worked for several news- 
papers. When the war was over, he returned to Buncombe County and 
purchased the Black Mountain News, a weekly newspaper. He successfully 
ran for the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1958 and was 
subsequentiy reelected in i960 and 1962. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives for the 1963 General 
Assembly was the Honorable Clifton Blue. The legislator recognized the 
importance and the pitfalls of the Carlyle Commission's report and the 
governor's proposals, and he asked Gordon Greenwood to serve as chair- 
man of the House Committee on Higher Education. When the Omnibus 
Higher Education Act of 1963 got to the committee, there was little 
disagreement about most of the recommendations. Greenwood knew he 
had the support of Governor Sanford when it came to including A-B 
College as one of the three institutions to be converted to four-year status. 

However, another aspect of the legislation was causing great anguish 
throughout the state. This was the recommendation that all units of the 
Consolidated University be referred to as the University of North Caro- 
lina, followed by the name of the individual campus location. The faculty, 
students, and alumni of North Carolina State College reacted violendy to 
this proposal. Looking at it from the vantage point of almost a quarter of 
a century later, one can understand their desire for their own identifica- 
tion. At the same time, that recommendation was part of the law Gover- 
nor Sanford was proposing because it came from the Carlyle Commission. 
Since Gordon Greenwood was not receiving much support for A-B Col- 
lege from Wilmington and Charlotte, he felt that he alone was fighting to 
see that the college was not cut out. That meant he had to remain close to 
Governor Sanford throughout the controversy, and Governor Sanford 
remained steadfast in his support for the renaming of North Carolina 
State. By taking the position that he did, Greenwood sacrificed the almost 
certain opportunity to become the next Speaker of the House. 

It is difficult to exaggerate how emotional that issue became in the early 

56 : A New Campus 

spring of 1963. When the proposed legislation came before the House 
Committee on Higher Education and, later, in the conference committee 
between the House and the Senate, there was a distinct possibility that the 
bill would fail because of the emotionalism aroused by the suggested name 
change. The legislators finally compromised and called it North Carolina 
State, the University of North Carolina at Raleigh. With that compro- 
mise, which no one really liked, the bill was accepted, and on May 10 the 
Omnibus Higher Education Act of 1963 was enacted into law. In 1965 
the General Assembly quiedy changed the name to North Carolina State 
University at Raleigh, and that is what the institution has been called since 
then. There was no difficulty at all in 1965, but in 1963 the issue almost 
wrecked the entire enterprise. 

The news that the Omnibus Higher Education Act had passed and that, 
within a few months, A-B College would be a fully state-supported, four- 
year baccalaureate-degree institution was truly exciting for everyone con- 
nected with the college. It underscored the importance of the 1958 bond 
referendum that paved the way for the 1961 referendum and made the 
development of a respectable campus possible. It ensured that the institu- 
tion, as part of the state system, would have opportunities to grow and be 
of service that would have never been possible under the Community 
College Act of 1957 or during the years of struggle that preceded it. The 
news led to widespread rejoicing when the community learned what the 
General Assembly's enactment meant for the future of the college. 

One of the great ironies of the early sixties was that the same General 
Assembly of 1963 that passed the Omnibus Higher Education Act — one 
of the most important single pieces of legislation ever passed in the field 
of higher education in the history of the state — also passed another bill 
that was uniformly opposed by all of the state-supported institutions of 
North Carolina and was later found to be unconstitutional. In the closing 
hours of the 1963 General Assembly, a bill to regulate speakers on college 
campuses passed within a few minutes, by virtue of the suspension of rules 
in both the House and the Senate. The popular term for the bill was the 
"Speaker Ban Law." The provisions of the law were that a person who was 
a member of the Communist party, a person who had advocated over- 
throwing the government by force or violence, or a person who had taken 
the Fifth Amendment in cases concerning national security would not be 
allowed to speak on any college campus owned and operated by the state. 
Those who fell into these general categories could not speak on campuses 
on any subject, regardless of what had happened subsequendy in their 

A New Campus : 57 

lives or who had invited them to speak. Officials at the Consolidated 
University and the other campuses immediately protested this gross inva- 
sion of their rights to manage their own institutions. Moreover, the law 
constituted prior restraint and was a violation of freedom of speech and 
academic freedom. 

It was not until 1965 that this bill was modified, and then only under 
great pressure from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the 
accrediting agency for the southeastern United States. That summer, a 
special commission was named to hold hearings. Gordon Sweet, the direc- 
tor of the association, and Dr. Emmett Fields of Vanderbilt University, 
who was chairman of the Commission of Colleges, simply told the com- 
mission members that unless the law was modified in a significant way, 
all the state institutions affected would lose their accreditation. In spite 
of a great deal of controversy, the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools held firm. It had done that once before, in Georgia in the thirties, 
when Governor Eugene Talmadge had inappropriately interfered with the 
management of the state's colleges, including the University of Georgia. 
Governor Talmadge was forced to back down, and the North Carolina 
General Assembly recognized the damage that would be done to the 
state's institutions if they lost their accreditation. A federal district court 
later declared the law to be unconstitutional on the grounds that it vio- 
lated the First Amendment. 

Needless to say, this legislation caused a great deal of concern at Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore College. Here we were, a junior college that was preparing 
to become a senior institution, fully aware that the school's reputation 
depended on obtaining accreditation as a four-year institution as soon as 
possible. It was frustrating to think that we would be ineligible for ac- 
creditation because of the General Assembly's enactment of the Speaker 
Ban Law. We were all greatly relieved when the law was modified and later 
declared to be unconstitutional. 

After the elation of achieving four-year status had passed, it was appar- 
ent that an enormous amount of work had to be done in order to shape 
A-B into a legitimate state senior college. The institution had been 
accredited as a junior college by the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools only five years earlier, and the requirements for accreditation as a 
senior college were far greater. To begin with, the faculty simply was not a 
senior-college faculty. While there were several instructors who held doc- 
torates in their fields, there was no one who had any experience in orga- 
nizing and developing a four-year collegiate program. A new faculty 

58 : A New Campus 

would also be necessary because of the requirement for experienced peo- 
ple with doctoral degrees teaching in the fields in which they held the 
doctorate. An academic dean with the proper credentials and experience 
was needed as well. Joseph Parsons had been with the institution since 
1952, teaching mathematics and serving as academic dean, but he had 
neither a doctorate nor any experience in developing a four-year curricu- 
lum. Fortunately, North Carolina had an excellent reputation in the field 
of higher education, and we believed that that reputation would ensure 
that the new colleges would be brought up to appropriate standards as 
quickly as possible. In fact, the 1963 General Assembly had appropriated 
some conversion money for the three new senior colleges, and A-B re- 
ceived $1.4 million for capital construction. That money would go toward 
construction of the library and the humanities building. 

One of the first decisions we made, in conjunction with the board of 
trustees, was that we would not admit a junior class in 1963 because we 
simply did not have the resources or the program. We decided instead to 
spend the 1963-64 academic year planning the type of program we 
wanted and recruiting faculty. 

On July 1, 1963, the beginning of the state's fiscal year, certain basic 
changes came about. One of the first was that the board of trustees, which 
technically was dissolved as of June 30, 1963, had to transfer the appro- 
priate legal documents for all school property, including title to the land 
and buildings, accounts in the state treasury, and all endowment money to 
the State of North Carolina. 

The former board of trustees had been appointed in accordance with 
the Community College Act of 1957. Governor Sanford appointed a new 
board to serve the four-year institution on July 1, 1963. The members 
included Chairman Manly E. Wright from Asheville; Vice-Chairman J. 
Aaron Prevost from Waynesville; Edwin C. Duncan, Jr., from North 
Wilkesboro; Dula Hawkins from Marion; Solon D. Smart of Cliffside; 
Louis Lipinsky, Sr., J. Gerald Cowan, William M. Lehmkuhl, Claude 
Ramsey, Jr., Bruce A. Elmore, Virginia Dameron, and John M. Reynolds 
from Asheville. The responsibility of the new board of trustees was to give 
guidance to the institution and assume all the legal responsibility that such 
a board carries in the name of the public. The members had to understand 
that the institution could do only what the Board of Higher Education 
authorized it to do and could spend money only as appropriated by the 
General Assembly. That was standard practice for all state agencies. 

A New Campus : 59 

In the summer of 1963, there were many discussions among the new 
faculty and members of the new board of trustees. As a result of those 
conversations, we believed the time was right for Asheville to begin plan- 
ning for an institution that would be in many ways different from the 
standard state-supported senior college. Many of those institutions had 
their origins in teachers colleges and were oriented toward higher educa- 
tion as a place to receive training for a specific job. We wanted to go in 
another direction, one we felt was more consistent with the needs of the 
time and the strengths of the institution. The consensus was that we 
should become a liberal arts college, a uniquely American institution. A 
monograph tided The Nature and Function of a Liberal Arts College fea- 
tured prominentiy in our planning discussions. One paragraph in particu- 
lar seemed to capture the essence of what we were seeking in a liberal arts 

Understanding of the structure, motivations and ideas of society as 
one of its chief goals, orientation to one's environment, the physical, 
social and spiritual, is a basic function of that institution which un- 
dertakes to build a foundation for the leadership of the future 
through language and literature, science and mathematics, history 
and philosophy Youth becomes acquainted with the background of 
our heritage, the workings of our society, and the role of the sciences 
and scientific method in modern life. From this experience he should 
emerge with an understanding of his world and a firm philosophy of 
life w ithout which he would be like a rudderless ship on a stormy sea. 

We wanted to do more than become just another undergraduate liberal 
arts college. One should remember the environment of the early sixties, 
when higher education was on the verge of enormous changes. No one 
anticipated the type of dissidence or violence that would erupt on college 
campuses during the Vietnam War. At that time, serious consideration 
was being given to experimental colleges and programs all over the coun- 
try. We discussed this at considerable length with the executive director, 
William Archie, and the staff of the Board of Higher Education. 

Another person of great eminence in higher education, Dr. Oliver 
Cromwell Carmichael, who would later become chairman of the Board of 
Higher Education, lived in Asheville. He was one of the perhaps half 
dozen most distinguished educators in the land, having been president of 
the University of Alabama, chancellor of Vanderbilt University, and presi- 

6o : A New Campus 

dent of the Board of Regents of the State of New York. His advice and 
wisdom proved invaluable when we were considering the type of program 
we wanted to develop at A-B College now that it was to become a four- 
year institution. 

It was imperative to secure the services of experienced faculty whose 
orientation dovetailed with our mission. In the first few years we added 
considerably to our faculty. Some lasted a year or two, others a few years, 
and there were those who stayed and continued to make permanent con- 
tributions to the development of the institution. By the time the faculty 
first met in the fall of 1963, its ranks included many who helped us plan 
the program we wanted, organize the curriculum, and present it to the 
students. Dr. W. W. Kaempfer from the University of Alabama was the 
new dean of the faculty. Others who would play a prominent role were Dr. 
John J. McCoy in biology, Dr. Ivan Parkins in political science, Dr. Philip 
Walker in history, and Dr. Roy A. Riggs and Dr. Ellis Shorb in literature. 
Each one had experience at other institutions that proved valuable to A-B 

The new approach began with the faculty meeting on September 3, 
1963. We invited Dr. William Archie from the Board of Higher Educa- 
tion to attend. Being sympathetic to our ideas, he wanted to bring greet- 
ings to the new institution from the Board of Higher Education and lend 
his support. He knew that all our plans would have to be approved by the 
Board of Higher Education before they could be implemented. After 
hearing Dr. Archie, we spent the first morning of the faculty meeting 
going over procedures about the state retirement system, the insurance 
program, the system of requisitioning supplies, and all of the nuts and 
bolts needed to make any state organization work. The afternoon session 
was devoted to my talk concerning the consensus of proposals for Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore College. In my summary of where we should go, I empha- 
sized the long tradition of liberal arts colleges, the reasons we wanted to 
become a liberal arts college, and the permanent value such an education 
would have for our students. I stressed also that we had a magnificent 
opportunity to do some serious thinking about innovation and experi- 
mentation. I spoke of the need for us to develop the type of faculty- 
student relationship that was simply not possible at the large institutions 
with which most of us were familiar. We wanted a basic core program, 
required of all students, that would stress fundamental courses in the 
broad areas of the humanities, social sciences, mathematics, and natural 

A New Campus : 61 

sciences. We wanted to experiment and see how we could encourage our 
students to be more independent, from the standpoint of outlining their 
own questions and seeking out the answers rather than depending entirely 
on the lockstep lecture-examination program that was standard at so 
many institutions. 

Probably the most radical suggestion I made was that the institution, 
while maintaining its emphasis on quality, innovation, and independence, 
should develop a calendar that would enable students to complete all of 
their undergraduate degree requirements within three years. This meant a 
longer academic year. I suggested at the time that we adopt a trimester 
program similar to one that had been developed only recently at the 
University of Pittsburgh and was receiving a great deal of national pub- 
licity. The idea was that, through a carefully structured course schedule, a 
trimester system that would start in late August would take two semesters 
through mid-April. An eight-week term from mid-April to mid-June 
would be followed by another eight-week term from mid-June to mid- 
August, at which point the next academic year would start. That meant 
students would have four possible times to begin their studies, which 
provided them with an opportunity to speed up their work. I based my 
recommendation on the assumption that many of our students would 
want to go on to graduate or professional schools. Preparing them to do 
so was one of the functions of a liberal arts college. The faculty then 
elected a curriculum committee to put those general ideas into a coherent 
program of courses and credits. 

The dean of the faculty chaired the curriculum committee that devel- 
oped the new senior institution's program. Other members of the com- 
mittee were Joseph Parsons in mathematics, Dr. Peggy Alley from chemis- 
try, Dr. Ellis Shorb in literature, Dr. Ivan Parkins in political science, Dr. 
Norman Jarrard in literature, Dr. John J. McCoy from biology, Dr. Philip 
Walker from history, and Daniel J. Gore, the associate librarian. The com- 
mittee started work before the end of September and met weekly for 
several months. The discussions were intense, and on occasion there were 
serious disagreements about programs and procedures. However, these 
professionals from different academic backgrounds recognized that their 
first responsibility was to develop a basic core curriculum, a list of courses 
constituting the general education requirements of the institution. They 
believed a liberal arts institution should expose students to fundamental 
courses in many different areas. The key decision they made was in refer- 

62 : A New Campus 

ence to the humanities. The committee members wanted to make a genu- 
ine break with some of the traditional methods that had divided the hu- 
manities into more specific academic disciplines, such as history, literature, 
philosophy, religion, art, music, history of architecture, and so on. They 
wanted the institution to have a strong, humanistically oriented base that 
would tie together many of the ideas within the broad area of humanities 
and show how they were fundamentally related. The result was that the 
largest block of work in the general education curriculum required of all 
students would be six four-hour courses called the humanities. That con- 
stituted an institutional investment for each student of twenty-four semes- 
ter hours. The humanities program would, in turn, provide students with 
an introduction to what might become their majors in those areas of study 
that constitute the humanities. This comprehensive undertaking was chief 
among the pivotal decisions made by the curriculum committee. 

Another course in the general education curriculum was a one-semes- 
ter-hour course in bibliography designed to teach students how to use the 
library independently. There was also a comprehensive reading course, 
developed by the department of literature and language, to improve read- 
ing and writing skills. A three-semester-hour introductory course to the 
English language, six semester hours of mathematics, and six semester 
hours of foreign language or linguistics were also added. The physical 
education requirement of four semester hours was rather standard. The 
social sciences requirement included twelve semester hours, with one 
course each in sociology, psychology, economics, and political science. 
The natural sciences requirement consisted of a laboratory course in one 
of the physical sciences and eight semester hours in biological sciences. 
The set of requirements developed by the curriculum committee covered 
the broad scope of undergraduate education. In addition to the general 
education requirements, there were, in the fall of 1964, courses leading to 
major concentrations in biology, chemistry, government, history, literature 
and language, mathematics, psychology, and drama. In 1965 plans called 
for the addition of major programs in art, economics, foreign languages, 
philosophy, and physics. In addition to the general education require- 
ments and the course work that constituted a major, the committee also 
determined that each department would have some type of qualifying 
examination for its graduates. The examination could be administered 
orally, in written form, or by the preparation of an extensive major paper. 
This was a strong statement of purpose by the curriculum committee. 

A New Campus : 63 

The members did not particularly like the idea of the trimester, but they 
did agree to the recommendation that a forty-week academic year be 
instituted and that 120 semester hours be required for the degree. The 
academic year would be divided into two semesters, and each semester 
would have two ten- week terms. By taking a normal load of two or three 
courses per term, students could easily accumulate 40 semester hours in 
one year and 1 20 semester hours in three years. Clearly, the heavy general 
education requirements, coupled with the requirements for their major 
fields, left students little room in their schedules for many electives. 

Consistent with the overall vision of the institution was the decision to 
exclude academic degrees or major programs in business administration or 
education. It was the belief of the faculty that since business administra- 
tion was specifically oriented toward vocational training, it would be 
much better done at the graduate level. The faculty also believed that 
students would be better prepared for graduate work if they had a strong 
liberal arts background. The same ideas prevailed when it came to the field 
of education. The faculty recognized its responsibility to help prepare 
teachers for the public schools but believed a good liberal arts foundation 
was the key ingredient in that task. Therefore, the faculty decided that the 
college would offer all the education courses required for certification in 
the North Carolina public schools, but they would be in addition to the 
requirements for a bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree in a 
specific major. Both of those decisions were consistent with the aim of 
building a liberal arts college with a strong orientation toward experimen- 
tation and innovation. The curriculum committee made frequent reports 
that generated a great deal of discussion among the general faculty. These 
ideas, along with the specific general education requirements and the list 
of majors, were also discussed with the Board of Higher Education. The 
board of trustees was kept informed as to what the faculty was doing, and 
we received strong support from board members. 

In December 1963 the Board of Higher Education sent a panel of 
consultants to review our proposals before approving the program we 
were developing. It included Dr. Taylor Cole of Duke University, Dr. 
Robert Lancaster of the University of the South, Dr. Robin Robinson of 
Dartmouth College, and Dean Charles Lester of the Graduate School of 
Emory University. The report that these outstanding scholars and educa- 
tors made after being on our campus was accepted by the Board of Higher 
Education. The committee made some highly positive statements about 

64 : A New Campus 

our plans for the development of Asheville-Biltmore College. The report 
closed with this statement: 

These observations lead the committee to make a plea to the Com- 
mission of Higher Education. It appears to us that the program 
contemplated at Asheville-Biltmore presupposes inevitably a lower 
student/faculty ratio and a higher per pupil cost than characterizes 
the other colleges in the state. Unless the commission is willing to 
support this program with these facts in mind, it seems to the com- 
mittee that the Administration and Trustees should be advised to 
plan a more traditional program. It is exciting to contemplate the 
development of a very high quality, stricdy liberal arts college within 
the higher education system of a state. However, it would be cruel 
and unfair to encourage planning in this direction unless the commis- 
sion believes that i) such an institution is desirable, z) such an insti- 
tution should be located at Asheville, 3) such an institution can re- 
ceive the type of support that it needs to make it comparable to 
Davidson College or to the college divisions of Duke and the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 

When the Board of Higher Education met in Charlotte on February 
28, 1964, to consider our program, the following was part of the recom- 
mendation made by the special committee to examine the program of A-B 

The consultants' report indicates some difficulty in working out 
the details of a new academic calendar and that the curriculum as 
proposed would be successful only if the faculty and students of a 
superior quality are secured by the college. And the low teacher/ 
student ratio which is required for programs such as are contem- 
plated will require exceptionally large financial support by the state. 
This committee believes that it is appropriate for our tax supported 
institutions to be experienced with new approaches, particularly 
when such approaches will expand the use of physical facilities and 
provide potentially stimulating new programs for the students. The 
committee feels that it is appropriate for a state institution to under- 
take to achieve the high standards to which the proposals aspire. 

Two months before the Board of Higher Education formally gave its 
approval for the Asheville-Biltmore program, the students were given 

A New Campus : 65 

details about the type of program that was developing, the list of majors, 
and an idea of when they would come into effect. We carefully explained 
that these were still just a set of recommendations and that we anticipated 
approval by the Board of Higher Education. The Advisory Budget Com- 
mission and the General Assembly would have to approve the implemen- 
tation of the budget. 

This was an exciting time for our students because they had been hear- 
ing rumors about what was being discussed. We had an opportunity to get 
them all together at once when we held the formal opening of the new 
gymnasium on the morning of December 17. While they were sitting in 
the bleachers, we reviewed the kind of program the curriculum committee 
had developed and the faculty and board of trustees had approved. 

When the Board of Higher Education met in Charlotte on February 
28, Dean Kaempfer and I were invited to attend and hear the board's 
reaction to our plans. The board had established a committee chaired by 
Joseph Greir of Charlotte to review our proposed program. The board 
went far beyond approval. The members complimented all of us highly for 
being willing to undertake the development of a program that would be 
different, in many respects, from the standard programs offered by most 
state institutions. We left that meeting with a great sense of exhilaration, 
believing that with the support of the Board of Higher Education we 
could accomplish many of our goals. We immediately communicated what 
the board had said to all the faculty. We were confident that the board's 
assistance would enable us to offer the program it had approved and that 
its careful study would assist us in obtaining adequate funding from the 
Advisory Budget Commission and the General Assembly. 



Getting Under Way 

The program set to begin in the fall of 1964 was a strong one that stressed 
the fundamental fields of knowledge and promised to develop a greater 
sense of independence on the part of the students. At the same time, we 
soon had evidence of its weaknesses. The forty- week academic year, for 
example, would place great strain on faculty and students alike. We had 
failed to consider when planning the schedule how necessary summer 
work was to so many of our students. If they remained in school until late 
June, there would be little opportunity for them to find summer jobs. 
Many people in the community approved of our program and gave us 
encouragement, but there were those who did not like the absence of 
vocational programs. There was also some concern that our emphasis on 
high quality would affect the admissibility of many students. Another 
problem was that the college did not offer many of the major concentra- 
tions the students wanted. As a result, they would continue to use A-B as 
a junior college, taking all of the general education courses and then 
transferring to other institutions where they could major in their chosen 

Not long after the program went into effect in the fall of 1964, the 
faculty wanted to reconsider some of the decisions that had been made. 
This sentiment, however, did not really build until after the graduation of 
the first class in 1966. It was then that we were able to gauge how effective 
the program had been and what chances it had for continued success. 
Given that we stressed openness to change and were preparing students 


Getting Under Way : 67 

for a world in flux, it would have been inconsistent for the institution to 
take a hard stand and say its programs could not be reevaluated or recon- 
sidered. Within a couple of years, there was considerable faculty discussion 
concerning the length of the academic year and the grading system. In- 
stead of traditional letter grades, a substitute pass/fail or honors system 
encouraged students to focus more on actual learning. There was ongoing 
discussion, however, about changing the grading system. 

The most noticeable weakness of the program was probably that the 
curriculum was an expression of what the faculty wanted to teach, rather 
than an accurate reflection of the community's educational needs. We 
knew we could build an extraordinarily good institution if we had the 
support of the General Assembly and the Board of Higher Education, but 
we did not make sufficient effort to determine if the program we adopted 
was one our constituencies really wanted. Most of us were new and had 
not been in Asheville when the 1958 and 1961 bond referenda were 
passed. As a result, we did not give proper consideration to the feeling 
among voters that they had gone all out in passing bond referenda and 
taxing themselves to support a college. What we were doing was not what 
the public had had in mind. The upshot was tension that took years to 
eradicate. The term "Little Harvard on the Hill" was not meant as a 

While the serious business of program development was going on, A-B 
students continued to entertain themselves with parties and dances, cele- 
brations, and basketball games. In 1962 we had a new basketball coach 
from a high school team in Jacksonville, Florida, Robert Lee Hartman. 
He had played quarterback at Purdue University and held a master's de- 
gree in physical education from American University. The team had no 
place to play the first couple of years because the gymnasium was under 
construction, so games were played at Catholic High School. Sometimes, 
only fifty to a hundred fans would attend. Nevertheless, the team played a 
good brand of junior college ball while waiting for the gymnasium to be 
completed and the institution to achieve four-year status. One outstand- 
ing player during A-B's final years as a junior college was Dan Goalsby, 
who received several honorable mentions as an ail-American. 

Another building that would transform campus life was under construc- 
tion as well. Plans for the student center included a 630-seat auditorium, 
large meeting rooms, offices, a kitchen, and a cafeteria. Until that time, 

68 : Getting Under Way 

students had no place on campus to get a hot lunch. Since there were no 
dormitory students, there was no need to be concerned about dinner. 
Before the student center formally opened in February 1964, all that 
existed were some sandwich machines and microwave units to heat food. 
The student government was able to set up permanent offices in the new 
building. There finally was a place for a bookstore, and the cafeteria served 
regular food for lunch, with the tantalizing aroma of a doughnut machine 
luring even the most diet-conscious at all hours of the day. 

Construction also began on the library and the classroom building, 
both funded by the $1.4 million that the General Assembly had appropri- 
ated in 1963. We felt the most important building we would ever erect on 
the college campus was the library, and we wanted it to be designed as the 
heart of the college and situated at its center. The board of trustees ap- 
proved Six Associates as the architectural firm for the project, with the 
proviso that Anthony Lord be the principal designer. The contract was 
accepted on that basis, and Lord, assisted by William McGee, went to 
work on the design. The architects submitted three sets of plans before we 
agreed on the final design. It was our purpose to construct a building that 
would be as attractive as we could possibly make it with the amount of 
money available, one that would be a welcoming environment for the 
students. The books would be on open shelves so a student could go to 
any book, take it from the shelf, and sit in a comfortable place nearby to 
study or read. That required a great deal of open space, rather than having 
the inside of the building divided by walls and the books stored in closed 
stacks. We finally had a set of plans that we were happy to present to the 
Department of Property Control in Raleigh. 

Ainsley Whitman, the librarian since 1962, spent a great deal of time 
working on the interior design of the building. Property Control objected 
to some of the plans because they were so expensive, but we convinced 
officials that the building as designed would greatly enhance the campus 
and improve the learning attitude of the students. When the department 
finally approved the design, we advertised for bids and, in the spring of 
1964, held a bid opening in the new student center. Property Control 
representatives, the trustees, the faculty, the library staff, and other inter- 
ested people were present. It was one of the most dramatic moments in 
the history of A-B College. Our construction budget was strictly limited 
to $800,000. One by one, the bids were opened for the general contract, 
as well as the heating, the air-conditioning, the plumbing, and the electri- 

Getting Under Way : 69 

cal work. They were considerably higher than $800,000. It was depress- 
ing to think about the cuts we would have to make in order to construct 
the building within the budget. However, lying on the table with all the 
formal bids was a telegram. It was the last item we opened. It was from the 
Juno Construction Company, and it said simply: "Reduce base bid by the 
amount of $80,000." That telegram made it possible for us to proceed 
with the facility exactly as it had been designed. The actual building cost 
of the library worked out to be $17 per square foot. 

The building was dedicated the D. Hiden Ramsey Library and opened 
to students and the public in the fall of 1965. Ramsey had been involved 
in higher education in North Carolina for many years, having served as 
the first chairman of the Board of Higher Education and as chairman of 
the board of trustees of Western Carolina College. The library was the first 
building on the campus to be named, and it was an honor for everyone 
involved to dedicate it to such a distinguished citizen. Governor Dan K. 
Moore was the principal speaker at the dedication of the building named 
for his longtime friend. Ramsey spoke briefly and eloquently. The ribbon 
was cut, and the building was opened for the inspection of the audience, 
even though the books had not been transferred yet. It was fortunate that 
we timed the opening for September; although we did not realize it, it was 
to be Ramsey's last public appearance. He died shortly thereafter, at the 
age of seventy-four. 

On the day of the dedication ceremony, Governor Moore made a state- 
ment to me that had a great deal of bearing on our thoughts for the next 
several years. He was familiar with what the institution was trying to do in 
its program. We were walking across the campus after the ceremony when 
he turned to me and said, "There is only one good undergraduate liberal 
arts college in North Carolina, and that is Davidson. I would like to see 
this become the Davidson College of the state system." That statement 
was reported to the faculty and greatly reinforced our belief that the pro- 
gram we were aiming for was consistent with the attitude that had been 
displayed by the Board of Higher Education. It was a statement of en- 
couragement, and we accepted it as such. As long as Governor Moore was 
in office, we felt we had a good friend who was in complete accord with 
the goals of Asheville-Biltmore College. 

The classroom building designed to serve the humanities was under 
construction at the same time the library was going up. It was completed 
in February 1966 and called the Oliver Cromwell Carmichael Building, in 

70 : Getting Under Way 

honor of a man who had a distinguished career in higher education. Dr. 
Carmichael had been a Rhodes scholar, served as a volunteer with the 
British army in the East Africa campaign, been president of Alabama 
College, chancellor of Vanderbilt University, a member of the War Man 
Power Board during World War II, president of the Board of Regents of 
the State of New York, and president of the University of Alabama. He 
was generally accepted as one of the leading educators in America. When 
India gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru 
invited Dr. Carmichael to India to help organize a system of higher educa- 
tion for the new nation. President Carmichael retired from the University 
of Alabama and moved to Asheville in early 1957. He served as a member 
and later became chairman of the Board of Higher Education. He was an 
incredibly knowledgeable person who exemplified the ideals to which A-B 
College aspired, particularly in the field of the humanities, and we were 
grateful that he was available to us in the early years, when we were 
planning our program. 

The newly constructed student center was named for Louis Lipinsky. 
This local businessman and community leader had been a trustee of A-B 
College and had been instrumental in generating support for the 1958 
and 1 96 1 bond referenda. Lipinsky had a deep commitment to the college 
and was determined to see it grow. It was an honor to place his name on 
the building while he was alive. 

The science building was named for Verne Rhoades, one of the early 
scientific foresters in western North Carolina. He was a graduate of the 
first class of the School of Forestry organized near Asheville. His wife's 
family, the Weavers, had been prominent in the area for many generations, 
and the Rhoadeses had donated land to the institution to help build an 
all-important access route, W. T. Weaver Boulevard. 

The naming of these buildings represented ties between the institution 
and those people in the community who had made significant contribu- 
tions over the years. The board of trustees took considerable care in 
choosing the names as new buildings were erected. 

The students themselves played an important part in the construction of 
the first dormitories on campus. Even before the faculty and trustees 
recognized it, the students realized that the type of program being offered 
could not be effective in an institution with no resident students. As soon 
as senior college status was achieved, they began to talk of the need for 
dormitories which would create a more collegiate atmosphere and provide 
for students from other areas. The students took the lead in seeking ap- 

Getting Under Way : 71 

proval for dormitories. Their efforts ran counter to statements made when 
Wilmington, Charlotte, and Asheville-Biltmore were being considered for 
four-year status. Each one was a commuter institution at the time, and 
there was a general assumption that each would remain so. 

The students at A-B College decided that the need for residence halls 
was too important to ignore, so they started a campaign to generate 
support for the construction of the first dormitories. At one point in early 
1964, when the weather was bad and cold, a few of the hardier students 
erected tents on the quadrangle near the flagpole and spent the night to 
call attention to the lack of dormitories on the campus. Later that year, the 
students went all over western North Carolina and accumulated ten thou- 
sand signatures on a petition asking the General Assembly to approve the 
construction of A-B College's first dormitories. Ed Harris, Frank Moss, 
Ted Corcoran, and Don Dalton presented the petition during a breakfast 
for all of western North Carolina's legislators and Governor Moore in the 
early part of 1965, just a few weeks after the governor's inauguration. He 
received the petition graciously and passed it on to the western North 
Carolina delegation. It was returned to A-B College with all of the signa- 
tures and now resides in the library archives. The 1965 General Assembly 
authorized dormitories for 250 students at a total cost not to exceed 
$750,000. Consistent with many of the other ideas we had, we wanted 
our dormitories to be unique, but we made some of the most grievous 
mistakes in our early years during this construction project. 

We wanted small buildings so the students would not feel lost in large 
dormitory halls. The new dormitories were designed with suites of two 
double-occupancy bedrooms and one living room, which we intended to 
serve as a study for each group of four students. There would be one bath 
per suite. Because the state appropriates no money for dormitories, the 
buildings had to be paid for entirely out of rental receipts. We spent so 
much on the exterior structure that the rooms themselves ended up 
cramped. We should not have started dormitories on a 100 percent self- 
liquidation basis, and we should never have approved rooms that were too 
small to accommodate the students comfortably. Nonetheless, that was 
our decision at the time. Construction began in 1966, and the dormitories 
opened in August 1967. The complex of eight buildings was called the 
Governors Dormitory Village because each unit was named for a gover- 
nor who hailed from western North Carolina or who had advanced higher 
education in the state. 

The beginning of the 1965 academic year heralded the first senior class 

72 : Getting Under Way 

on the campus. It was an exciting time because the seniors, a harmonious 
group who enjoyed the position of being the first class to graduate, 
brought a level of enthusiasm to the college that had not been there 
before. The tension among the seniors was palpable during the final weeks 
before graduation as they went about the business of making sure they 
had met all the requirements for their degrees. 

The commencement ceremony was the most significant event of the 
year. It would have been impossible for us to have obtained a more appro- 
priate speaker for our first senior class. Dr. Frank Porter Graham had been 
the first president of the Consolidated University of North Carolina and 
was a man of great distinction in state, national, and international affairs. 
It was largely through the efforts of Virginia Lathrop, a member of the 
board of trustees of the Consolidated University and Dr. Graham's long- 
time friend, that we were able to obtain his services. On the night of June 
25, 1966, the first class lined up in the atrium of the administration 
building, along with the faculty and the platform party, and we had our 
first graduation march across the campus. Everyone present recognized 
what that first class represented to A-B College. There were sixty-six 
graduates, and they referred to themselves thereafter as the "66 in the 
Class of '66." The ceremony was held in the auditorium of the Lipinsky 
Student Center, and it was packed with participants and well-wishers. 

After I welcomed the audience, the chairman of the board of trustees, 
Manly Wright, spoke on the state of the institution, and Dr. Graham 
delivered the commencement address. The students marched across the 
platform one at a time to receive the first degrees ever awarded by A-B 
College. It was an electric, never-to-be-repeated experience. After gradua- 
tion, Dr. Graham and many faculty, trustees, and friends went to the 
newly acquired presidential residence at 62 Macon Avenue, where our 
family had just moved a few weeks earlier. The first floor was virtually 
devoid of furniture, but that made little difference. It was an extraordi- 
narily happy occasion. 

At the graduation exercise we recognized the outstanding students who 
had, by vote of the faculty, been awarded general college honors. The 
Cecil L. Reid Academic Award was given by Manly and Elizabeth Wright 
in honor of her father. The first recipient was an outstanding young 
woman in the sciences, Helen Bobo. Another 1966 honors graduate was 
Beatrice Francine Delany, who was one of the first three black students to 
enroll at A-B College, in September 1961. The junior college graduate 

Getting Under Way : 73 

had waited two years to enroll as a member of the institution's first junior 
class, and she graduated with the first senior class two years later. 

Since it was obvious that we would have residential students long be- 
fore the dormitories opened, several important decisions had to be made 
about our student services. In 1965, when the General Assembly ap- 
proved funding for a counseling center, we simply promoted to full-time 
positions the two people who had worked on a part-time basis for many 
years. They were Jackson Owen, a licensed psychologist, and Karl Wils- 
man, who had experience in student measurement and dealing with stu- 
dents who had reading difficulties. Given the appropriation, they were 
able to start preparing for dormitory students on July 1, 1965. 

In 1966 Dr. Thomas C. Dula, who had held several positions in higher 
education in Florida, joined us. He had previously served with the Board 
of Control for the entire state system and had been the registrar at two 
Florida institutions. He became dean of students on July 1 and began 
working with the student government and assisting in preparations for 
dormitory students. In early 1967 we employed Alice Wutschel, who had 
previously held a similar position at Marquette University, as dean of 
women. Joseph Parsons continued to serve as dean of men. 

For the first time, we had a student services staff that could give guid- 
ance to the expanded number of students, especially those living in the 
dormitories. The staff's responsibilities included food service, dormi- 
tories, student organizations, student government, and a variety of activi- 
ties that were outside the regular curricular paths to a degree. 

A campus newspaper added a great deal to student life. When the 
college had moved to the new campus in 1961, publication of the Campus 
Crier was suspended. Because everyone recognized that a student newspa- 
per was a vehicle for student expression and communication, there was 
considerable discussion about the nature of the publication and what it 
would be named. In 1965 the first issue of the Ridgerunner appeared. 
Martha Dula was the first editor, and Dr. Roy A. Riggs, of the depart- 
ment of literature and language, was the first faculty adviser. The kind of 
problems they ran into were not unexpected. The school had no courses 
in journalism, so all the work was done on a voluntary basis. This created 
a serious problem. At the beginning of the year, there were a large num- 
ber of volunteers who were willing to work as reporters, photographers, 
and advertising salespeople. As the demands of the academic year built 
up, however, the volunteers would gradually drop out. Halfway through 

74 : Getting Under Way 

the year, there would be only a few people putting out the newspaper on 
an irregular basis. Things continued that way for several years before 
additions to the curriculum attracted a different type of student in journal- 
ism and communications. Nevertheless, editorials in the Ridjjerunner ad- 
dressed problems of student life, and the publication kept students well 
informed for about ten years. 

With the graduation of the first class, one overwhelming necessity had 
to be addressed: accreditation as a senior institution. We had been in 
communication with the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 
since July i, 1963, when we legally became a senior college. In 1965 the 
association sent Dr. Louis Webb, president of Old Dominion College in 
Virginia, as a consultant on accreditation. He was a fine educator with a 
great deal of experience, and he was extremely helpful in giving us guid- 
ance about the steps we should take. The rules of the Southern Associa- 
tion were that a visiting committee would come to the campus and exam- 
ine a self-study prepared by the faculty. The committee members would 
then spend several days looking at the operation. That could not be done, 
however, until two classes had graduated, so we had ample time to prepare 
the self-study. 

In the years when A-B College had been a junior college, the institution 
had never had facilities to do much more than provide classrooms, labora- 
tories, a library, and some student activities. By and large, the students 
would come to the campus, attend their classes, do their laboratory work, 
do their research at D. Hiden Ramsey Library or downtown at Pack 
Memorial Library, and then go home. By the middle sixties, the on- 
campus facilities had grown to the point that the institution was able to 
become much more of a cultural center for the students and the entire 
community. By 1966 the college had meeting rooms and an auditorium 
that could be used for a variety of campus and public programs. The 
administration building included a meeting room with more than 100 
seats. The same held true for the lecture hall in the science building. The 
humanities building featured a 330-seat adjoining lecture hall built in 
amphitheater style. The auditorium in the Lipinsky Student Center could 
accommodate 630 people. As our facilities expanded, public use of them 
greatly increased. 

The facilities allowed us to embark upon one of our missions: the devel- 
opment of programs of general interest to both the students and the 
public. One of the early faculty committees formed was the special pro- 

Getting Under Way : 75 

grams committee. Its responsibility was to consider student and commu- 
nity needs and bring in pleasurable, enlightening, and entertaining pro- 
grams that would be consistent with the purposes of the institution. 

It did not take long to get this effort under way. In the summer of 
1964, working jointly with the music department of UNC-Greensboro, 
we brought to the campus for two weeks an opera workshop directed by 
the famous impresario, Boris Goldofsky. At the end of the two-week 
period, the students, who had come from many different areas to partici- 
pate, put on a fine program of well-known arias. 

For several years in the summer, the Asheville Symphony Orchestra 
performed a Sunday afternoon pops concert free to the public. The musi- 
cians sat in the atrium of the administration building, and the audience 
spread chairs and blankets around the quadrangle to enjoy the music. The 
event was extremely popular and brought thousands of people to the 
campus. Other musical, dance, and dramatic programs were presented by 
the newly formed North Carolina School of the Arts, UNC-Greensboro's 
music department, and our own students and faculty. 

In 1965 a well-known Episcopal theologian, Dr. Albert Mollegen, lec- 
tured on current relevant ideas in the field of theology. He was then 
questioned by a panel moderated by Dean Kaempfer. Dr. James A. Pate 
and Dr. James Stewart from the philosophy department completed the 

Merrill Lynch offered sessions on investing to the general public, and 
the idea that A-B College was a place where special programs of commu- 
nity interest were offered quickly took hold. 

Possibly the most significant of these programs in the middle and late 
sixties was the Foreign Affairs Forum. William Cochran, who had retired 
after many years as a career foreign service officer in the State Depart- 
ment, was a part-time member of the faculty. He used his numerous 
contacts to get exceptionally well-qualified people to spend a day or so on 
the campus, meeting with students and delivering public lectures. Since 
most of the people we hosted were government employees, it was not an 
expensive program to operate. All we had to do was pay their travel 
expenses and take care of them while they were here. 

The first series was offered in the spring of 1965, and there was a 
reasonable response. However, the most significant Foreign Affairs pro- 
grams in the first several years began taking place in 1966. By then, people 
were raising questions about the Far East, especially America's involve- 

j 6 : Getting Under Way 

ment in South Vietnam. The first speaker in the series came in early April. 
He was General Maxwell Taylor, former Army chief of staff, ambassador 
to South Vietnam, and one of President Lyndon Johnson's principal ad- 
visers. Lipinsky Auditorium could not accommodate the number of peo- 
ple who came to hear that first lecture. As one would have expected, 
Taylor defended vigorously the government's support of South Vietnam, 
but there were others who participated in the series that year who had 
different ideas. Oliver Clubb, a well-known authority on Southeast Asia, 
theorized that United States policy was based on the principle of support- 
ing a friendly government that was opposing the Communist takeover. 
He maintained that the government that was friendly to the United States 
did not have the support of its own people, and he warned that a military 
solution to the problem would require a major investment of perhaps one 
million American soldiers in Vietnam at one time. 

Among the most interesting speakers in the 1966 series was Dr. Bar- 
nard Fall, a professor at Howard University. He argued that the United 
Nations should assume more responsibility in South Vietnam to genu- 
inely internationalize the solution to the problem. Additionally, he voiced 
the same warning that others had given: that regardless of the investment 
the United States chose to make in South Vietnam, it would not be 
successful as long as the people did not actively support their government. 

John Paton Davies was another well-known participant in the 1966 
series. He was one of the real "old China hands" whose duty it had been 
to report to the State Department that Chiang Kai-shek could not win the 
civil war. When John Foster Dulles became secretary of state, Davies was 
removed from his post, even though he had grown up in China, spoke 
Chinese dialects, and understood the situation far beyond Dulles's com- 
prehension. Years later, when his judgment was proved valid, Davies was 
reinstated into the good graces of the State Department. 

In other years the Foreign Affairs Forum featured such outstanding 
people as Malcolm Toon, who had been ambassador to both the Soviet 
Union and Israel; Walter Stoessel, who was the ambassador to Poland 
and, later, the Soviet Union; Alfred Puhan, the ambassador to Austria; 
and U. Alexis Johnson, who had served as ambassador to Japan before 
becoming undersecretary of state. 

The need for organized local fund-raising for many projects brought 
about the establishment of the A-B College Foundation in 1965, with 
Frank Coxe as its first chairman. The foundation's purpose was not only 

Getting Under Way : 77 

to help raise money but also to be a channel of communication between 
the college and the community. The organization grew and became in- 
creasingly more valuable to the institution as the years went by. The new 
student government constitution was approved in September 1965. It 
recognized that there were now both junior and senior classes on the 
campus, and it established new areas of responsibility for the Student 
Senate that represented the different classes. 

The college was in the early years of developing an intercollegiate ath- 
letics program. The only program that received any kind of support was 
basketball. There were holiday tournaments and tip-off tournaments at 
the beginning of the year, and A-B had some very respectable seasons. By 
the latter part of the sixties, the team had improved to the point that it was 
genuinely competitive among small colleges everywhere. 

In December 1965 we appointed our first director of public informa- 
tion. Peter R. Gilpin had been city editor of xhcAsheville Citizen. His years 
of experience as a newspaperman helped him do the job of keeping the 
public and the media informed about campus developments and major 

A unique development during the early years was the result of a deci- 
sion made around the time the college moved to its new location. A group 
of people interested in the native flora of western North Carolina had 
approached the board of trustees and asked that a section of land be set 
aside to build botanical gardens that would feature only plants indigenous 
to the region. Doan Ogden was to be the landscape architect, and he 
designed gardens that would take many years to develop. The board of 
trustees agreed to the proposal and set aside approximately ten acres bor- 
dering Reid Creek and Broadway. It was amazing to see the number of 
citizens, male and female, young and old, who devoted time and energy to 
creating the attractive gardens. Some of the early leaders were Dr. and 
Mrs. E. L. Demmon and Mr. and Mrs. Tom Shinn. The botanical gardens 
were incorporated and maintained communication with all the garden 
clubs in the area. The plan was to build bridges, pathways, and rock walls, 
and to plant and label all the wildflowers and trees that were native to 
western North Carolina. It was a huge undertaking, one that has become 
an increasingly valuable asset to the university and the community alike. 

During the sixties, after the construction of the Lipinsky Student Cen- 
ter, the Botanical Gardens Association hosted Thanksgiving and Christ- 
mas parties to raise money and to generate further interest and support. 

7 8 : Getting Under Way 

Several hundred people attended these events, and the carefully planned 
programs often included slide presentations of indigenous trees and wild- 
flowers. The first program featured Dr. William S. Justice, who, with Dr. 
C. Ritchie Bell from UNC-Chapel Hill, later published a volume that 
became a classic in its field, Wildflowers of North Carolina. 

Leona Hayes contributed a log cabin that had been procured by her 
husband, the playwright Hubert Hayes. It was placed at the focal center of 
the gardens in the summer of 1965. Every care was taken to preserve the 
150-year-old structure, and it has become a rather romantic place. Over 
the years many young people have been married in the botanical gardens, 
usually in front of the Hubert Hayes log cabin. 

The drama program's first production took place in Lipinsky Audito- 
rium that fall. Claude Garren, the director of drama, presented Jean 
Anouilh's Antigone. Among the students involved in this first production 
were Don Dalton (who later became a drama major and teacher), Sally 
Strain, Ralph Moss, and Larry Gordon. 

The budget during those years clearly demonstrated the difference it 
made to be a state-supported senior institution. The operating budget for 
the 1965—66 academic year, not including any capital construction of new 
buildings or the purchase of expensive equipment, was $925,320. The 
first year the budget topped $1 million was 1966-67. Although that still 
was not a large amount of money to work with, it was adequate for our 
enrollment and a far cry from the budgets of the junior college in the 
earlier years. 

In February 1966, as the first senior class began to prepare for gradua- 
tion, A-B College was invited to submit the names of special students for 
inclusion in Who's Who in American Colleges and Universities. The first A-B 
students to receive that honor were Ed Harris, Sally Martin, Carol Car- 
son, Beatrice Francine Delany, George Brian, Jr., Linda Lee, Ray Eling- 
burg, and Sandy Maston. 

That same month, Dr. Dexter Squibb, chairman of the department of 
chemistry, organized the UNCA chapter of Student Affiliates of the 
American Chemical Society, the first student chapter of a well-known 
national organization based upon an academic discipline. Over the years, 
it has been an important means of providing specialized information for 
students majoring in chemistry, and twice it has received the Outstanding 
Chapter Award of the American Chemical Society. 

Fred Martin, who had been principal of Charles D. Owen High School 

Getting Under Way : 79 

for a number of years, joined our staff in 1966 as the director of admis- 
sions. He was responsible for acquainting high school seniors with the A- 
B College program, and he was on the road a great deal. 

Also in 1966, Coleman Zageir, one of the best friends the college has 
ever had, gave $4,000 to the library to start a collection on the history and 
philosophy of religion. It was the first important gift to the library. Not 
long afterward, the family of Curtis Bynum, a man who had been helpful 
to the institution thirty years before, established a collection in his name 
devoted to philosophy and the history of ideas. Both collections have 
grown considerably since then, and they represent a measure of the 
public's confidence in the young institution. 

In June 1966 the magazine Interiors published a feature story and eight 
pictures of the Ramsey Library. It was suitable recognition for the interior 
work Ainsley Whitman and architect Anthony Lord had done and valu- 
able publicity for A-B College to receive so early in its history. 

The Advisory Budget Commission, chaired by Senator Thomas J. 
White, visited the campus that summer. The senator, who served as chair- 
man throughout the sixties, was concerned about the state's fiscal integrity 
and the fair treatment of its various agencies and institutions. The com- 
mission was composed of only six people at that time, and a small group 
from the Budget Division traveled with them. We actually looked forward 
to their biennial visit. It gave us a chance to point to the construction and 
other developments on campus as examples of continuing growth and the 
need for more facilities. 

In 1966 we requested funding for additional facilities. The most press- 
ing need was an addition to the science building that would cost about 
$500,000 and house primarily laboratories. We also asked for $150,000 
for physical education and athletic fields. We wanted underground wiring 
to replace unsightly overhead wiring and requested $100,000 to get that 
project started. We needed $11,000 for sidewalks and landscaping. We 
asked for approval for two dormitories that together would cost about $1 
million. We requested paving and parking money in the amount of 
$95,000, as well as a $30,000 addition to the plant maintenance building. 
The Advisory Budget Commission was complimentary about what we 
had accomplished so far, and we felt we had made a good case for the 
various facilities we had requested. 

In 1966 the congregation of the Baha'i faith planted a dawn redwood 
tree to commemorate World Peace Day, as proclaimed by Governor Dan 

8o : Getting Under Way 

Moore. The magnificent tree, identified by a brass plate, will probably be 
as tall as the flagpole when it reaches its full height. 

The Chamber Music Society of Asheville had been holding concerts for 
years in David Millard Junior High School. Lutrelle Wishart and Dr. 
Philip Walker, who were members of the organization's board, helped 
make arrangements for the society to perform in Lipinsky Auditorium. In 
exchange, A-B College students were admitted free. It has been a happy 
relationship that has continued for approximately twenty years. 

In October 1966 one of the most unusual meetings ever to be held on 
campus took place in a building that had opened only a few months 
before. It was Region Four of the World Meteorological Organization. 
The Carmichael Building and the lecture hall held many representatives 
from Latin American countries, as well as an observer from the Soviet 
Union. The discussion focused on ways in which meteorological informa- 
tion could be transferred quickly from one country to another. The meet- 
ing combined the efforts and resources of A-B College and the National 
Climatic Data Center in downtown Asheville. It also suggested the possi- 
bility of a continuing close relationship between the college and the fed- 
eral agency. It was a new experience for students to see an international 
meeting with simultaneous translation. 

One of the most interesting speakers to visit the campus during the 
early years was the ingenious futurist, engineer, and designer Buckminster 
Fuller. Lipinsky Auditorium was full when he lectured on December 2, 
1966. He showed slides tracing the development of the geodesic dome 
and detailed his ideas about the future and the way people would live. 
Fuller was not concerned about international relations; rather, his focus 
was engineering technology and science as applied to the human condi- 
tion well into the next century. 

Signs of strain showed up for the first time that year, a strain that would 
continue for quite some time and result in serious trouble. The student 
government had voted to appropriate a portion of student fees to support 
publication of the Ridgerunner. Because the newspaper also sold adver- 
tisements to local businesses, it was considered an independent agency. 
That did not prevent student government officials from becoming irate 
when editorials and articles critical of the organization appeared in the 
Kidgerunner. SGA presidents and student senators insisted the newspaper 
be the voice of student government. The editors of the campus newspa- 
per, however, felt it was their function to praise or criticize openly and 

Getting Under Way 8 1 

objectively. Not enough people understood that freedom of the press 
applied to college newspapers as well as to commercial printing. John 
Phaup, the editor at the time, wrote an article defending press freedoms 
and explaining the need for the newspaper to be the voice of no particu- 
lar group on the campus, neither the administration nor the faculty nor 
the student government. Unfortunately, the conflict became a perennial 

In late 1966, reorganization of the alumni association began. With the 
graduation of the first senior class, we realized it would be necessary 
to have an association that played an active role in the institution and 
represented the interests of junior and senior college graduates alike. A 
committee on reorganization was established, with Roy Taylor, Joseph 
Schandler, Thomas Walton, Ray Elingburg, Doris Sanders, and Carol 
Carson as members. 

The year closed with a college assembly and a presentation of Handel's 
Messiah. The reading was by Claude Garren, and the music was provided 
by a chorus of fourteen students supporting principal singers Peggy Simp- 
son and James Farns worth. 

The new year began with what we considered to be a good omen when 
the governor presented his budget for the 1967-69 biennium to the 
General Assembly. When we got our first look at the budget, we were 
delighted to see that every capital request we had made had been ap- 
proved. There were some slight changes in the priorities of a couple of 
projects, but essentially we had received approval for every item. It was a 
great experience when I appeared some weeks later before the Joint Ap- 
propriations Committee of the General Assembly and was able to say we 
had no more requests. Because we knew there were legislators who ques- 
tioned the relative costliness of some of our programs, I used my allotted 
time instead to explain the innovations that we were incorporating into 
our curricula in order to provide students with a better education. The 
budget that year certainly gave us hope for the future. We were pleased 
that Governor Moore had seen fit to support the Advisory Budget Com- 
mission's recommendations. It was equally fortunate for us that Gordon 
Greenwood was chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations at 
that time. With people like Representative Greenwood, Senator White, 
and Governor Moore, we felt we had excellent support for our programs 
in Raleigh. 



The Late Sixties 

In 1967 we continued the practice of bringing specialists to the campus to 
meet with students and give public lectures. Dr. Sidney Matthews, a 
member of the history department and chairman of the assemblies com- 
mittee, was able to secure the services of Raphael Greene of the White 
House staff. The Sino-Russian expert gave an informative talk to the 
students about events taking place in those nations and lectured to the 
public later that evening on Russia and China. 

Perhaps the most popular program that year was flamenco guitarist 
Juan Sarrano's concert. He played to a packed house on a cold night in 
January, and it was a bravura performance. He sounded as if he had 20 
fingers, and the audience called for one encore after another. The special 
programs committee hosted a party for Sarrano afterward, and he played 
his guitar for sheer enjoyment. The guests loved every moment. 

The North Carolina Board of Higher Education in early 1967 ap- 
proved our request to set up a classics major in a separate classics depart- 
ment. Until then, classics had been a subordinate discipline within the 
history department. We felt that our classics program warranted its own 
department, even though Dr. William Thurman was the only faculty 
member teaching classics at the time. 

Early that year a number of guest speakers brought considerable atten- 
tion to our campus and our practice of sponsoring provocative lectures for 
students and the public alike. One was Senator Sam Ervin of Morganton. 
This was long before he achieved fame during the Watergate hearings of 
1973. The senator spoke about constitutional protection of personal free- 


The Late Sixties : 83 

dom and expressed his concern about the growing power of the federal 
government. Computerized record keeping was on the rise, and Ervin 
worried that information pertaining to individuals could be stored in 
government computers, representing an improper intrusion into the pri- 
vate lives of American citizens. 

In May 1967 the first copy of Images was published, with Dr. Ellis 
Shorb of the department of literature and language as the sponsor. The 
new literary and art magazine was to replace Bluets, which the faculty had 
decided to discontinue because of its junior college overtones. The deci- 
sion was probably a mistake, since Bluets provided a sense of continuity 
between the junior and the senior institutions and could have been up- 
dated and expanded to make room for artwork. At any rate, that publica- 
tion was abandoned, and Images lasted for several years before fading 

As the 1967 school year came to an end, the students and faculty, like 
students and faculty everywhere, were becoming increasingly concerned 
about America's expanding role in Vietnam. At an assembly program on 
May 28 the question was posed: "Vietnam — What Should Be Done about 
It?" The faculty discussion presented a variety of views to the students, 
who were fascinated to be listening to their own professors arguing over 
the issues, concerns, and proposed solutions. The members of the panel 
were Dr. Bahram Farzanegan and Dr. Parkins from political science, Dr. 
Bruce Greenawalt, Dr. Matthews, and Dr. Walker from history, and Dean 
Kaempfer. Interestingly, while the opinions of the faculty participants 
were wide-ranging, the results of a student poll indicated that, regardless 
of the reasons given for being in Vietnam, student sentiment was to get 
out, but save face while doing so. 

A-B College's second commencement was held in June 1967 for a 
smaller class of fifty-four graduates. The principal speaker was Chancellor 
James S. Ferguson of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 
Denise Diamond was the recipient of the A. C. Reynolds Citizenship 
Award. Shortly after graduation, faculty member Sylvia Wilkerson was 
listed in Mademoiselle as one of the four most exciting young women in 
America. She had just published a novel, Moss on the North Side, and was a 
dancer, an actress, and an uphill race car driver. Wilkerson left A-B Col- 
lege after several years to become a writer in residence at UNC-Chapel 

Two faculty members retired at the end of the academic year. Dr. Jona- 

84 : The Late Sixties 

than Williams had retired once before but returned to help with the devel- 
opment of a foreign language program. Mary Miller had taught French 
and Spanish and had for many years served as the faculty sponsor for the 
Summit, which had won several national awards from the Columbia Uni- 
versity School of Journalism. 

The General Assembly's response to our capital request was one of the 
year's most important events, but there were others. Throughout the 
spring, the self-study committee, with its steering committee chaired by 
Dr. Kenneth Nickerson, continued to work on the self-study and a future 
projection, both required by the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools. With the guidance of the executive director, Gordon Sweet, and 
other members of the association, the study was completed in the late 
spring, and copies were sent to Southern Association headquarters in 
Atianta. The accreditation committee appeared on September 26 to begin 
a week-long examination, after which it would report back to the associa- 
tion's Commission on Colleges. None of the members were from North 
Carolina. Dr. Louis Webb, who had been here previously to advise us on 
the accreditation procedure, came with the committee and served as chair- 
man. Other members were Dr. John Teal of Georgia Southwestern Col- 
lege, Dr. George Branham of Louisiana State University at New Orleans, 
Dr. Lee Anthony of Roanoke College, Dr. Dudley Fulton of Northwest- 
ern of Louisiana, Dr. C. P. Snelgrove of Tennessee Technical College, and 
Dr. A. F. Mallory of Mississippi State University. Fortunately, the library 
holdings had just reached the fifty thousand mark. Although accreditation 
did not hinge on a specific number of books, the fact that we now had 
that many was an indication of how seriously we had taken the develop- 
ment of the library. When the library had opened in 1965, our usable 
collection was limited to a few thousand volumes transferred from the old 
location. We had received an extra appropriation earlier to assist in the 
development of the library, and we were delighted to have expanded the 
holdings to fifty thousand volumes by the time the committee arrived. 

Although the committee's report detailed much that we already knew 
still needed to be done, it was very commendatory about what had been 
accomplished on the campus since A-B College had become a senior 
institution in 1963 and had admitted its first junior class in 1964. The 
Southern Association held its annual meeting in Dallas, Texas, in late 
November. Dr. Riggs, Dr. Dula, and I attended. It was with an enormous 
sense of satisfaction that we heard the name of Asheville-Biltmore College 

The Late Sixties 8 5 

read with a few others as being recommended for full membership in the 
association. We left the meeting happy that we could contact the people at 
home and tell them not only that we were now accredited but that it 
retroactively covered the first class of 1966. 

Another stellar event in 1967 was the August opening of the dormi- 
tories. At that time, the total enrollment of the school was 675, still short 
of the 700 FTE the Carlyle Commission had recommended. Nevertheless, 
we were on the way to being accredited and had two graduating classes. 
Conditions were looking good. The dormitories, as might have been ex- 
pected, were not really ready on the appointed day. Dr. Dula, Alice 
Wutschel, Sam Millar, and several others spent a good portion of the 
Saturday night before pushing mops and brooms and picking up behind 
the workers, who had left a general mess. The sidewalks had not been 
completed, so the next day, when the first students came driving in with 
their parents for their first dormitory experience, we had boards laid down 
for them to walk on. They all had to mince their way into the rooms, for, 
as one might expect on such an occasion, we had rain. The students, 
however, moved in happily, not at all concerned about the muddy mess 
outside. Although it was several weeks before the sidewalks could be 
completed, the dormitories were open, and the character of the institution 
began to change. 

As a result of the changeovers and expansion, there were nineteen new 
faculty members to be presented at the first faculty meeting in late Au- 
gust. Among those who would stay for a long time and contribute a great 
deal to the institution were Dr. John Barthel in economics, Dr. Michael 
Gillum and Peggy Jones in literature and language, Dr. Harry Johnston 
and Dr. James Perry in biology, Dr. Howard Rosenblat in psychology, Dr. 
Frederic Marcus Wood in classics, Dr. Jack Wilson in mathematics, and 
Dr. Ed Speirs in economics. Dr. Speirs also served as chairman of the 
social sciences division. 

A committee was formed in 1967 to examine the forty- week calendar 
and the stress that such an academic year was creating for faculty and 
students. Although we were pleased that the General Assembly had ap- 
proved our capital request, we were bothered that the legislators seemed 
to have forgotten that we had started our program with the understand- 
ing that A-B College would be an experimental institution. The various 
costs, including faculty salaries and library expenditures, would be consid- 
erably higher than those at an institution with a more traditional type of 

86 : The Late Sixties 

program. When the General Assembly completed its budget, it was appar- 
ent that the legislators had decided to pay the faculty for the additional 
month: in other words, a ten-month salary for ten months of work. How- 
ever, that was not a true increase in faculty salaries. That disappointment 
accentuated the stress of the forty-week calendar. After a careful reexami- 
nation of some of the programs, we decided we could safely shave off a 
few days from each of the terms to have an academic year of nine-and-a- 
half months (or thirty-eight rather than forty weeks). We made the adjust- 
ment and at the same time reduced the rigorous humanities program 
requirements from twenty-four to twenty semester hours. Both of those 
moves proved fortuitous. The original program had been a little too much 
for the faculty and the students to handle. 

In October 1967 the botanical gardens formally opened. Members had 
been working for several years to turn that ten-acre tract of land into a 
paradise of nature, complete with walkways, bridges, and stone walls. 
About 2,500 people turned out for the opening. Many were members of 
garden clubs all over the area, and it was a pleasure to see the public's 
response to the care the early developers had given the gardens. With the 
exception of the stonework and the bridges, all the work had been done by 
the Botanical Gardens Association. The Christmas party that year was 
held in Lipinsky, and the principal speaker, Wilma Dykeman Stokely, was 
well known in this area and a graduate of A-B College. 

On November 17, 1967, there was an antiwar rally, with visiting stu- 
dent speakers sent by the Southern Students Organizing Committee. This 
was the first genuine antiwar rally led by students on our campus. It 
resembled rallies going on all over the country, heralding the beginning of 
the antiwar movement that affected colleges and universities nationwide 
until the mid-seventies. About 350 students turned out to hear the visit- 
ing speakers. The program was more emotional but probably less enlight- 
ening than other programs concerning this issue had been. The students 
were becoming progressively more apprehensive about Vietnam, but in 
the years that followed and including the weeks immediately after the 
Kent State massacre of 1970, those on the A-B campus never became as 
passionate or destructive as students at so many other campuses in the 
United States. There was no question that the majority of our students 
and faculty were opposed to the continuation of the Vietnam War, but 
they limited their opposition to civilized and rational behavior. 

We could see definite improvement that fall in one of the most enter- 

The Late Sixties : 87 

taining aspects of student life, the basketball team. It was the first time the 
athletes could think seriously of play-offs and national tournaments. The 
tip-off tournament, sponsored by the Asheville Optimists Club, featured 
four teams. A-B College won 95-93 over Hanover College of Indiana. 
Three games remained at the end of the season, and A-B had to win them 
all to make it into the play-offs. The team defeated Wilmington but lost to 
Campbell and Pembroke, leaving it just short of an invitation to the dis- 
trict tournament. However, this was the first season the team had made it 
to that level of competition, and the players began receiving more atten- 
tion from the townspeople and the students. 

The other sport that was doing well and gaining recognition was the 
golf team, coached by Robert Daughton. The 1967-68 program was the 
most ambitious to that time. The student golfers had quite a schedule of 
tournaments. One, in Coral Gables, Florida, brought together teams from 
major institutions all over the Southeast. There were also many local 
matches and the team did reasonably well. It won a number of small 
tournaments and some of the players competed with the better college 
players in the Southeast. Although the golf program did not get a great 
deal of publicity, a substantial number of people who participated went on 
to become golf pros after they graduated. Even twenty years later, some of 
those who played for A-B College are still serving as club pros in western 
North Carolina and other places. 

On March 5 the Asheville Citizen ran a full-page, full-color spread on 
Charles G. "Buzz" Tennent. It pictured him near the library with some of 
the azaleas he had planted. The board of trustees had named Tennent the 
institution's landscape architect years before and had honored him by 
designating a part of the campus immediately east of the library as the 
Charles G. Tennent Park. Those who walk around the campus and are 
impressed by the landscaping should credit Buzz Tennent, who was a 
nurseryman in Asheville for more than fifty years. He stated many times 
that he wanted our campus to become the best-landscaped institution in 
the country, and he set out to do just that. We often had much less than an 
adequate budget for planting, but Tennent augmented it substantially 
from his nursery at no charge to us. The mature trees and plants that grace 
the campus today are largely the result of his planting in the early and 

On March 21, 1968, Dr. Roy A. Riggs was named dean of the faculty. 
It was a position he had filled since Dr. Kaempfer resigned at the end of 

88 : The Late Sixties 

the 1967 academic year to go to the University of South Alabama as dean 
of the College of Arts and Sciences. After discussion with the various 
department and division chairmen, I had appointed Dr. Riggs on an 
acting basis and then established a search committee. The chairman was 
Dr. Ted Shoaf. After months of looking for a new dean, the committee 
selected Dr. Riggs, who had been with the institution for five years and 
had served as chairman of the literature and language department and 
chairman of the humanities program. When his appointment became offi- 
cial, Dr. Philip Walker became chairman of the humanities program and 
Dr. Ellis Shorb was named chairman of the department of literature and 

During the late sixties, Dr. Lester Zerfoss, formerly with personnel at 
American Enka Corporation, started working with the State Personnel 
Department to produce on-campus seminars on management develop- 
ment and supervision. He was an imaginative person who knew his field 
as well as anyone we could have found. Although we did not have a 
program in management or business administration, he used the summers 
to bring to the campus people who were interested in principles of man- 
agement and supervision. Some of the programs he offered were solely for 
employees of the state, principally the Personnel Department. Others were 
open to those working for private corporations and businesses. The sum- 
mer programs went on for several years and proved to be extremely im- 
portant groundwork, introducing us to some ideas about management 
that we later wove into a degree program. A department of management 
would not have been possible had it not been for the presence of Dr. 
Zerfoss and his understanding of the field in the broader, more philo- 
sophical sense. 

In May 1968 the second awards assembly was held. Sandra Sluder, who 
was Miss A-B, received the A. C. Reynolds Citizenship Award. As time 
went on, the awards assemblies gradually faded away, and recognition of 
outstanding students became part of the graduation ceremony. 

On June 30, 1968, William S. Jenkins, who had served as business 
manager since 1952, retired. We did not want to rush into an appoint- 
ment, so John Neuse served as acting business manager for one year. 
William Pott was one of the state auditors who had been examining our 
books for several years. When he discovered that the position was open, 
he asked to be considered and talked at length about changes that needed 
to be made. He accepted our offer and became the business manager on 

The Late Sixties : 89 

July 1, 1969. It was a most fortuitous appointment. Pott has been with 
the institution ever since and is, without question, one of our most valu- 
able administrators. 

The 1968-69 academic year opened with an increase in enrollment and 
some new faculty members who would make a definite mark on the insti- 
tution. Three in particular were Richard Reed, Dr. Robert Trullinger, and 
Dr. John G. Stevens. Many things were happening that fall, but it is 
appropriate to say that the focus of the school was the drive to become a 
campus of the University of North Carolina. I have reserved the entire 
story for the next chapter. Meanwhile, many of the programs developed in 
the earlier years continued. Dr. James Stewart of the philosophy depart- 
ment brought Dr. Gordon Pierce, vice principal of Regents Park College 
of Oxford University, to the campus for speeches and lectures. It was at 
this time that we began to consider the possibility of a summer program at 
Oxford in 1969. Most of the colleges of Oxford were practically empty 
during the summer, and a special type of program could be developed that 
would give our students a glorious opportunity to visit England, study at 
Oxford, and interact with some of the Oxford students and faculty. We 
began discussing this option in the spring of 1968, but it took almost a 
year to work out the entire program. 

In the summer of 1968 the Advisory Budget Commission, under the 
chairmanship of Senator Thomas White, visited the campus again, but 
our requests were not as large this time because we were still working with 
1967 appropriations. We did, however, ask for $925,000 to build a social 
sciences building and $219,000 for an infirmary. We received funds for 
the infirmary, but we did not get any other large capital appropriation or 
approval from the 1968 Advisory Budget Commission. 

Work began in 1968 on the expansion of the gymnasium. The addition 
would include a swimming pool, an exercise room, classrooms, offices, 
and other facilities. The facilities were badly needed, and we were de- 
lighted to see the work get started. 

In October 1968 we had on campus one of the twentieth century's 
most interesting men, a person whose role in history has proved to be 
increasingly significant as the years have gone by. Sir John Glubb, who 
had been the commander of the Arab Legion of Jordan, was brought to 
the campus by William Cochran and Colonel Paul Rockwell. In his lec- 
ture, Glubb said that leaders of the Soviet Union had wanted Egypt to 
lose the Six-Day War of June 1967 because they believed it would make 

9<d : The Late Sixties 

Egypt dependent upon Russia and give the Soviet Union an opportunity 
to insinuate itself into the Middle East at Egypt's invitation. Many devel- 
opments in the years that followed indicated that Glubb had an uncanny 
insight into what was happening in that section of the world. 

The beginning of an exciting year in basketball started with the tip-off 
tournament. Tom Harbin, one of the junior college's graduates, had re- 
cruited Mickey Gibson to play for A-B College. Gibson had been a starter 
at the University of Kentucky but had dropped out with two years of 
eligibility left after an altercation with Adolph Rupp. He was a welcome 
addition because he was an excellent shooter and one of the best players 
on any small college team. He and James "Red" Mcllheny constituted a 
formidable pair. Mcllheny was a point guard, and the most effective de- 
fensive player we had. When Gibson was playing well, he could hardly be 
stopped. He scored thirty-two points in the first half in a game that A-B 
won decisively against Washington and Lee. The other starters were Rod 
Healy, Lee Shuster, and Gary Adams. Other teams competing in the tip- 
off tournament were Piedmont, Mars Hill, and Hanover of Indiana. A-B 
College's victory was a good beginning for an excellent year. At home- 
coming, Denise Diamond's younger sister Jill was elected homecoming 
queen, and the students continued a tradition that had been started some 
years before, called Coed Capers. On homecoming Saturday, the area 
where the soccer field is now located was the site of fun and games. It was 
exceedingly informal, and the egg tosses, greased climbs, three-legged 
races, tugs-of-war, and other activities were great fun. The hilarity also 
focused attention on the basketball program, which was really getting on 

In February 1969 Dr. James Stewart, after months of writing back and 
forth to Oxford University, announced that we would have a summer 
program for forty students, who would live and study at Regents Park 
College. The program would begin on June 23 and end on August 1. It 
included courses in British literature, contemporary philosophy, and com- 
parative government, for which students could earn six semester hours of 
credit. Weekends were open, so students could travel in Scotiand and 
Ireland. The cost of the entire program, including airfare, room, board, 
and tuition, was $650. The Oxford Program has continued over the years, 
but unfortunately the price has gone up with the inflation experienced in 
both Great Britain and the United States. The program proved to be 
popular and worthwhile. In order to fill it out, Dr. Stewart invited stu- 

The Late Sixties : 91 

dents from other colleges from time to time, but it was nevertheless an A- 
B program and remains an excellent opportunity for students to experi- 
ence life at one of the world's great universities and to do some traveling 
in England and Europe. 

In the early part of 1969, A-B College invited the Czechoslovakian 
National Team for an exhibition basketball match. Student Terry Merri- 
mon sat on the bench trying to explain in German the various calls the 
referees made and what was happening on court. It was interesting, since 
Terry did not know much about basketball and some of the Czechs did 
not speak German. It was a most amusing evening, and no one cared 
much that the Czechoslovakians won by eight points. 

In the spring of 1969 the campus had its own chapter of Omicron 
Delta Epsilon, the honor society in the field of economics. It was the kind 
of organization we wanted to see more of. As the years went by, other 
academic honor societies, such as history's Phi Alpha Theta and psycholo- 
gy's Psy Chi, were added. They were part of the program that needed to 
be developed so majors could talk at length about their fields with other 
students and guest lecturers and feel that they were part of a national 

The spring of 1969 was the first time that A-B College got into the 
play-offs for District 26 of the National Association for Intercollegiate 
Athletes (NAIA). The finals were played at Wofford College, a neutral 
court, and our opponent was Newberry College. A-B won handily, with 
Mickey Gibson having an astounding shooting night and Red Mcllheny 
doing his usual extraordinary job as a defensive guard. It was the biggest 
win the college had ever had, and it sent the Bulldogs to Kansas City for 
the national tournament. The luck of the draw pitted us against Gramb- 
ling for the first game. We knew Grambling was the number one national 
power in black college football, but we did not know what the basketball 
team was like. It was an exciting afternoon, and radios were set up all over 
campus for those who could not make the trip to Kansas City. A-B won 
with some sparkling play. The next match was against Monmouth State 
College of New Jersey, a much more experienced and larger team. The 
Bulldogs lost. Nevertheless, the first trip to a national tournament and the 
victory over Grambling brought a great deal of attention to the basketball 
team and helped recruitment efforts for the following year. 

During the sixties, the regular and ongoing work of the faculty was 
accomplished with frequent faculty meetings. An elected executive com- 

92. : The Late Sixties 

mittee examined any matter that affected the faculty. There were many 
committees, and because the institution was young, it was necessary for 
every faculty member to belong to several. All the work was important, 
and it had to be distributed among a relatively small number of people. 
The full faculty would often meet on a monthly basis to hear the commit- 
tee reports and take action. As the end of the decade approached and the 
faculty became larger, meetings became more protracted because every 
issue was debated at length, sometimes with great intensity. The sentiment 
that began to develop in 1967 and 1968 was that perhaps it was time for 
the faculty to organize itself differendy. The obvious solution was to elect 
a senate that would be much smaller and would consider various impor- 
tant matters pertaining to curriculum, faculty welfare, and the develop- 
ment of the institution. Dr. James Wills of the physics department was 
probably the leading proponent of the idea of a Faculty Senate. Some 
members of the faculty did not like the idea because they favored continu- 
ing the full and open discussions that had become characteristic of the 
college. The debate continued until finally, in the spring of 1969, the 
faculty formally voted to establish a senate composed of fifteen people 
representing the three basic divisions: five each from humanities, social 
sciences, and mathematics and science. The senate's constitution gave it 
responsibility for reviewing new academic programs and new courses, 
looking after all aspects of faculty welfare, and considering ideas for the 
development of the institution. Standing committees would be responsi- 
ble for the work. When the first senate met, the members elected Dr. 
James Stewart chairman. 

The 1969 commencement took place on June 8, and the speaker was 
Dr. G. Hinton Davies, a world-renowned Old Testament scholar and 
principal of Regents Park College of Oxford. He was on tour in the 
United States, and his presence as commencement speaker was arranged 
by Dr. Stewart. While he was here, we talked over some of the specifics 
about the summer program at his college, which would start within a few 
weeks. Seventy-seven students graduated in the class of 1969. It was the 
last class to graduate from Asheville-Biltmore College. 

By this time, much of the attention on the campus had shifted to Ra- 
leigh. The General Assembly was in session, and our drive to become a 
campus of the Consolidated University of North Carolina was on the 



Merging with the University 

When the Carlyle Commission was holding its hearings in 1962, both 
Manly Wright, vice-chairman of the board of trustees, and President 
Bushey appeared before the commission and pleaded the case for Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore College to become a senior institution. During both pre- 
sentations, they suggested that whenever the time came for officials of the 
Consolidated University of North Carolina to consider a campus in the 
western part of the state, they look at A-B and at Asheville, the region's 
principal city. In the fall of 1962, Thomas Pearsall and a committee from 
the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University visited Asheville to 
explore the possibilities that existed in western North Carolina. 

At that time, one of the alternatives briefly considered was for A-B to 
continue as a junior college, with students going on to complete junior- 
and senior-level work at the University of North Carolina through some 
type of administrative arrangement. Fortunately that idea did not take 
hold, and A-B, Wilmington, and Charlotte colleges were converted into 
freestanding four-year institutions under the terms of the Omnibus High- 
er Education Act of 1963. It was such a momentous step at the time that 
little thought was given to any further relationship with the Consolidated 
University. The all-consuming task was to construct buildings, develop a 
program, recruit faculty and students, and do the work required to build a 
baccalaureate-level institution. 

It seemed unrealistic then that an institution with an enrollment of 
about seven hundred should be talking seriously about joining the Con- 


94 Merging with the University 

solidated University system. The A-B board of trustees had often dis- 
cussed the idea of changing the name of Asheville-Biltmore College to 
something else because, for more than thirty years, the term "Asheville- 
Biltmore College" had described a small, poverty-ridden junior college 
with little to offer students except a dedicated faculty. The board members 
almost unanimously agreed that changing the image of the institution 
would be a good thing. It was impossible, however, to get two people to 
agree on what the name should be. The ongoing discussion indicated a 
deep-seated desire on the part of the trustees to take steps that would 
make the public aware that this was not the same institution that had 
struggled to exist for so many years. 

The General Assembly of 1965 considered the matter of adding Char- 
lotte College to the Consolidated University. One of the provisions of the 
Omnibus Higher Education Act of 1963 was that new campuses could be 

In 1964 Dan K. Moore was elected governor, with substantial support 
from the civic and political leadership of Charlotte. There was an apparent 
understanding that when the next General Assembly convened, the gover- 
nor and his allies would bring Charlotte in as the fourth campus of the 
University of North Carolina. There was considerable talk in the General 
Assembly about the plan, although opposition was fairly limited. There 
were some snide comments from other parts of the state about turning a 
junior college into a university. At the time, Charlotte College was not 
due to graduate its first senior class until May. The most powerful opposi- 
tion to the measure came from Senator Tom White, who had been serving 
for several years as chairman of the Advisory Budget Commission. The 
senator, aware of the ambitions of institutions all over the state, felt that 
making Charlotte a campus of the Consolidated University system would 
open the floodgates. He feared that that would quickly become enor- 
mously expensive to the state, and he opposed the measure to the bitter 
end. In fact, even though he was already aware that the measure would 
pass, White concluded his final opposition address on the floor of the 
Senate by saying, "God help higher education in North Carolina!" The 
measure to add the University of North Carolina at Charlotte to the 
system passed easily on March 3, 1965. State statutes required the General 
Assembly to have the approval of the Board of Trustees of the Consoli- 
dated University and the Board of Higher Education before the legislators 
could consider such a measure. Approval had already been accomplished 
without difficulty. 

Merging with the University : 95 

In the summer of 1966, the board of trustees of Asheville-Biltmore 
College decided the time had come to make its position clear. A resolution 
was adopted at the July meeting stating that if there was to be a campus of 
the Consolidated University in the western part of the state, the logical 
location would be in the population center of Asheville. In accordance 
with law, the institution should be called the University of North Carolina 
at Asheville. That statement was adopted unanimously by the board of 
trustees, and copies were forwarded to President William Friday of the 
University of North Carolina, to Governor Moore, who was the ex officio 
chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University, and to 
the Board of Higher Education, chaired by Watts Hill, Jr., of Durham and 
Chapel Hill. The matter rested there, because no one connected with A-B 
College felt there was any likelihood of anything coming of it for years. 

Once the president and trustees of Greenville's East Carolina College 
were certain that Charlotte College was going to become part of the 
Consolidated University, they began to take steps to secure greater recog- 
nition and stem what they considered to be a threat to the expansion of 
their institution. In the summer of 1966, President Leo Jenkins appeared 
before the Rotary Club of Raleigh and spoke about the ambitions of East 
Carolina, the student population, and the kind of work they were doing. 
He closed his remarks by saying, "This is not a college. It is a university, 
and that is what it should be called." That was the opening shot in the 
effort to change the name of East Carolina College to East Carolina Uni- 
versity, even though the school showed no inclination to join the Consoli- 
dated University system. 

There was far more to changing the name of the institution than simply 
replacing "college" with "university." The Omnibus Higher Education 
Act of 1963 had also specified that the campuses of the University of 
North Carolina would be the only ones authorized to give the doctoral 
degree and would, in effect, constitute the capstone of public higher edu- 
cation in the state. The institutions that were part of the Consolidated 
University after the passage of the 1963 law were, of course, the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University, 
and the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. All three institutions 
had been offering doctoral degree programs before 1963. What lay be- 
hind the bid to change the name of East Carolina was the desire to estab- 
lish on that campus a new state-supported medical school. The idea had 
been seriously considered in the east for some time before President 
Jenkins's speech in Raleigh. In fact, during the 1965 legislative session, 

96 : Merging with the University 

before the formal inclusion of Charlotte College as the fourth campus of 
the Consolidated University system, pressure from eastern legislators had 
pushed through the General Assembly, with no prior study, permission in 
principle for the establishment of a two-year medical school at East Caro- 
lina College, but no funds were appropriated for such a venture at that 

There was considerable support for East Carolina in the General As- 
sembly. The college had grown over the years until it was larger than any 
of the other campuses in the state except UNC-Chapel Hill and North 
Carolina State. A medical school was also considered important for the 
people in the eastern part of the state because of the scarcity of physicians 
in many of the rural counties that were close to Greenville and East Caro- 
lina College. Governor Moore was very much opposed to the plan. Since 
there were already private medical schools at Duke and Wake Forest, 
where North Carolina students were subsidized, in addition to the state- 
supported medical school at UNC-Chapel Hill, he felt that establishing 
another school would drain the state's treasury and pull money away from 
other areas of need. Officials at UNC-Chapel Hill made no secret of their 
disapproval of a second state-supported medical school because they knew 
it was the most expensive single program of the Consolidated University. 
Moreover, Chapel Hill already had a large teaching hospital; East Caro- 
lina had none, nor was it equipped in any way to establish a medical 
faculty without tremendous outlays from the state. The people in the 
eastern part of the state, however, had become convinced that their future 
as a region was closely tied with East Carolina College, which is a healthy 
relationship for an institution to have with its constituents. 

President Jenkins and the eastern legislators knew they would have to 
overcome opposition from the governor, the Board of Higher Education, 
and legislative study commissions, as well as the Carlyle Commission's 
recommendation that the designation "university" be restricted to the 
campuses of the Consolidated University. They enlisted the interests of 
Western Carolina and Appalachian College in establishing themselves as 
regional universities. With the added weight of the two institutions from 
the western part of the state, President Jenkins and the eastern legislators 
believed they would have a far greater chance of achieving university 
status, thereby making the request for a medical school at East Carolina 
more plausible. A bill was introduced in the 1967 session to establish the 
three schools as regional universities. 

Merging with the University : 97 

All three institutions had started as teachers colleges and had greatly 
expanded their programs over the years. Some of those who opposed the 
measure amended the bill to include two traditionally black institutions, 
North Carolina Agriculture and Technical College in Greensboro and 
North Carolina Central College in Durham. They believed it would 
weaken the bill, but just the opposite happened. The bill passed, establish- 
ing a system of regional universities: East Carolina, Appalachian, West- 
ern Carolina, A & T, and North Carolina Central. Although the change 
was a radical departure from higher education policies in North Carolina, 
the idea did not originate with Dr. Jenkins or the General Assembly. For 
several years, states across the country had been changing the status of 
their individual colleges to universities, and many had begun placing all 
their public institutions of higher education under single governing 

These decisions created an entirely new situation in North Carolina. 
The Consolidated University now had four campuses, all called universi- 
ties, and there were now five new regional universities. It was clear that 
the passage of this legislation would have an impact on the statewide 
system of higher education, and on Asheville-Biltmore and Wilmington 
colleges in particular. It was equally obvious that there were suddenly two 
rival systems of universities in North Carolina and that the General As- 
sembly would be the battleground. The various universities and their 
supporters would go to the legislature to plead for programs and funds 
for facilities and expansion. With two large and powerful political aggre- 
gations, the scene was set for a power struggle: the University of North 
Carolina versus the regionals. 

At that time Asheville-Biltmore College had fewer than one thousand 
students and was trying to develop a unique program that required special 
funding. Given the events of 1967, we began to feel like a tiny boat tossed 
around unnoticed in a large and angry sea. During the controversy in the 
General Assembly, I was walking down the corridor of the Capitol Build- 
ing when Governor Moore saw me. He grabbed me by the arm, pulled me 
into a janitor's closet, closed the door, turned on the light, and briefly 
explained the situation regarding the Regional University Bill. He asked 
me what our position would be, because at that time he considered it 
possible to include A-B College as a regional university. I told him our 
board of trustees had already made its position known the previous year. 
We wanted to be the campus of the Consolidated University in the west- 

98 : Merging with the University 

ern region of the state. He thanked me, and we left the broom closet. 
When the bill establishing the regional university system became law, it 
received the support of Buncombe County legislators. They had been 
asked to support the bill by President Paul Reid and others representing 
Western Carolina College, and they saw no reason why they should not. 
They knew that the amended bill, with its five campuses, would almost 
assuredly pass. 

After the adjournment of the General Assembly of 1967, it was neces- 
sary for us at A-B College to examine our position thoroughly The pas- 
sage of the Regional University Act had drastically altered our situation. 
We needed to reevaluate our timing in terms of application for member- 
ship in the Consolidated University system. The regional universities, 
backed by the General Assembly, were virtually ignoring the Board of 
Higher Education, which strongly supported the mission of Asheville- 
Biltmore College. We needed to speed up our request for membership in 
the Consolidated University. While the board did not take any formal 
action, we informally decided to investigate the attitude at the General 
Administration of the University system. In the fall of 1967 I met with 
President Friday in Chapel Hill. We reviewed what was happening in 
Asheville and discussed the type of program we were developing. I talked 
with him about retaining our original mission as a high-quality liberal arts 
college. As a campus of the Consolidated University, we could do some of 
the innovative experimentation that all universities should be engaged in. 
We would also have direct access to the original campuses of the Consoli- 
dated University, where the great graduate schools were located. We 
would, in effect, become a feeder institution for the professional schools, 
such as law and medicine, and the graduate schools at Chapel Hill, Ra- 
leigh, and Greensboro. 

At the same time that we were discussing this matter, identical talks 
were taking place at Wilmington College. That institution was isolated, 
new, and not much larger than Asheville-Biltmore, and its leaders per- 
ceived the problem in exacdy the same way. We hoped that Consolidated 
University officials would see that it would be to their advantage to have 
campuses in the far east and the far west and that, as undergraduate 
institutions, we could develop special types of programs that would pro- 
vide a continual flow of well-prepared students to the University's gradu- 
ate and professional programs. Trustees from A-B and Wilmington col- 
leges, Buncombe and New Hanover county legislators, William Wagoner, 

Merging with the University : 99 

Wilmington College's recently appointed president, and I maintained con- 
stant communication throughout the winter. 

As the year came to a close, attention around the state began to shift to 
the gubernatorial election of 1968. The next governor would have a great 
deal to say about these plans. Although the proposal would require the 
approval of the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University and the 
Board of Higher Education, we knew that, in the final analysis, it would 
probably stand or fall based upon the position of the new governor. It was 
apparent that Lieutenant Governor Robert Scott was going to win the 
election. There was little opposition to his nomination within the Demo- 
cratic party, and the Republican Party had not at that time elected a gover- 
nor of North Carolina once in the twentieth century. Scott asked John M. 
Reynolds, who was active in Buncombe County politics and a member of 
the Board of Higher Education, to be his local campaign manager. Reyn- 
olds agreed, with the proviso that Scott would help Asheville-Biltmore 
become a campus of the Consolidated University, to be known as the 
University of North Carolina at Asheville. Scott agreed, on the condition 
that the change have prior approval from the Board of Trustees of the 
Consolidated University and the Board of Higher Education, as required 
by law. After Scott's decisive victory in November 1968, we began to 
concentrate on the General Assembly scheduled to convene in January 

In the meantime, the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University 
had sent a committee to Wilmington and Asheville to talk with people at 
both campuses and members of both boards of trustees to determine 
whether these colleges should become undergraduate institutions of the 
Consolidated University. From a political standpoint, it was apparent that 
the University would be gready strengthened by having campuses in the 
far east and the far west. Aaron Prevost of Waynesville, a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University, was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Moore, the chairman of the board, to chair the visiting committee. 
Upon receipt of the Prevost Committee's recommendation that a feasi- 
bility study be conducted, President Friday asked Dr. Arnold K. King, 
vice-president for institutional studies of UNC, to serve as the principal 
staff officer assisting the committee with the study. Its purpose was to 
determine how well the existing programs would fit into the overall plan 
of the University of North Carolina. President Friday received the com- 
mittee's report in October 1968. He, in turn, distributed it to all members 

ioo : Merging with the University 

of the Consolidated University Board of Trustees. In the report, Dr. King 
and the committee emphasized that Asheville-Biltmore should continue 
the type of undergraduate liberal arts program that it was developing. The 
report supported our commitment to innovation and experimentation 
and cited the high quality of the students, as evidenced by the Scholastic 
Aptitude Test, national teacher examinations, the Graduate Record Ex- 
amination, and other indexes available. 

The committee report also pointed out that although Asheville-Bilt- 
more was still a young institution, it had an extraordinarily high percent- 
age of faculty with doctorates from good institutions. It detailed the posi- 
tive impact of making Asheville-Biltmore and Wilmington colleges the 
fifth and sixth campuses of the Consolidated University system and added 
that both could become important as contributing campuses of the Con- 
solidated University. At the heart of these discussions was the realization 
that the Regional University Act of 1967 had changed the situation in 
North Carolina. Not only did Asheville-Biltmore and Wilmington have to 
look to their own futures, but the Consolidated University had to examine 
its posture and become more of a statewide institution. 

The special committee of the Consolidated University trustees first vis- 
ited the campus in April 1968. The report, compiled by Dr. King, was 
completed in October because it took all summer to examine both Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore and Wilmington in depth. The next step was to present the 
findings to the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University. The 
next meeting of the board was scheduled for December 7, 1968, at the 
faculty club at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. The meeting 
would be one of the critical events in our drive to merge with the Univer- 
sity. Consolidated University executive committee members had already 
discussed the report. Stories began to leak out that opposition to the 
measure existed among the trustees, including objections to the Universi- 
ty's spreading out over too much of the state, taking on new and perhaps 
more expensive obligations, and building graduate programs that would 
compete with the graduate schools of the original members of the Con- 
solidated University. There were also UNC board members with ties to 
the regional universities who were either indifferent or opposed to the 
University's expansion. President Friday assured the board that graduate 
programs were not being contemplated at that time in either Asheville or 
Wilmington and added that the institutions would exist as described in 
the Prevost Committee's report. He also pointed out that the undergradu- 
ate institutions would become not only freestanding campuses but feeder 

Merging with the University : 101 

institutions, sending well-prepared students to the graduate and profes- 
sional schools at the senior campuses. 

When the meeting began on the morning of December 7, the room was 
packed with people, and everyone present felt the importance of the mea- 
sure. Once the discussion began, a number of people spoke against the 
measure. Probably the most vocal opponent was George Watts Hill, a 
member of the executive committee and one of the most influential mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees. It was at this time that Virginia Lathrop of 
Asheville helped turn the tide. She spoke in clear and persuasive terms, 
pointing out that the objections were simply speculations about the future 
and that none could come to pass unless approved by the Board of Trust- 
ees, which had final authority over all matters pertaining to the University 
of North Carolina. Similar speeches followed hers. 

It should be noted that Virginia Lathrop, a longtime member of the 
Board of Trustees and the executive committee alike, had been an active 
supporter of the merger plans. Her twenty-five years of service were proof 
of her commitment to the University of North Carolina. Although she did 
not have a political or financial power base, she was greatly respected for 
her intelligence, and her ideas received as much acceptance as those of any 
other member of that board. She was enormously helpful in guiding A-B 
College along the intricate pathways of higher education politics in the 
state because she wholeheartedly believed that the institution could, in 
due time, become a reputable member of a great Consolidated University 
system. Her contributions during the two years preceding the merger 
were of enormous and lasting value, and she was a key adviser during the 
period of transition from college to university status. In short, she was one 
of the most perceptive and farsighted members of the executive commit- 
tee, and her assistance was invaluable. 

After the board had discussed the matter thoroughly and everyone who 
wished to be heard had spoken, the vote was taken. It was overwhelm- 
ingly in favor of adopting the report of the special committee and adding 
to the Consolidated University the campuses in Wilmington and Ashe- 
ville. We left the building elated that we had won the first round and 
relieved that we would now have behind us the full force of the University 
of North Carolina. 

About ten days after the critical meeting of the Board of Trustees in 
Raleigh, Manly Wright, the board chairman, and I met with several legis- 
lators from western North Carolina. The 1968 election had resulted in a 
number of changes. Gordon Greenwood had left the legislature and had 

io2 : Merging with the University 

been elected chairman of the Buncombe County Board of Commission- 
ers. Members of the General Assembly representing our districts at that 
time were Senators Bruce Briggs and Theodore Dent. The House repre- 
sentatives were Hugh Beam of Marion, and Herschel Harkins, John S. 
Stevens, and Claude DeBruhl of Buncombe County. We also received 
support from others in the area. The only person who seemed hesitant 
about the merger was Representative Charles Taylor. His district included 
Jackson County, where Western Carolina University is located, so we un- 
derstood the reasons for his position. 

Claude DeBruhl took the lead in supporting the idea of the merger. 
Although in 1968 he had just been elected to the General Assembly for 
the first time, he made his position quite clear. He had graduated from 
Biltmore College in 1933 and had maintained his connection with his 
alma mater through the alumni association and in many other ways. At 
one of the meetings he said, "Every man who buttonholes me in Raleigh 
must first talk about the University of North Carolina at Asheville." Rep- 
resentatives Harkins, Stevens, and Beam also voiced their equally strong 
support at every opportunity. 

In a special meeting the chamber of commerce called for the measure to 
be passed by the General Assembly. Gordon Greenwood advised, "The 
time to move is now." Greenwood, with ten years of legislative experience, 
knew the General Assembly well, and he identified potential pockets of 
opposition once the measure went into committees and onto the floor. 
The A-B faculty learned of the response of the Consolidated University 
Board of Trustees immediately, and both they and the local trustees were 
elated. In fact, board members felt that the close ties with UNO-Chapel 
Hill and North Carolina State would help the merger along. Everything, 
however, depended on the General Assembly's approval. People spent an 
anxious Christmas vacation that year wondering what would happen 
when the legislators convened. 

Before the General Assembly was called into session, we received a call 
from Governor Robert Scott's office setting up an appointment for the 
afternoon of January 10, 1969. Manly Wright, chairman of the A-B board 
of trustees, John Reynolds, vice-chairman of the board, Gordon Green- 
wood, and I met with the governor and representatives from Wilmington 
College. The group included President William Wagoner, Addison Hew- 
lett, former Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of 
Wilmington's board of trustees, and Fred Graham. Dr. Cameron West, 
the executive director of the Board of Higher Education, was also present. 

Merging with the University : 103 

We met in Governor Scott's office, and representatives of each campus 
reviewed what steps had been taken and why we wanted this proposed 
measure to pass. Governor Scott asked several penetrating questions 
about why this would make a difference in the development of these two 
new and small institutions and why we could not make it just as well as 
separate schools. We all responded by reminding him of the stature of the 
University of North Carolina and of the fact that having university status, 
as well as close association with the system's senior campuses, would make 
it possible for us to serve our constituencies much better. After close to an 
hour, Governor Scott told us he was satisfied and would support the 
proposal and make it a part of his program. We thanked him most sin- 
cerely and left, relieved that another hurdle had been passed. 

The governor told Dr. West to go back to the Board of Higher Educa- 
tion and tell the members that he wanted to see both institutions included 
in the University system. A special committee from the Board of Higher 
Education was established to visit the campuses in Wilmington and Ashe- 
ville. Some opposition was expected, since the board included members 
who represented the regional campuses. No one was more adamant in his 
statement of opposition than William Rankin, who represented Appala- 
chian State University and was a member of the special committee consid- 
ering the merger. He was outvoted by Jay Huskins and Doris Horton. 
The committee, although divided, reported to the full Board of Higher 
Education, which voted to approve the measure as recommended by the 
Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University. That was the last step 
before the legislation would be presented to the General Assembly. 

Several enormously important events occurred while the Board of 
Higher Education was considering the matter. On January 22, 1969, 
Governor Scott made his State of the State address to the joint meeting of 
the Senate and the House of Representatives, as required by the state 
constitution. Great attention was paid to what he, as the incoming gover- 
nor, said because it was indicative of the way he would establish his priori- 
ties for his years in office. In the course of his address, the governor said 
clearly and specifically that requests had come from both Asheville-Bilt- 
more and Wilmington colleges to become campuses of the Consolidated 
University and that the requests had been approved by the trustees of each 
institution, as well as the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated Univer- 
sity. He stated without equivocation that he supported the measure and 
hoped the General Assembly would pass it. 

That State of the State address was delivered at noon. Later that after- 

io4 : Merging with the University 

noon, we were stunned to receive a communication from President Alex 
Pow of Western Carolina University. Speaking for his board of trustees, he 
vigorously opposed the addition of Asheville-Biltmore to the Consoli- 
dated University. The statement from President Pow, fifteen pages of 
boldfaced type, was distributed throughout the state with instructions 
that release time to the media be six o'clock that evening. Copies were sent 
to our trustees, members of the General Assembly, Governor Scott, the 
Board of Higher Education, President Friday, members of the Board of 
Trustees of the Consolidated University, and the news media. The argu- 
ments put forth by President Pow were simple and straightforward. He 
and his trustees opposed vigorously the addition of a campus of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina in the Asheville area, asserting that Western 
Carolina University was already serving, or could easily meet, the needs of 
the area. Furthermore, he proposed that Asheville-Biltmore College and 
Western Carolina University be merged into a two-campus university to 
be called the University of Western North Carolina, rather than have A-B 
become a campus of the Consolidated University. President Po^s release 
was also critical of the report submitted by Dr. King and the Prevost 
Committee; he said it gave inadequate attention to Western Carolina. It 
also stated that King and the committee members had not talked with 
anyone at Western Carolina about the report. We considered this ironic 
because no one from Western Carolina had ever approached us about 
merging the two institutions. 

Local reaction was extremely supportive of Governor Scott and A-B 
College. On the morning of January 23, the feature story on the front 
page of the Asheville Citizen began with the headline "Scott Supports 
A-B-UNC Merger." The editorial that same day reflected an understand- 
ing of the Western Carolina proposal but did not support WCU's posi- 
tion. According to the editorial, there were so many differences between 
the two institutions that it would be impossible to merge them. Pew's 
release, coming just a few hours after the governor's statement, aroused 
and united the people of Asheville, who saw it as an attack on something 
that could be very important for the city. Claude Ramsey, a member of the 
A-B board of trustees, said, "The WCU action could set back public 
higher education significandy, perhaps permanentiy, in this part of the 
state." The chairman of the board, Manly Wright, called it shortsighted. 
John Reynolds, vice-chairman of the board, cited the years of building, 
stressed the quality that was developing at A-B College, and pointed out 

Merging with the University : 105 

that Alex Pow had been in Cullowhee only one year and did not under- 
stand all the needs of western North Carolina. The Asheville City Council 
passed a resolution in favor of the merger. Representative John S. Ste- 
vens's reaction to the WCU proposal was thoroughly negative. Represen- 
tative Herschel Harkins reminded Western Carolina officials that he had 
supported them during the 1967 legislative session in their bid to become 
a regional university and said he did not appreciate their opposition to 
something that would benefit his own city. The support for A-B rolled in 
from many different directions and made it overwhelmingly clear that 
backing for President Pew's proposal did not exist in Asheville and the 
surrounding area. 

Meanwhile, the Board of Higher Education was still examining the 
proposal. Even with considerable opposition from some of the members, 
the proposal passed at the March meeting. As soon as the legislators 
received notice of the board's approval, the bill to make Wilmington Col- 
lege and Asheville-Biltmore College the fifth and sixth campuses of the 
Consolidated University was presented to the General Assembly. Claude 
DeBruhl was the principal signatory of the bill in the House of Represen- 
tatives, and Senator John Burney of Wilmington was the principal signa- 
tory for the Senate bill. Each house had a substantial number of cosigners 
to indicate the widespread support for the measure. In April 1969, there 
was a public hearing on the top floor of the General Assembly Building. 
The proposed merger was the only topic of discussion, and people were 
on hand to support all points of view. Both colleges had vocal advocates. 
President Friday spoke from the standpoint of the Consolidated Univer- 
sity, and there was a spokesman for the Board of Higher Education. 
President Pow and several members of his board of trustees were there. 
They were the only representatives who spoke against the measure, and 
their opposition was vigorous. Although Appalachian State University 
had not approved the proposal, it did not support Western Carolina's 
position either. 

At the end of the hearing, an unfortunate incident occurred that dem- 
onstrated the level of intensity this issue had generated. At the entrance to 
the hearing room, President Pow confronted Dr. Arnold King. He ob- 
jected vehemently to the report prepared by King and the Prevost Com- 
mittee, asserting that it had not taken into adequate consideration the 
needs and potential of Western Carolina University and calling it a dis- 
honest report. Dr. King may have been taken aback, but he was not 

io6 : Merging with the University 

speechless. Unfortunately nobody taped his reply, but it is well known 
that for the remainder of his short tenure at WCU, Alex Pow never again 
attempted to take Dr. Arnold King to task. 

There were no more public hearings. The matter was then considered in 
the House and Senate committees on Higher Education. On April 15, 
1969, the bill was approved by the House Committee on Higher Educa- 
tion. It then went to the floor of the House on April 17, where it passed 
by a vote of 81-21. The measure went on to the Senate, where it passed 
on April 23 with only two votes cast against it. One of the negative votes 
(and this would become important later), was cast by Senator Lindsey 

The next day the Asbeville Citizen featured a long story with the banner 
headline "A-B Is Awarded University Rank." The subheadline read, "A-B 
Becomes Western Link of University." The editorial in the newspaper 
called it "a time for jubilation." We were overjoyed that the long cam- 
paign had finally come to a satisfactory conclusion. Even after Western 
Carolina's much-publicized opposition, the bill had been overwhelmingly 
passed in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. It took some 
weeks for everything to settle down and for people to realize that it was 
now necessary for Asheville-Biltmore College to learn how to become a 
reputable campus of the University of North Carolina. One of Chapel 
Hill's leading professors, Dr. Arnold Nash, had already been on our cam- 
pus for an extended visit to talk to the faculty about various matters 
pertaining to admissions, expansions, programs, and the quality and level 
of instruction that would be necessary for our graduates to have an accept- 
able entry into the graduate and professional schools at Chapel Hill. 

The Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University next met on May 
25 in Charlotte. William Wagoner, who had been in his office for approxi- 
mately one year, was elected chancellor of the Wilmington campus. I was 
elected chancellor of the Asheville campus. The board of trustees of Ashe- 
ville-Biltmore College met for the last time on June 16, 1969. One of its 
last official acts was the formal transfer of all property to the University of 
North Carolina. There were mixed emotions at that meeting. It was a 
solemn occasion because the group realized they would never meet again 
as a board and over the years, a great deal of respect and affection had 
developed among them. At the same time, we were happy to have accom- 
plished what we had set out to do, and everyone realized that the merger 
would gready benefit the students of the future. 

Merging with the University : 107 

The final act in the drama of the changeover from Asheville-Biltmore 
College to the University of North Carolina at Asheville occurred on the 
afternoon of July 1, 1969, the date set by the General Assembly for the 
merger. The official ceremony took place in Lipinsky Auditorium at 3:00 
in the afternoon. It was a beautiful day, and a substantial number of 
people from the community, as well as all the news media, were present. 
The speakers were Governor Scott, President Friday, and Manly Wright. 
Don Meyers, president of A-B's student government at that time, spoke 
on behalf of all the students. I recognized the people who had worked so 
hard and so long for our dream. The ceremony ended. President Friday 
and Governor Scott departed. We were the University of North Carolina 
at Asheville. 


A New System 

When the students returned to school in August 1969, the Ridgerunner 
greeted them with the big, boldfaced headline 'Welcome to UNC-A." It 
accurately described the atmosphere on the campus. The changeover from 
A-B College to the University of North Carolina at Asheville was expected 
to be a startling one that would produce many diverse and valuable pro- 
grams in the immediate future. It had taken a great deal to achieve that 
status, since the school still had less than one thousand students. 

The Prevost Committee's report on the campus and the report written 
by Dr. Arnold King that came in the fall of 1968 outiined a small, high- 
quality program responsive to the state's need for liberal arts graduates. 
The type of school A-B College had been trying to become did not as yet 
exist, but, as UNCA, we were on the way. With the support and guidance 
of the University of North Carolina and the General Administration, we 
could accomplish the goals we had set for ourselves earlier in the decade. 
We also had support from Asheville and the surrounding area. 

Actually, little had changed between July 1 and the first day of the fall 
semester, other than the name of the school and our attitude about the 
future. There had been no time to make substantial changes in terms of 
the faculty or the schedule of courses established the previous spring. 
People remained in the same offices, doing the same things. However, we 
believed that we would soon be working on many new programs and that 
the change to UNCA would be substantial and highly visible. 

In the fall of 1969, the recendy formed Faculty Senate began its work 


A New System : 109 

on internal change. There were fifteen members, with the chancellor, the 
dean of the faculty, and the dean of students serving as ex officio members. 
Dr. James Stewart was elected the first chairman. It was a good choice 
because he had the respect of people all over the campus. He was excellent 
at resolving differences of opinion and preventing them from reaching the 
level of disputes. The Faculty Senate had to develop its own agenda and 
procedures. The members realized that everything they did established a 
precedent for the future. Among the senate's first standing committees 
was the academic policies committee, which addressed a naturally central 
concern of the faculty. The committee examined new courses, changes in 
the majors, new programs, and other matters. There was also a student 
services and affairs committee, which concentrated on such offices as ad- 
missions, the registrar, and the guidance and counseling center. Members 
of that committee were also responsible for maintaining communications 
with student government. The third committee to be established focused 
on faculty welfare and was primarily concerned with such matters as sala- 
ries, fringe benefits, reappointments, promotions, appointments to ten- 
ure, and other issues that pertained to faculty status at the institution. 

The Faculty Senate took its work seriously and rapidly established itself 
as a respected force on the campus. The procedure was that the senate as a 
whole would examine the issues studied by specific committees and vote 
on them. The senators then made recommendations to the general faculty, 
which normally met once a month to discuss and vote on the issues. 
During this period, there were frequent and long discussions regarding 
the senate's recommendations. As the years went by and the faculty grew 
larger, it became progressively more difficult to conduct business in a 
reasonable amount of time; many issues came up, and many members of 
the faculty wanted to speak, often at length. The Faculty Senate, how- 
ever, did an excellent job of studying the issues and making careful and 
thoughtful recommendations to the general faculty for consideration. As 
we moved into the fall of 1969, we began to perceive the first indications 
of a struggle that would have a profound and powerful impact on the 
entire state and would directly affect the plans and proposed programs at 
UNCA. The problem was a struggle for authority between the Board of 
Higher Education and the Consolidated University of North Carolina. 
The Board of Higher Education had little real authority at the time, and 
none whatsoever regarding budgetary matters. When the board was es- 

no : A New System 

tablished in 1955, its small staff had been given the responsibility of 
planning and coordinating education in North Carolina. It dealt with 
private institutions as well as publicly supported ones. On the other hand, 
the Consolidated University of North Carolina was an old and experi- 
enced institution, accustomed to managing its own affairs and making its 
own budgetary plans. Officials from each campus took funding requests 
for new buildings, new programs, expansion, enrollment growth, and 
program improvement directly to the Advisory Budget Commission and 
to the General Assembly's House and Senate Committees on Higher 
Education. Without access to this information, the Board of Higher Edu- 
cation was virtually impotent when it came to coordinating higher educa- 
tion in North Carolina. Since decisions were being made between the 
institutions and the General Assembly, all the board could do was simply 
write plans and make recommendations. 

Board members wanted detailed descriptions of programs and itemized 
lists of funds being requested by the University of North Carolina, includ- 
ing where the money would go and for what purpose. The University of 
North Carolina, now six campuses, and the General Administration want- 
ed to continue the practice of having a lump sum assigned to the Universi- 
ty's administrative branch. These funds would then be allocated to the 
campuses in accordance with the General Administration's recommenda- 
tions and the decision of the executive committee of the Board of Trust- 
ees. With some trepidation, the Consolidated University agreed to comply 
with the request of the Board of Higher Education, because officials were 
well aware that systemwide expansion and proliferation of the regional 
universities would require the University's cooperation. It was also clear 
that the General Assembly was seriously considering strengthening the 
board's power, if not its staff. 

The 1969 General Assembly made some significant changes that further 
complicated matters. The inclusion of Wilmington and Asheville as cam- 
puses of the University of North Carolina were not the only legislative 
actions that had an impact on higher education. As a result of pressure 
from the other institutions, the legislators had decided to classify the 
colleges in Elizabeth City, Fayetteville, Pembroke, and Winston-Salem as 
universities. The only state-owned, degree-granting institution that was 
neither a campus of the University of North Carolina nor a regional 
university was the North Carolina School of the Arts, located in Winston- 
Salem, which had highly specialized programs. Another legislative action 

A New System : in 

during 1969 that had a tremendous impact on the future was making the 
governor the ex officio chairman of the Board of Higher Education. Gov- 
ernors had served in a similar capacity for the Board of Trustees of the 
Consolidated University since it had been formed in 193 1. However, 
presiding over both boards exposed the governor to points of view and 
aspirations of the regional universities that were, in many respects, con- 
trary to those held by the University of North Carolina. 

By the fall of 1969, the news media and knowledgeable people across 
the state were beginning to speculate about the future of North Caroli- 
na's system of higher education. The Carlyle Commission's carefully con- 
structed pyramid was in imminent danger of destruction. The commission 
had established a three-layer system, with the University of North Caro- 
lina and its three campuses as the capstone. The major research universi- 
ties and doctoral-granting institutions housed the professional schools 
such as law, medicine, and engineering. But now three more campuses 
had been added to the Consolidated University, with the two at Asheville 
and Wilmington specifically intended to be undergraduate institutions 
without graduate and research responsibilities. The assumption was that 
the Charlotte campus would include graduate and research activities be- 
cause of the large population there. The big question, of course, con- 
cerned the role of the regional universities in this system that had evolved 
since 1967. What type of graduate and professional schools, if any, would 
they have? Would they be limited to master's degree programs? What 
graduate degree programs would they be allowed to offer and who would 
make such decisions? These issues and the lines of conflict were apparent 
by the fall of 1969. Questions would have to be answered, and the only 
place they could be resolved was the General Assembly. 

The UNCA campus had a vital function to perform during the next 
eighteen months. According to the procedures of the Southern Associa- 
tion of Colleges and Schools, when an institution is accredited for the first 
time, as had occurred at A-B College in 1966, it is necessary to be pre- 
pared for another inspection in five years. The association sent Dr. John 
Barker to the campus several times in an advisory capacity. Getting ready 
for the reexamination involved another self-study. The Faculty Senate pro- 
vided general leadership in preparing for the five-year visitation and orga- 
nized a steering committee to prepare the self-study. After that second 
inspection, the Southern Association would visit the campus and require a 
self-study only once every ten years. 

ii2 : A New System 

One of the issues confronting the campus in the fall of 1969 was a 
statewide proposal for a moratorium of classes on all campuses on Octo- 
ber 15 so students could hold rallies protesting the continuation of the 
Vietnam War. The proposal aroused considerable anxiety on all campuses 
of the Consolidated University, since there was no provision for closing 
public-supported institutions in order for people to vent their concerns 
and frustrations. All six chancellors of the Consolidated University signed 
a document assuring that their institutions would be open, classes would 
meet, and any attempt to prevent a student from attending class would be 
a serious violation of University policy. The University, which had long 
advocated freedom of expression, also had the responsibility of maintain- 
ing the continuity of its mission. While the University did not intend to 
interfere with students and faculty and their rights of freedom of speech, it 
could not condone the kind of rallies that had been proposed. 

This matter was becoming increasingly disturbing on many campuses. 
It was not paramount at UNCA, although there was considerable opposi- 
tion to the Vietnam War. The executive committee of the Board of Trust- 
ees of the Consolidated University outlined procedures of response in the 
case of any disruption, which were adopted on September 12, 1969, and 
widely disseminated. The UNCA Faculty Senate wrote a resolution an- 
nouncing to all students and faculty members that the disruption policy of 
the University of North Carolina had legal bearing, meaning that classes 
would not be canceled and the work of the institution would proceed 
normally. This statement was a worthy contribution by the Faculty Senate. 
The problem of rising opposition to the war was difficult to resolve on 
any college campus, and the University system kept searching for a satis- 
factory method of handling dissent. 

Meanwhile, the senate was carefully constructing an improved proce- 
dure for faculty evaluations, an important undertaking because it per- 
tained to such central issues as contract renewals, promotions, salary in- 
creases, and tenure appointments. In the past, the chairman of each 
department and the dean of the faculty had made recommendations to the 
president, who, in turn, made the final decision. The faculty wanted a 
well-structured system of evaluation, one that everyone could understand. 
To begin with, they wanted additional members of each department to 
participate in all personnel decisions. They insisted that each faculty mem- 
ber should know the basis and substance of his or her evaluation. This was 
a complicated matter. In many instances, evaluations were the result of 

A New System : 113 

subjective judgment based on personal interactions. The beginning of the 
development of an evaluation system was a necessary step, but it would be 
a long time before the campus would have a fully developed method that 
was consistent with the Code of The University of North Carolina and writ- 
ten so everyone could understand it. 

In September, with the new campuses having been added to the Con- 
solidated University, President Friday established the University Advisory 
Council. It was composed of the six chancellors and nine elected faculty 
members from each of the six campuses. The Advisory Council was to 
meet regularly and to advise President Friday on faculty attitudes, con- 
cerns, interests, and problems. The Faculty Senate selected UNCA's repre- 
sentatives. There were several meetings, and it was enlightening to visit 
the five other campuses of the University system and have opportunities 
to talk with the faculty members there. 

Although there had been some discussion earlier, the necessity of accel- 
erating transfers became immediate once we became a campus of the 
University. One of the problems was the grading system established in 
1963-64. We had originally started with three grades: pass, fail, and 
honors. The letter G had been added for "good," meaning a grade that 
was not quite up to the quality of honors but above the average level of 
the class. The issue would engage the faculty for several years before it was 
finally resolved. Another and more immediate concern was the calendar. 
When the institution established its new program, there were four ten- 
week terms. Now that it was a campus of the University of North Carolina 
and there were transfer problems, calendar adjustments were mandatory. 
The Consolidated University board had ruled that the calendar of all 
campuses would be composed of two seventeen-week semesters and two 
five-and-a-half- week summer terms. However, it would take us a couple 
of years to convert to the semester system called for by the policy. At the 
same time, we did maintain the term system within the seventeen-week 
semester, and the program continued pretty much the same, although 
there was a little less time. One of the important elements in the gradual 
shift to a straight nine-month calendar was that no efforts were made to 
reduce the faculty salary scale. There had been some adjustments in the 
sixties so that the faculty received ten months of pay for ten months of 
work. When the calendar was changed, the faculty received the same sala- 
ries, plus annual percentage increases. When we adopted the nine-month 
contract, it meant that UNCA faculty would be receiving higher salaries 

ii4 : A New System 

than faculty at other undergraduate campuses in the North Carolina state 
system or institutions in other state systems in the Southeast. A fortunate 
result was that it became much easier to recruit excellent faculty. 

One of the biggest controversies on campus during the fall of 1969 was 
an issue at other universities and colleges across the country as well: stu- 
dents were beginning to demand representation on all faculty committees. 
Their argument was that such committees made decisions that affected 
them and they wanted to have a voice in those decisions. However, they 
refused to consider having faculty members serve on student government 
committees, even though many of the actions of the student government 
affected the welfare and the good name of the institution as a whole. The 
debate between the Student Senate and the Faculty Senate continued for 
several months. A student was eventually selected to serve on the self- 
study steering committee for the Southern Association, and the Faculty 
Senate later made several recommendations about the representation of 
students on a number of other committees. 

By November, the Board of Higher Education was raising some funda- 
mental issues that placed it in direct and open conflict with the regional 
institutions and the Consolidated University. The board, though it had 
neither the experience nor the staff to handle such matters, wanted to 
decide what programs would be offered at each one of the state institu- 
tions, what money would be available for each, and how that money 
would be allocated and supervised. The larger regional universities re- 
sented the potential restriction of their burgeoning plans, and the Con- 
solidated University felt it would be disastrous to comply. After forty 
years, the General Administration was far more experienced, better 
staffed, and better equipped to make such decisions for the Consolidated 
University than the Board of Higher Education was. 

While these significant statewide issues were brewing, rising inflation 
was causing UNCA considerable difficulty. The 1967 General Assembly 
had appropriated $750,000 to cover half the cost of new dormitory con- 
struction to house 300 additional students. The plan was to build two 
additions to the Governors Dormitory Village and one large facility for 
220 students. That was where the trouble began. The architect, J. Bertram 
King, designed the single building according to our needs and specifica- 
tions. We scheduled bid openings four different times but could not pro- 
ceed with construction. Twice the bids came in substantially higher than 
the amount of money projected, and twice we did not have the three bids 
required by state law. 

A New System : 115 

At the time, the construction industry was going through a period of 
such rapid inflation that we could not redesign the plans or cut essentials 
as fast as prices were spiraling. Despite the architect's best efforts, our 
funds failed to cover the cost of the single dormitory alone. Therefore it 
proved necessary to cancel plans for the larger building and build only the 
two small additions, housing forty-eight students each. Since the original 
dormitories had been approved without any state appropriation, they had 
to be paid for totally out of student receipts, and we were hoping we 
would be able to use the rest of the appropriated money to liquidate a 
good portion of the bond indebtedness. Unfortunately, the Office of the 
Attorney General ruled that the money could be used only for the purpose 
for which it had been appropriated. To do otherwise would set a bad 
precedent for the other institutions. We had money left over after the 
construction of the two additions to the Governors Dormitory Village, 
and we received approval to use some for six new tennis courts, a track, 
and a soccer field, all of which were badly needed. Even after these expen- 
ditures, it was necessary to revert approximately $350,000 to the state 
treasurer. We deeply regretted having to return money that would have 
gone such a great distance in financing the original dormitories. 

By the end of the fall semester, the Faculty Senate had approved several 
course changes and the realignment of requirements for majors as re- 
quested by the various departments, but there was still no progress in 
changing the grading system or in developing an adequate and accepted 
faculty-evaluation system. 

In January 1970 we placed names on additional buildings. Originally, 
decisions about naming buildings had been made by the local board. Now 
they had to go before the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated Univer- 
sity. The name of Robert F. Phillips, a longtime board member and chair- 
man from 1950 to 1963, was placed on the administration building. We 
wanted to add the names of Governor Hodges and Governor Hoey to the 
Governors Dormitory Village. Governor Hodges declined, but the Hoey 
family approved, and his name became part of the dormitory village. 

That same month, the campus began to look at some of the recommen- 
dations coming from the UNCA's general education review committee. 
It was a time when students across the country were vigorously protest- 
ing degree requirements and insisting that they be allowed to make indi- 
vidual decisions themselves. Unfortunately, UNCA, like other schools, 
succumbed to student pressure. It was simply part of the atmosphere at 
the time. The faculty approved dropping the fifth humanities course, 

1 1 6 : A New System 

which took away some of the centrality of the program that had developed 
during the sixties. It was their judgment that more careful structuring 
would allow us to keep the humanities a strong and visible program. 
Additionally, the mathematics requirement was dropped, as well as a natu- 
ral science laboratory requirement. Only the biology department offered 
such a course. All social science requirements were dropped. 

The committee received approval for its recommendation that a mini- 
mum of thirty hours at the 300 and 400 levels be obtained before a 
student would be eligible for graduation. In order to remain true to the 
liberal arts nature of the bachelor of arts degree, the committee also rec- 
ommended that the major program could have no more than thirty-six 
semester hours, with a requirement of twenty-four cognate hours in other 
disciplines. As part of the response to student complaints, it had already 
been decided to allow each department to make its own decision regard- 
ing a foreign language requirement. If a student was in a department that 
had no such requirement, alternative courses could be taken. The changes 
eliminated a great many of the general education requirements that had 
been carefully placed in the curriculum in 1964. It was quite possible that 
now too little was being required of all students. It was a matter that 
would weigh heavily on the minds of many of the faculty members and 
administrators, and it raised serious questions regarding the vitality of a 
baccalaureate degree without requirements in some of the basic academic 

The department of education arranged with the University of North 
Carolina at Greensboro to offer two courses at UNCA for local students 
who wanted upper-level credit and area teachers interested in accumulat- 
ing graduate credit at UNC-Greensboro. Both courses were in the field of 
reading and reading disorders. There was a great deal of public concern 
about the inability of public school students to read at acceptable levels, 
and these courses were aimed at working with the public school teachers 
as well as our own students. It was an excellent example of two institutions 
working togedier to respond to a clearly established public need. 

On February 10, 1970, I received a letter from President Friday that 
restated some of the comments concerning the merger that had been 
made by the Prevost Committee of the Consolidated University Board of 
Trustees. The report said, "The experience and resources of the University 
could be devoted to developing superior programs in the liberal arts and 
sciences on the new campuses." This, of course, referred to both Asheville 

A New System 


and Wilmington. President Friday stated in his letter, cc When the legisla- 
ture authorized the merger, this recommendation, in effect, became the 
commitment of the Board of Trustees." This was exactly what we wanted 
to do. We realized that the institution was still resting on a very narrow 
base. We wanted to broaden that base and expand into new areas of study 
to make the institution much more attractive to students who would come 
and who would stay once they were here. Unfortunately, the great strug- 
gles developing in the spring of 1970 would come to a head the following 
year and prevent UNCA from expanding its curriculum at a time when it 
would have been very easy to do so. The conditions were right to assume 
new responsibilities, but, tragically, that could not happen because the 
Consolidated University had to focus almost entirely on its struggle with 
the Board of Higher Education. 

It was an extremely frustrating period of time for those on the UNCA 
campus and in Chapel Hill alike. The General Administration was strug- 
gling with the result of legislation passed in 1969 that gave the Board of 
Higher Education more control over program expansion. The board's 
increased authority clearly hampered the control of the General Adminis- 
tration and the Board of Trustees over the campuses of the University of 
North Carolina. The growing conflict made everyone apprehensive. And 
on the UNCA campus, the Faculty Senate passed a resolution in February 
1970 asking that a new committee be appointed immediately to restudy 
the changes in the general education requirements that the senate had just 
accepted. The senate recognized that the changes had cut too deeply into 
the muscle of the program we were committed to building as a respectable 
campus of the University. 

In March 1970 the department of political science, headed by Profes- 
sors Gene E. Rainey and Bahram Farzanegan, began to use a method of 
teaching that eventually had a great deal of impact campuswide. The 
technique "simulated" international situations. The students on various 
sides of a given conflict established guidelines and turned it into a type of 
game. They had to simulate the decision-making process, which forced 
them to understand that important decisions regarding international rela- 
tions are frequently made without adequate time or information. Simula- 
tion became an excellent tool for exploring a variety of social situations in 
addition to international relations. Shortly thereafter, UNCA students 
who had adequate training in this technique went to area high schools to 
see if those students would be interested in simulation as an extracurricu- 

1 1 8 : A New System 

lar activity. We were pleasantly surprised when they immediately jumped 
at the opportunity. A highly complicated schedule was set up, and simula- 
tion contests were held on the campus, with prizes going to the winning 
teams. It was one of the best examples of university students working in a 
direct instructional capacity with high school students. It was intriguing 
to see young students get as excited about this type of activity as they did 
about athletic events. 

In the spring of 1970 a new student government constitution was writ- 
ten and ratified. It placed more authority for the planning of student 
activities in the hands of the Student Senate. The constitution also pro- 
vided for academic planning in the form of recommendations to the Fac- 
ulty Senate. During that spring the push to include students on faculty 
committees continued to be a problem. The faculty, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Faculty Senate, finally did approve of students' serving on the 
committees for athletics, testing, learning resources, and the library, but 
were overwhelmingly opposed to students sitting on the academic policies 

About this time, I sent a memo to members of the Faculty Senate 
asking them to review with their colleagues the priority of issues that I, as 
chancellor, should be working on for the next several years. There was a 
sprinkling of suggestions, but one recommendation was paramount: I 
needed to get a commitment from the General Administration of the 
Consolidated University about the future mission of UNCA. This was a 
legitimate concern. I asked President Friday to come to the campus and 
discuss this issue with the entire faculty. He came at a later date and talked 
with them about the institution's mission and the need to keep liberal arts 
at its core. He also emphasized the need for the institution to broaden its 

In March 1970 a problem emerged that would eventually loom much 
larger. In 1969, when President Pow opposed the merger of Asheville- 
Biltmore College with the University of North Carolina, he stated that 
Western Carolina University would soon offer courses in its own facilities 
in Asheville, whether or not the merger went dirough. That appeared to 
be true the following spring, when WCU began negotiating for the use of 
an abandoned nursing residence at the Oteen Veterans Administration 
Hospital. A new hospital had been completed in 1967, and there were 
some abandoned buildings that, with appropriate refurbishing, could be 
useful. Upon hearing of this, I immediately contacted President Friday 

A New System : 119 

We discussed the implications of the development, because it clearly 
opened the door to a WCU branch campus in Asheville. While Western 
Carolina would offer some courses that UNCA did not, the probability 
was that there would be considerable duplication, duplication that would 
have to be paid for by the taxpayer. An alarming element in Western 
Carolina's obtaining the use of the facility was that the work in the build- 
ing would, with the approval of the Council of State and the Board of 
Higher Education, be classified as "residence work" and the building itself 
would be a "resident center." This needs clarification because it is an 
important distinction. In the North Carolina system, money appropriated 
for extension work can be used only to cover the overhead on the campus. 
The payment of travel and instruction expenses is covered by tuition from 
students off campus. If the VA facility was to be a resident center, then all 
enrollments would be counted as if they were in Cullowhee, and Western 
Carolina University would receive full FTE appropriation. That was quite 
different from extension work, and it aroused a great deal of anxiety 
because of the financial implications. Both President Friday and I made 
public statements that were picked up by newspapers statewide offering 
President Pow and Western Carolina University the use of vacant class- 
rooms on the UNCA campus. We would allow WCU students access to 
our library and other facilities. At one point, UNC vice-president Edwin 
Bishop and I went to Cullowhee to confer with Pow about the offer. He 
adamandy refused, and said he had been deadly serious when he opposed 
the merger in 1969. The possibility of a branch campus supported by the 
taxpayers at the "resident's rate" took shape. Inasmuch as the University 
of North Carolina had no authority over Western Carolina University, 
nothing could be done to prevent it. In the fall of 1970, classes opened at 
Oteen Center. As we suspected, the schedule included freshman- and 
sophomore-level courses that precisely duplicated UNCA courses. The 
program was not restricted to graduate work that would build on Western 
Carolina's undergraduate programs in business administration and educa- 
tion, which UNCA was not authorized to offer. Instead, the program 
included the general education and liberal arts courses that were a natural 
part of those degrees. In short, it was the beginning of a branch campus. 
The move aroused considerable anxiety, but the University could not stop 
it, and the Board of Higher Education made no effort to oppose it. 

In response to President Friday's letter regarding the expansion of our 
programs, I had several conferences with Dr. Arnold King, vice-president 

1 20 : A New System 

for institutional studies for the University system. On April 15, 1970, I 
wrote to him suggesting that there were several areas that should be 
explored. We asked for consideration to begin a bachelor of arts degree in 
music and a bachelor of science degree in nursing. We indicated other 
areas that we were seriously considering, chief among them the broad field 
of management. We also wanted to offer the master of arts in teaching, a 
degree that was consistent with our program and well within the expertise 
of the department of education and other academic departments on the 
campus. We felt the time would come in the near future to offer master's 
degree programs in several areas. 

In the spring of 1970, the literature department hosted a poetry fair 
that was delightfully received by students, faculty, and people from the 
community. The first fair featured Guy Owen of North Carolina State, 
author of a novel called The Flim-Flam Man. Charleen Whisnant, editor 
of The Red Clay Reader, and Fred Chappell, who had written many poems 
and novellas, also participated. The fair was so successful that plans were 
made to include it in the literature department's regular offerings. 

Plans were fully developed for the second year of the Oxford Program. 
UNCA and UNO-Chapel Hill faculty, augmented by Oxford tutors, 
would provide instruction in philosophy and British literature to students 
who would reside at Regents Park College. The program was arranged to 
allow adequate time for sight-seeing in the British Isles and Europe. It was 
a delightful way for UNCA students to spend a summer at one of the 
world's truly great universities, dating back to the twelfth century. 

America was stunned on the morning of May 4, 1970, when four 
students were killed by the Ohio National Guard on the campus of Kent 
State University. UNCA students were as outraged as students at other 
campuses around the country, but they held themselves well in check and 
did not commit the excesses that occurred in so many places. A memorial 
was held around the flagpole on May 6, and the students requested that 
the flag be lowered to half-mast. When it was explained to them that the 
American flag could be flown at half-staff only by order of the governor or 
the president of the United States, they did not pursue the request. The 
memorial included many speeches and some songs of social protest, but it 
was not necessary for the University disruption policy to go into effect. 
There was a great deal of concern about some of the other campuses, 
particularly regarding what became known as grade amnesty. The Kent 
State tragedy occurred late in the spring, and apparendy professors at 

A New System 


some institutions simply graded students on what they had done by May 
4, when many left school to protest or engage in other activities. The 
practice received a great deal of attention in the state's newspapers. Hap- 
pily, we were not involved in grade amnesty. 

Some significant internal developments took place in the late sixties and 
early seventies. The Computer Center was established under the leader- 
ship of Francis Coyle. Contacts were made to tie in with the Triangle 
Universities Computation Center (TUCC) in Chapel Hill. It marked the 
beginning of computer service and computer science instruction on the 
UNCA campus. 

Another development that grew in importance as the years passed was 
that Professor John Stevens, who had joined the faculty two years earlier, 
received his first National Science Foundation grant in 1970 to research 
the Mossbauer effect. Later, Dr. Stevens and his wife, Virginia, estab- 
lished UNCA as a worldwide center for gathering data on Mossbauer 
research, an important field of spectroscopy in physical chemistry. Many 
volumes and articles have been published, and Dr. Stevens has emerged as 
a leading authority on Mossbauer effect research. 

The completion of the science tower, an addition to the Rhoades Sci- 
ence Building, provided much-needed space for the departments of bi- 
ology, chemistry, and physics. The new laboratories were a great improve- 
ment over those built for a small junior college without the advice of 
working scientists. UNCA received a $125,000 grant from the Appala- 
chian Regional Commission to supplement the cost of instrumentation 
for the teaching laboratories. The biology, chemistry, and physics faculties 
also successfully applied to a number of granting agencies throughout the 
seventies for equipment funds. Inflation made the tower much smaller 
than anticipated, but the space was at least adequate for the immediate 
needs of the sciences. 

One of the things that made people pay more attention to UNCA 
during the 1969-70 year was the Bulldogs' winning basketball season. 
That spring the players had won the district championship of the NAIA 
and went to the national tournament in Kansas City, where they defeated 
Grambling in the first round. Excitement began to build as the basketball 
season drew nearer. All the fans expected an exceptionally good year, with 
Mickey Gibson back for his last year of eligibility and Jim Mcllheny re- 
turning as point guard. Their performance the previous year held promise 
of even better things to come. Rod Healy was back at center, along with 

122 : A New System 

some other players from the 1968-69 district championship team. Unfor- 
tunately, hopes were dashed when Mcllheny suffered a serious knee injury 
in a practice scrimmage just before the season started. There was no doubt 
he would be sidelined for the year, and there was no one to take the place 
of the quickest and most aggressive point guard the team had ever had or 
played against. Gibson, Healy, and the others did their best, and they had 
a winning season, but it was not good enough to get into the district play- 
offs. It was disappointing, because so many people had assumed that with 
Mcllheny and Gibson working together again, UNCA would have a na- 
tionally ranked team that year. 

We had one of our liveliest Foreign Affairs Forums in the spring of 
1970. The subject was America's policy in the Middle East. The Six-Day 
War had taken place only three years earlier, and there was a great deal of 
interest in events in that part of the world. We were extremely fortunate in 
getting some financial support for the program from the General Admin- 
istration. President Friday worked to augment our resources with money 
from the William Carmichael Fund. There were only three speakers in the 
series, but they were outstanding, and we had excellent crowds. The open- 
ing speaker was Ambassador Yitzhak Rabin, who was Israel's ambassador 
to the United States. He had been chief of staff of the Israeli army during 
the Six-Day War and worked closely with Defense Minister Moshe Dayan. 
Lipinsky Auditorium was so full that some people had to stand in order to 
hear this discussion of Israel and its problems with its neighbors. The 
second speaker was a former United States ambassador to Israel, Parker T. 
Hart. He gave an excellent summary of American policy in the Middle 
East, beginning with President Harry S. Truman's recognition of Israel in 
May 1948. The final speaker was Professor Abdul Said, a Syrian who had 
been teaching international relations at American University for many 
years. He presented a very different picture of the Middle East conflict, his 
basic emphasis being on the problem of the displaced Palestinians who 
had been run out of Israel in 1948 and 1949. It was one of the liveliest 
Foreign Affairs Forums ever held. 

By the end of our first year as a campus of the Consolidated University 
of North Carolina, we had made many internal administrative changes. 
All the stationery and forms had to be reprinted. We had to learn new 
procedures and how to work with the General Administration in Chapel 
Hill. Since 1962 it had been my custom to go directly to the various state 
government offices in Raleigh. I could drive down, spend a day or two 

A New System : 123 

there, discuss any problems that existed, get decisions, and return to Ashe- 
ville. I had grown fond of such people as G. Andrew Jones, J. W. Piner, 
and Bruce Harrington in the Budget Office; Sam Badget of the Personnel 
Department, and Robert Bourne in the Office of Property Control. The 
procedure was now different. We had to wait until General Administration 
officials could present our case, along with those of the other campuses of 
the Consolidated University, for any decision on matters of finance, pro- 
grams, personnel, and construction. 

Nevertheless, we considered the first year a successful one. The students 
had responded with considerable restraint to the problems resulting from 
the Vietnam War and the Kent State tragedy. The Faculty Senate had dealt 
with some pressing issues and was beginning to work smoothly. Classes 
met regularly, and the work of the institution went on. We believed in a 
bright future, but we were aware of two clouds looming on the horizon 
that would become more threatening as time passed. One was the grow- 
ing conflict between the Board of Higher Education and the Consolidated 
University. The other was the presence in Asheville of Western Carolina 
University's "resident center." 

The first UNCA class to graduate was scheduled for May 1970. Be- 
cause of his assistance in getting the merger through the General Assem- 
bly, we felt the appropriate speaker for the first graduation would be 
Governor Robert Scott. However, we did not realize when we extended 
the invitation that his presence would create such security problems. The 
ceremony was scheduled to begin at eight o'clock in the evening on the 
terrace of the D. Hiden Ramsey Library. When we planned for the 
graduation, we had no foreknowledge of Kent State or the reaction on 
campuses all over the country. Several weeks before the graduation, repre- 
sentatives of the State Bureau of Investigation came to the campus. We 
walked them over the precise route that the line of march would take from 
the Phillips Administration Building to the library terrace. We showed 
them exactly where Governor Scott would sit and traced the path he 
would take when he left the terrace. It was exciting to have UNCA's first 
class graduate out in the open on a clear and beautiful night. At the same 
time, there were armed plainclothesmen all along the line of the proces- 
sional, and it was somewhat disconcerting to sit on the terrace surrounded 
by armed men on the tops of the buildings looking down on the proceed- 
ings. We understood the necessity for the protective measures, since Gov- 
ernor Scott had received threats from several parts of the state, but few of 

1 24 : A New System 

us will ever forget what it was like to have our first UNCA class graduate 
under such circumstances. 

The summer of 1970 was idyllic in many ways. The healthy registration 
for summer school boosted our budget and allowed us to take better care 
of the various needs of the institution. The highlight of the year for me 
was the period between mid-July and mid- August, when I was able to go 
to Oxford and observe firsthand the operation of our program there. 
President Friday made funds available to me from the Kenan Fund for 
administrative travel. The program was in its second year of operation and 
had become quite effective. Thirty-two students participated that summer, 
and it was delightful to see the way they responded to the courses, the 
atmosphere of Oxford University, and the opportunities to explore the 
British Isles and Europe on weekends. The Oxford University tutors Pro- 
fessor Stewart had obtained were all outstanding, and after attending 
several of the lectures, I was convinced that the students were privileged to 
hear some of the finest minds in the world speak on topics that were a part 
of their course work. 

One of the on-campus highlights that summer was a basketball camp 
organized by Rick Barry. Joining him as instructors were such well-known 
players as Charlie Scott, Larry Brown, and Doug Moe. Anyone familiar 
with the history of the National Basketball Association will recognize 
those names. It was exciting to have such outstanding athletes on the 
campus for the popular camp. 

In August 1970, the Advisory Budget Commission visited the campus. 
We reviewed what we had been doing for the last several years, particularly 
with the funds appropriated in 1967. Our primary request was for an 
appropriation of $1.5 million for a separate social sciences building. At 
that point, all the departments were crowded into the west wing of the 
administration building, which was totally unsatisfactory in terms of the 
kind of work the growing faculty wanted to perform. We had no laborato- 
ries for sociology or psychology, and all the departments were in the same 
overloaded situation. It was a critical request on our part, and we hoped 
the Advisory Budget Commission would recognize that need. 

When the 1970 school year began, UNCA's enrollment topped one 
thousand for the first time. When we had our first faculty meeting, there 
were seventeen new members to be introduced. Dr. Walter Boland be- 
came the new chairman of the sociology department. Dr. Shirley C. Brow- 
ning also joined the faculty that year. He would later become chairman of 

A New System 


the economics department, serve several times as chairman of the Faculty 
Senate, and fill a two-year term as chairman of the Faculty Assembly for 
the University of North Carolina, a body that consults with and advises 
the university president on faculty matters. Paul Thomas Deason joined 
the institution as director of institutional research. He later served as dean 
of students for several years. Arnold Wengrow joined the drama depart- 
ment that year and began to develop some extraordinary productions. 

At the opening faculty meeting for the 1970-71 academic year, we 
noted that money would be tight because the state operates on a biennial 
budget, and this was the second year of the biennium. The Faculty Senate 
had already established itself and would soon emerge as one of the key 
sources for encouraging faculty participation institutionwide. Dr. Riggs, 
vice-chancellor for academic affairs, reviewed the effects of the calendar 
changes. He predicted that we would probably be teaching one hundred 
fewer courses within a shorter year and that the faculty would teach eight 
courses rather than the ten that had been customary when we had four 
ten- week terms. The only way to do justice to the curriculum would be to 
organize the enrollment in such a way that the classes would be somewhat 
larger. We also reviewed the progress of the second self-study required by 
the Southern Association. We would be hosting another visiting team in 
the fall of 1 97 1, five years after our initial accreditation. We announced 
that we had received approval to transfer $140,000 of the money remain- 
ing after we canceled the dormitory project for additional tennis courts, a 
track, and a soccer field. We also received approval to apply $90,000 
toward the purchase of 22.06 acres of land that would extend the campus 
toward the Route 19-23 bypass. It was property that would not be used 
immediately, but it became quite valuable later on. 

On October 5, 1970, 1 sent President Friday a letter that I still consider 
to be one of the most important I ever wrote to him. The occasion was the 
presentation of the recommended "B" budget by the Board of Higher 
Education. A presentation made to the Advisory Budget Commission by 
the Board of Higher Education on September 21 included several com- 
ments that deeply disturbed all of us at UNCA. When I received the full 
copy of the board's statement, my apprehensions were even more height- 
ened. Section 4 concerned faculty salaries and presented the argument 
that there should be categories of higher education institutions in North 
Carolina and that they should have the same salary scales. The report 
included the following sentence: "This would mean that the state would 

126 : A New System 

be treating all of its four-year institutions alike, all of its five-year institu- 
tions alike. . . ." On the next page, several percentages were listed that 
would increase faculty salary levels at various institutions above the 8 
percent that was being established for faculty salary raises for that year. 
UNCA was not on that list. Apparently, that meant we should hold down 
our advance until the other institutions in our category — Elizabeth City 
State University, Pembroke State University, the University of North 
Carolina at Wilmington, Fayetteville State University, and Winston-Salem 
State University — could catch up in terms of faculty salaries. I asked what 
else was going to be equalized in addition to faculty salaries. If we went 
that route, we would be establishing a uniform level of mediocrity, since 
there were great variations in undergraduate SAT scores among those 
institutions. In short, building a quality program at UNCA would be 

The other areas of the budget as proclaimed by the Board of Higher 
Education would reduce the expenditure on books at UNCA to an 
amount considerably below what we had been spending since becoming a 
four-year institution. We objected to the idea that faculty salaries, library 
appropriations, and other budgetary items could be transferred from one 
institution to another without considering unique qualities or special 
commitments made during the years past. The board's position contra- 
dicted previous actions it had taken regarding UNCA. 

Before accepting parts of the proposed Asheville-Biltmore program in 
1963, the board had asked several well-known educators from institutions 
such as Emory, Dartmouth, and the University of the South to come and 
counsel with the faculty about the kind of program that was developing. 
The visit took place in December, and the committee reported that we had 
some exciting ideas. It gave a warning to the Board of Higher Education 
and to the General Assembly that A-B College should not be allowed to 
start on the type of program that had been outlined without an under- 
standing that it would cost more per student per year to operate than a 
traditional institution. 

Similar statements were made when Asheville-Biltmore was being stud- 
ied in preparation for its merger with the University of North Carolina. A 
special committee of the UNC board visited and, under Dr. King's direc- 
tion, examined our program. It recommended that UNCA should con- 
tinue what it was doing and stated that, as such, it would be a viable and 
important part of the University of North Carolina. Dr. King's report 

A New System 


included the following statement: "The merger would extend the re- 
sources of the University into cities where there is a long-range potential 
for developing campuses that would be attractive to students on a state- 
wide basis. They would appeal to students who prefer institutions of 
moderate size with a less traditional and a more experimental approach to 
undergraduate education. The experience and resources of the University 
could be devoted to developing superior programs in the liberal arts and 
sciences on the new campuses." 

The Board of Higher Education had been so supportive of our special 
role in higher education that the change in attitude could be explained 
only by the fact that we were now part of the University of North Caro- 
lina. There were a considerable number of regional university representa- 
tives on the board; by merging, we had inadvertendy become soldiers of 
the enemy. The board's position in the fall of 1970 raised disturbing 
questions that I, in turn, raised with President Friday. The first was 
whether or not the University of North Carolina agreed that UNCA filled 
a special role in higher education. Moreover, if UNCA was not to pursue 
this role in the future, we wanted to know who had made that decision, 
how it had been made, and why we had not been included in the decision- 
making process. The implications of the budget presented by the Board of 
Higher Education made UNCA more wary of its other proposals and 
even more determined to work with the University of North Carolina to 
protect its special status. 

Another issue began to take shape in the fall of 1970, when President 
Friday requested the department chairmen from all the campuses to draw 
up plans for recruiting black faculty members and to keep detailed records 
about all of their efforts to secure such personnel. It was obvious that 
this issue was going to become a matter of great significance to the Unit- 
ed States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and to the Uni- 

While considerable apprehension was growing over the rising conflict 
between the Board of Higher Education and the University of North 
Carolina, matters on campus proceeded in a normal way. Students were 
placed on all of the institutional committees, including the self-study com- 
mittee. After months of intense discussion, it was finally agreed that the 
Student Government Association would recommend students to serve as 
committee members and Vice-Chancellor Riggs would make the actual 
appointments. The unfortunate truth was that once the students found 

128 : A New System 

out how much time and tedious work the committee meetings involved, 
they stopped attending, and their contributions were never as great as 
they had anticipated. 

Meanwhile, classes were held, students found ways to entertain them- 
selves, the dormitories were full, and the campus pulsated with a life of 
its own. Basketball season approached, and homecoming was held, with 
Coed Capers adding once again to the fun. Although Mickey Gibson was 
gone, everyone looked forward to the return of Jim Mcllheny and 
thought the team was headed for a satisfactory season. We did not dream 
what an exciting finish we would have in March. 

Professor Frank Edwinn started an early morning television show on 
music history and appreciation at the beginning of the fall term. Students 
could take the course for credit or watch purely for pleasure. It was our 
first venture in television broadcasting. WLOS-TV was cooperative, and 
we continued with other courses for several years. The 6:30 a.m. spot was 
usually reserved for UNCA and its programs. 

In September 1970 the golf team won a tournament in Kentucky, with 
Joe Patton and Chris Lee being the low scorers for UNCA. 

The Computer Center was entering its fourth year under Francis Coyle. 
Although the budget was very tight, the center had a relationship with 
the Triangle Universities Computation Center and was a member of the 
North Carolina Education Computing Service. We received a grant of 
$9,500 from the National Science Foundation to advance the use of com- 
puters by undergraduates. Funding for computer training was becoming 
progressively more essential. 

Several other noteworthy events occurred in the fall of 1970. It was the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the United Nations, and a workshop led by Dr. 
Joseph Johnston reviewed the organization's peacekeeping efforts during 
the quarter century. 

Another boost that same semester came when Norman Sultan, a local 
businessman, set up a competitive art scholarship. The first winner was 
Charles Millstead, who later would have some important contributions to 
make to UNCA. 

In October, WUNF went on the air for the first time. The only signal 
the radio station transmitted came from the little studio in the student 
center and went to the dormitories and the speakers located in the cafete- 
ria. The three students involved in the venture were Dave Anders, Ray 
Holden, and Carl Ballard. As time went on, the radio station would grow 

A New System 


and become a story in itself. It is important to note that the station was 
funded by the Student Government Association and was managed and 
staffed entirely by students. 

At homecoming, William Mock, who was a member of the Class of 
1966, was elected to head the alumni association. A problem had been 
developing during the past several years regarding alumni. Those who had 
graduated from the four-year program wanted to have their own associa- 
tion and showed little inclination to include graduates of the junior col- 
lege. This position created considerable resentment on the part of the 
junior college graduates, who believed the organization should represent 
all graduates. It took several years to resolve this problem. Meanwhile, 
annual meetings were small and rather lifeless, and because there were no 
funds to employ even a part-time person, the alumni association was not 
able to make the contribution we hoped it would. 

In January 1971 we received a copy of the budget being presented first 
by the Advisory Budget Commission and then by Governor Scott to the 
General Assembly. It was a shock to see that budget and contemplate its 
implications for the coming academic year. Almost all of UNCA's capital 
requests had been removed, most specifically the request for a social sci- 
ences building. We were concerned that the budget was missing that es- 
sential item and recalled with considerable apprehension the proposed 
budget that had been presented by the Board of Higher Education. 

However, a basketball game played on March 3, 1971, at the coliseum 
in Greenville, South Carolina, made us forget all about budgetary prob- 
lems temporarily. The UNCA team had been very successful with Mcll- 
heny back, even without Gibson's on-court skills. The team had made it 
into the play-offs for District 26 of the NAIA, which included schools in 
South Carolina and western North Carolina. The final game determined 
the team that would go to the national tournament in Kansas City and 
pitted UNCA against Western Carolina University. A lively rivalry existed 
between the schools, and the two teams had already played during the 
season, with each team winning one game. The final game of the tourna- 
ment was probably as exciting a game as anyone who witnessed it will ever 
see. It was UNCA's ball, with fifteen seconds left in a tie game. Time was 
called, and a play was set up to give Mcllheny a chance to shoot a jump 
shot over a screen from about sixteen feet out. When he missed the shot, 
the game went into overtime. The situation was identical at the end of the 
first overtime; the score was tied, UNCA had the ball, and with fifteen 

130 : A New System 

seconds to go, time was called and the ball was given to Mcllheny to shoot 
over the screen from about fifteen feet out. Once again he missed, putting 
the game into its second overtime. By this time, the crowd was almost 
hysterical. Western Carolina managed to build a one-point lead during the 
second overtime. With only a few seconds to go, UNCA had the ball and 
was trying to pull ahead. A foul was called against one of the UNCA 
players. Because of the number of fouls that had been accumulated, WCU 
was in a one-and-one situation. The scoreboard showed only five seconds 
remaining in the second overtime, and with Western Carolina in control 
of the ball at the foul line, it looked as if they were going to win the game, 
but die WCU player missed the front end of the one-and-one. Rod Healy 
immediately grabbed the ball and passed it to Joe Kagel. Kagel dribbled 
to midcourt just as the game was coming to an end and let fly a shot 
toward the basket. Miracle of miracles, it went in and UNCA won by a 
score of 62-61! No one will ever forget the bedlam at the end of that 

The trip to Kansas City was anticlimactic because UNCA drew the 
powerful team from Stephen F. Austin College of Texas for the first round. 
The Bulldogs lost their first game at that Kansas City tournament, but the 
memory of the incredibly exciting win in Greenville overcame any sense of 

One of the impressive things beginning to take shape at UNCA was the 
involvement of undergraduate students in faculty research. In the spring 
of 1 97 1, the biology department received a grant of $8,360 to involve 
students in a project concerning Lake Julian, which is owned by the Caro- 
lina Power and Light Company. The purpose of the project was to deter- 
mine the impact of warm water flowing in from the plant on the fish life in 
the lake. This was just the beginning of many research activities in which 
students would be directiy involved with faculty members. It was an im- 
portant commitment on the part of the institution to encourage student 
participation in research and teach what research actually means in terms 
of pushing back the boundaries of knowledge. Over the years, this has 
become an increasingly important aspect of undergraduate education at 

In March 1971 the campus established its own chapter of Alpha Phi 
Omega. This national fraternity is based on the concept of service rather 
than on socialization, and the organization proved helpful in many ways 
in its early years. 

The Foreign Affairs Forum continued that spring. U. Alexis Johnson, 

A New System : 131 

the featured speaker, addressed the general public at night and appeared 
before the students during the day because so many wanted to hear him. 
The then under secretary of state had been ambassador to Japan and 
deputy ambassador to Vietnam. In 1971 with the Vietnam War still going 
on, people wanted to hear and question a person of such knowledge and 
experience. While most of the students were interested in what Johnson 
had to say about Vietnam, his address included an issue of even greater 
importance. He advanced the theory that the United States was now 
becoming more of a Pacific than an Atlantic power, and he emphasized 
the economic potential of Japan. Unfortunately, few heeded his warning. 
In 1 97 1 no one believed Japan could make the economic leaps that it has 
made in the past fifteen years. 

In a lighter vein, comedian Dick Gregory appeared on campus on May 
6 to a packed house. His monologue was a wealth of humorous stories, 
and he received a lively response from the campus and the community. 

That same month, the Land of the Sky Invitational Swim Meet was 
held on the UNCA campus, with 270 swimmers from three states partici- 
pating. The event was sponsored by UNCA, with help from the chamber 
of commerce. We had a well-coached swim team at that time, thanks 
largely to the selfless contribution of Betsy Montgomery. She made an 
arrangement with UNCA to develop and coach the swim team in return 
for our allowing her daughter Mary to use the pool for practice. We were 
all interested in Mary Montgomery's Olympic goals. She eventually made 
the American swim team and competed in the Olympics at Munich. Betsy 
Montgomery kept the team together for several years. It was a talented, 
hardworking group that won several challenging contests. 

A memorable event that spring was the first major drama production by 
the new chairman, Arnold Wengrow. He chose an old British comedy of 
manners, She Stoops to Conquer. Wengrow made the script sparkle with 
new life while deftly maintaining the slighdy bawdy comic tradition of 
eighteenth-century England. He rewrote some of it and set the entire 
production to the beat of rock music, particularly the well-known song 
"Rock around the Clock." Gregg Riggs, Deborah "Dee" Grier, and Patsy 
Clarke were involved in the planning, production, and presentation of the 
rollicking comedy. When the play closed, we realized that a new and 
fascinating dimension had been added to our campus, and we looked 
forward to Wengrow's future productions. At that time, the drama pro- 
gram was part of the literature and language department. We wanted 
students in drama to know about production, but we also wanted them to 

132 : A New System 

know about the literary value of the plays that have contributed so much 
to humanity over the centuries. Shortly thereafter, the drama program was 
established as a separate department, and Arnold Wengrow was made 
chairman. He was also the director of what became known as Theatre 
UNCA, and he continued to be remarkably adept at taking well-known 
classics and presenting them in modern idiom and tempo. 

The spring of 1971 on the UNCA campus was, in many respects, quite 
normal. Students graduated in May, and general activities went on as if 
nothing else was happening. Nevertheless, all of us were painfully aware 
that developments in the General Assembly would have a profound effect 
on all of higher education in North Carolina, particularly on the special 
mission that had been established for UNCA. These issues are so impor- 
tant that the next chapter will review the steps that were taken leading to 
the legislation that eventually transformed higher education in North 


David Millard Junior High School 


Buncombe County Children's Home 


D. Hiden Ramsey Library, The University of North Carolina at Asheville 



Restructuring the University 

Actions in the field of higher education during 197 1 were so important in 
North Carolina that one cannot understand the subsequent developments 
in the state system nor the specific developments at UNCA in the seven- 
ties without some general knowledge of what became known as restruc- 
turing. The General Assembly decisions that year, although not intended 
to do so, affected UNCA more deeply and profoundly than they did any 
other campus in the state. Restructuring was important on every campus, 
from the standpoint of both the decision-making process at the top and 
the determination of who had control and authority over all the state- 
supported institutions of higher education. It meant that UNCA would 
have to carefully reexamine its role and mission and make internal changes 
that were responsive to the new structure of higher education in the state. 

One chapter cannot possibly review all that lay behind the 1971 enact- 
ments. Some day someone will write a monograph or book about the 
restructuring struggle in North Carolina. This chapter can only review the 
more important steps in order to provide the reader with a better under- 
standing of subsequent developments at UNCA. 

In 193 1, in the depths of the Great Depression, there were similar 
problems, but of a lesser magnitude. Institutional ambitions, conflicts, 
and program duplications were costing the state a substantial amount of 
money when there was no money available. Governor O. Max Gardner 
took the leadership in reorganizing several of the campuses, eliminating 
the duplication of expensive graduate and professional programs that had 


138 : Restructuring the University 

emerged, particularly at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State in Raleigh. 
At that time there were very few students at state-supported schools other 
than the three institutions that would become known in 193 1 as the 
Consolidated University of North Carolina. Those three were given their 
names at that time: the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the 
nation's oldest state-supported college; the North Carolina State College 
of Agriculture and Engineering at Raleigh; and North Carolina College 
for Women at Greensboro. They all had good programs, but with the 
exceptions of the law and medical schools, located at Chapel Hill, each 
was engaged in costly duplications in their graduate programs and re- 
search organizations. The other institutions in the state were special-pur- 
pose institutions or small teachers colleges. 

Dr. Frank Porter Graham, one of the outstanding men in higher educa- 
tion of the twentieth century, was elected the first president after legisla- 
tion was enacted to provide for the consolidation. There was now a chan- 
cellor under his jurisdiction at each campus, whereas there had once been 
a president. Before consolidation, there had been no administrative meth- 
od of supervising the campuses; each president and board of trustees went 
directly to the General Assembly for support and appropriations. 

After World War II the great numbers of returning veterans and the GI 
Bill provided the impetus for other schools in North Carolina to grow. 
The smaller colleges, particularly East Carolina Teachers College in Green- 
ville, Appalachian State Teachers College in Boone, and Western Carolina 
Teachers College in Cullowhee, found it necessary to expand their pro- 
grams far beyond the traditional teachers college curriculum. Approval 
and funding for new programs depended upon the effectiveness of their 
presidents and boards of trustees, working with their legislators and lob- 
bying the General Assembly for approval. The impetus to consider means 
of coordinating and directing this growth started in the early fifties. 

A commission chaired by UNC trustee Victor Bryant of Durham stud- 
ied what was happening and made the recommendation that a coordinat- 
ing board to review programs and to plan for the future needs of higher 
education would be a contribution of great benefit to North Carolina. 
The president of the University of North Carolina at that time, Gordon 
Gray, vigorously supported the idea of a coordinating commission and 
sent word of his support to the General Assembly. He reasoned that such 
a commission would be an excellent addition for North Carolina and that 
the three-campus Consolidated University of North Carolina would natu- 

Restructuring the University : 139 

rally expect to be part of its jurisdiction. It was ironic, in 1 971, to remem- 
ber that the impetus to establish what became known as the North Caro- 
lina Board of Higher Education had come from one of the strongest 
trustees of the University and from the president of the Consolidated 
University. The irony was further compounded by the fact that William 
Friday, a graduate of the Chapel Hill Law School working in President 
Gray's office at the time, actually wrote the bill presented to the General 
Assembly for its consideration. In 1955 the General Assembly created a 
Board of Higher Education with authority to plan for and to coordinate 
higher education in North Carolina. At that time, the board had authority 
to review institutional budgets and make recommendations to the General 
Assembly It also had the statutory responsibility to examine the future 
needs of the state and to work with the institutions in planning how they 
would respond to those needs. 

It did not take long for conflict to develop between the Board of 
Higher Education and the Consolidated University of North Carolina. 
The board was not given any decision-making powers. It had only the 
authority to plan, to gather data and statistics, to review, and to make 
recommendations on budgets; it did not have the political power base to 
influence campus budgets. That area was left to the boards of trustees, 
who had the statutory authority to oversee each of the institutions. 

Conflict between the Consolidated University and the Board of Higher 
Education erupted in several areas, but the real precipitant of change was 
the question of housing for married students at North Carolina State 
College in Raleigh. The University Board of Trustees had the responsi- 
bility for North Carolina State, as well as for Chapel Hill and Greensboro. 
The board felt that decisions about the details of the intended housing 
complex at North Carolina State did not fall under the jurisdiction of the 
Board of Higher Education. In fact, it considered such actions by that 
board to be meddling with authority that clearly belonged to the Board of 
Trustees of the University of North Carolina. In 1959, as a result of the 
University's initiative, the General Assembly removed authority for bud- 
getary recommendations from the Board of Higher Education. The Uni- 
versity maintained that the immediate issue, married student housing at 
NC State, was subject only to the jurisdiction of the Board of Trustees. 
Officials felt that unless the statutes were changed, the Board of Higher 
Education would become involved over and over again in what the Uni- 
versity trustees considered to be unwarranted intrusion. 

140 : Restructuring the University 

In 1 961, when Governor Terry Sanford appointed the Governor's 
Commission on Education beyond the High School, chaired by Irving E. 
Carlyle of Winston-Salem, some of the members of the Board of Higher 
Education were furious. They contended that the type of planning study 
done by the Carlyle Commission was precisely what the Board of Higher 
Education had been charged with doing when it was created in 1955, b ut 
the board had only a small professional staff with a few secretaries and 
simply did not have the resources to make the kind of study Governor 
Sanford wanted. Furthermore, the governor wanted a large, blue-ribbon 
committee composed of leaders of the state who were interested in higher 
education and whose support would help him get adequate measures 
passed through the General Assembly. 

As the reader will recall, the Carlyle Commission resulted in the passage 
in 1963 of the Omnibus Higher Education Act, one of the single most 
important pieces of legislation in higher education in the state during the 
twentieth century. The Carlyle Commission recommended that state-sup- 
ported higher education have three tiers. The baccalaureate-level institu- 
tions, which offered only four-year degree programs, included institutions 
at Elizabeth City, Fayetteville, Winston-Salem, and Pembroke; the Com- 
mission recommended also that Wilmington, Charlotte, and Ashe- 
ville become fully supported four-year state colleges. One step above that 
would be the institutions authorized to grant master's degrees, including 
East Carolina College, North Carolina Central College, Appalachian State 
College, North Carolina Agriculture and Technical College, and Western 
Carolina College. Doctoral degree programs, professional schools such as 
law, medicine, engineering, and dentistry, and the major responsibility for 
graduate and research work outside teacher education programs should be 
within the jurisdiction of the three-campus Consolidated University of 
North Carolina. It was a neat and coherent assignment of function to all 
of the institutions in the state. 

After the enactment of the Omnibus Higher Education Act, frequent 
protests arose from the Board of Higher Education, and in 1965 a bill was 
entered into the House of Representatives to abolish the board. Governor 
Dan K. Moore considered it the worst possible answer to the problem, 
and he supported and secured the passage of a bill that enlarged the board 
by fourteen members, nine of whom were appointed by the governor. 
One of his appointments was Watts Hill, Jr., of Chapel Hill and Durham. 
The board promptiy followed the governor's suggestion and elected Hill 

Restructuring the University : 141 

chairman. He was the son of a member of the Board of Trustees of the 
Consolidated University, a man who had served on the executive commit- 
tee for many years and who had made substantial contributions in money 
and land to the Chapel Hill campus and the Consolidated University. The 
family had been involved with the University for generations and was 
prominent in central North Carolina's business and civic affairs. Watts 
Hill, Jr., already had a good working knowledge of higher education in 
North Carolina because he had served as chairman of the Committee on 
Higher Education for two terms in the House of Representatives. He was 
aware of the continuing conflict between the Board of Higher Education 
and the Consolidated University, understood why it existed, and had 
some grasp of how the members of the General Assembly felt about the 
growing controversy. 

Dr. William Archie, who had been director of the Board of Higher 
Education for several years, resigned and was replaced by his assistant 
director, Dr. Howard Boozer, who stayed in the job for several years 
before leaving the state. He, in turn, was replaced by his assistant direc- 
tor, Dr. Cameron West, who had been chief academic officer of Pfeiffer 

The Board of Higher Education never had the political influence to 
obtain the appropriations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the law 
adequately. Some state campuses had plans for new buildings and others 
for new degree programs, but none had what could be called a compre- 
hensive, long-range plan. Since planning was one of the statutory func- 
tions of the Board of Higher Education, Watts Hill, Jr., the board, and the 
staff began to gather information and data in order to present to the state 
for the first time something approaching comprehensive, long-range plan- 
ning in the field of higher education. Their work was put together in a 
rather large volume and presented to the state in November 1968. It 
projected the collected needs of the state on the basis of data from the 
various campuses and examined how well the institutions' plans would 
meet those needs. In one of the most critical and at the same time most 
controversial chapters of the volume, chapter 15, the Board of Higher 
Education called attention to the various problems that had emerged in 
the state and suggested that North Carolina needed a single board with 
full jurisdiction over all sixteen institutions. 

This position was completely contrary to ideas of the Board of Trustees 
of the Consolidated University. Since 193 1 the Board of Trustees had 

142. : Restructuring the University 

been composed of distinguished citizens from all over the state elected by 
the General Assembly and with full authority over the three-campus Con- 
solidated University. The full board met three times a year to hear reports 
on the consolidated institutions and in the field of higher education, and 
to take such actions as were required by the original statute that brought 
the institutions into being. The hundred-member board, meeting infre- 
quentiy, could not provide adequate supervision of the growing three- 
campus university, but the board had an elected executive committee com- 
posed of fifteen people, which met at least once a month. The executive 
committee included some of the state's most powerful economic and po- 
litical leaders, men and women with a consuming interest in the Univer- 
sity. There was no limit to the number of terms board members could 
serve. A substantial number of trustees served on the board and the execu- 
tive committee for many years, some for more than thirty years. 

Before 1971, the president of each institution not affiliated with the 
University, backed by his trustees and interested supporters, appeared 
before the Appropriations Committee of both houses. Each one also met 
with the Advisory Budget Commission on its biennial tour of the state 
and presented the needs, aspirations, and accomplishments of his institu- 
tion. The Consolidated University had one major presentation by Presi- 
dent Friday, focusing on all consolidated campuses and their responsi- 
bilities throughout the state. He was backed by comments from the chan- 
cellor of each campus, who responded to questions concerning his respec- 
tive campus. 

Not only did the Consolidated University have major responsibilities in 
the high-budget fields of graduate work and the schools of law, architec- 
ture, medicine, dentistry, engineering, and agriculture and agricultural 
extension, but it had more than 5 5 percent of the total enrollment of all 
the state's sixteen institutions. As a result, the Consolidated University 
received appropriations considerably greater than all other institutions 

Of the regional institutions, East Carolina College had considerable 
success largely due to an extraordinarily astute president, Dr. Leo Jenkins. 
In addition, the eastern delegation worked as a bloc to maximize their 
influence. Many close issues were decided by that bloc of eastern Carolina 

After 1967, the five regional universities became a powerful aggregate 
working together in the General Assembly to confront effectively the 
overall influence of the Consolidated University of North Carolina. 

Restructuring the University : 143 

East Carolina College wanted a full four-year school of medicine. It had 
been discussed for several years and had secured the support of the eastern 
Carolina legislators. Over several successive sessions of the General As- 
sembly, the eastern bloc and East Carolina College built up political cred- 
its by supporting projects in other areas of the state, contingent on a 
pledge of support for the medical school when the time came. 

By 1968 both Wilmington and Asheville realized that their futures 
would be safer under the umbrella of the University of North Carolina 
than isolated in a state where two powerful associations of institutions 
were developing. At the same time, the inclusion of these two institu- 
tions at opposite ends of the state would strengthen the Consolidated 
University by gaining the support of legislators from Buncombe and New 
Hanover counties and their associates. The 1969 General Assembly suc- 
cumbed to political pressure and gave the title of university to all the 
institutions of higher learning, except the School of the Arts in Winston- 

The same legislature granted the governor's request to become statu- 
tory chairman of the Board of Higher Education. The governor had held 
this position on the Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University 
since its inception in 193 1. His role on both boards, one operating a six- 
campus University and the other charged with planning and coordinating 
for all sixteen institutions, put the governor in a position to attend all the 
meetings and hear the varied, and often diametrically opposed, views pre- 
sented. It was a condition guaranteed to generate conflict and confusion, 
as well as deep and bitter resentments. The Board of Higher Education 
had a restrictive mission, even though it had re-acquired the authority to 
review budgets and to make recommendations. Nevertheless, it had no 
faculty, no students, no alumni, and it was clearly an agent of governmen- 
tal direction. The board members took their statutory mission seriously, 
however, even though it often brought them into conflict with the older 
and better-established University of North Carolina board. The UNC 
board could point to forty years of developing a multicampus university 
and to the great contributions made to the state and nation, particularly 
by the graduate and professional schools and by the research work being 
done at all three of the older campuses. 

When the statute was passed making Governor Scott the ex officio 
chairman of the Board of Higher Education, he immediately began at- 
tending the meetings of that body. The atmosphere was quite different 
from that of university board meetings. In the course of his first year as 

144 : Restructuring the University 

chairman of the Board of Higher Education, he was progressively more 
influenced by Dr. Cameron West, the director of the board, and by Chair- 
man Watts Hill, Jr., both of whom had urged him to become ex officio 
chairman. There were other influential board members, particularly Sena- 
tor Lindsey Warren, who served as vice-chairman. The General Assembly 
had also granted the governor's request that six influential legislators be 
added to the board. 

On July i, 1969, Governor Scott flew across the state to preside at the 
opening ceremonies recognizing the inclusion in the Consolidated Uni- 
versity of Wilmington and Asheville. He then stated that he would no 
longer be involved in higher education because he wanted to reorganize a 
number of state agencies while he was governor. His withdrawal, how- 
ever, was of short duration. 

By the summer and early fall of 1970, he had begun speaking in Ra- 
leigh and in addresses throughout the state about a single board over all 
institutions. The details were not specified, but his comments and ratio- 
nalization sounded very much like chapter 15 of the 1968 Board of 
Higher Education report. There was a great deal of conjecture through- 
out higher education circles in North Carolina about what Governor 
Scott would do once the General Assembly convened in January 1971. 
He did not leave people speculating long. He named a special commission 
to examine the structure of the state's system of higher education. He 
appointed Lindsey Warren, who was no longer in the Senate, to chair 
what became known as the Warren Commission. The twenty-two-mem- 
ber commission included five representatives from the Board of Higher 
Education, seven from the Consolidated University Board of Trustees, 
nine who were trustees from the nine regional universities, and one from 
the School of the Arts. Although the Consolidated University's enroll- 
ment was more than 55 percent of the total enrollment of the state's 
sixteen institutions, its membership was in the minority on the Warren 
Commission. In fact, several of the representatives of the University's 
board complained about the commission's being stacked before it ever 
met for the first time. 

The Warren Commission started meeting in February. The University 
trustees, according to Victor Bryant's later statement, had no advance 
knowledge or even suspicion that breaking up the six-campus University 
of North Carolina would be one of the options seriously contemplated by 
this commission. They considered the Consolidated University inviolable 

Restructuring the University : 145 

because it had existed for forty years, had built distinguished universities, 
and had made great contributions to the state. 

The Warren Commission meetings quickly became heated and contro- 
versial. Although members always met in executive session, information 
of the various options they were considering for the structure of higher 
education moved around the state with lightning speed. It soon became 
known that there was serious disagreement within the commission about 
maintaining the six-campus university, as well as deep divisions concern- 
ing what type of single board should be created if that route were taken. 
Whether a single authoritative board could be established, at the same 
time retaining the Consolidated University in its existing form, was open 
to question. 

The first vote to give some idea of where the commission was heading 
was taken on April 3, 1971. Discussion was on a plan jointiy worked out 
by President Friday and Dr. West, which was satisfactory to supporters of 
the University of North Carolina's position. That plan was to keep the 
structure as it was, with the six campuses under the Board of Trustees of 
the University, and to strengthen the Board of Higher Education by pro- 
viding it with more funds to employ staff and by authorizing it to become 
involved in the budgeting process by examining the institutions' missions 
and goals and making recommendations to the Advisory Budget Com- 
mission and the General Assembly. The vote on that day was 13—9, with 
the Friday- West proposal receiving the support of the majority. The gov- 
ernor's office generated a great deal of activity in the intervening three 
weeks. In a recorded interview with Richie Leonard of the staff of the 
Institute of Government, Governor Scott later stated that he had con- 
tacted several members of the Warren Commission and had strongly sug- 
gested that they attend the April 24 meeting. These members were made 
fully aware of the governor's preference for a single board over all the 
sixteen state-supported institutions of higher education. 

On April 24 the commission reconsidered the vote. A study of the 
Friday- West plan had been ordered for the meeting but was never dis- 
cussed. Instead, an entirely new proposal was presented by Watts Hill, Jr., 
and two other members. It called for a hundred-member Board of Re- 
gents with coordinating authority over the sixteen institutions, each of 
which was to have a separate thirteen-member board of trustees. The 
proposed University of North Carolina system was to be headed by a 
chancellor elected by the Board of Regents. Despite violent opposition of 

146 : Restructuring the University 

the University trustees, the vote was 13-8 in favor of the new proposal. A 
regency system, which would destroy the Consolidated University, was 
diametrically opposed to the plan voted on three weeks earlier and was 
therefore reprehensible to the University trustees. 

Lindsey Warren presented the vote to Governor Scott, who instructed 
him to present the majority report to the appropriate committees of the 
General Assembly. Six of the Consolidated University trustees on the War- 
ren Commission turned in a minority report, which reviewed the previous 
vote and restated its position. By this time, hostility existed within the 
commission between the Consolidated University and the Board of High- 
er Education and, to varying degrees, the regional universities, whose 
representatives had been so active within the Warren Commission. 

The UNC board members, aware that separate boards of trustees would 
destroy consolidation, anticipated negative results, particularly for Chapel 
Hill and NC State, where the vital and most-expensive graduate and pro- 
fessional programs were located. On the other hand, Governor Scott had 
been receiving constant reports from Lindsey Warren, Watts Hill, Jr., 
Cameron West, and others, and he had developed the distinct notion that 
the trustees of the Consolidated University on the commission were try- 
ing to hold up its work so there would be nothing for the General Assem- 
bly to consider before the session ended. West, Hill, and Warren strength- 
ened the governor's conviction that UNC commission members were so 
unyielding they would oppose any change that would threaten their con- 
trol of the Consolidated University. Governor Scott became angrier; he 
grew more determined that a single board would be established during his 
administration and that it would be done in 197 1. All of the components 
were in place for a bitter fight of gigantic proportions in the General 
Assembly During the Warren Commission's meetings, President Friday 
had presented all the information requested about the Consolidated Uni- 
versity's enrollment, budgets, programs, and services. He reviewed the 
authority and responsibility of the Board of Trustees as well as the Univer- 
sity's organizational and administrative structure. 

In early May, Governor Scott received the Warren Commission's report, 
along with the minority report. He thanked the representatives for their 
work and dismissed the commission. The minority report, signed by six of 
the nine members opposing the Warren Commission's report, was for the 
moment ignored. 

The Warren Commission's report was delivered to the House and Sen- 

Restructuring the University : 147 

ate Committees on Higher Education. Senator Russell Kirby chaired the 
Senate committee, and Representative Perry Martin headed the House 
committee. The governor instructed them that bills be written to imple- 
ment the recommendations in the majority report for the establishment of 
a Board of Regents. One of the few changes made by the governor re- 
duced the Warren Commission's recommendation of one hundred mem- 
bers to forty-seven. The board was to have coordinating authority to 
review budgets and make recommendations for planning. Within the 
committees it was immediately evident that the idea of a Board of Regents 
would provoke a divisive fight within the General Assembly. That body 
included many ardent supporters of the University; nearly half the mem- 
bers were alumni of Chapel Hill. The governor pressured the committees 
to prepare the bill for immediate introduction. In a fiery speech in Wil- 
mington on May 18, Governor Scott insisted that the General Assembly 
take care of the problem of higher education during the 1971 session, 
although Lieutenant Governor Pat Taylor, Jr., and Speaker Phil Godwin 
had warned him that the session calendar would not permit its consid- 

While the bills were being prepared, Governor Scott had an ideal op- 
portunity to make his position clear to the University Board of Trustees. 
The full board held its regular meeting on May 24, in the new building 
constructed just off the Chapel Hill campus and down the street from the 
Institute of Government. The new offices of the General Administration 
of the Consolidated University had been occupied only on May 1 3 , and 
nearly all the board members were present for the first meeting in the new 
headquarters, which had been opened with ample ceremony. Governor 
Scott sent word that he wanted to meet with the executive committee, 
President Friday, and the staff of the General Administration in the execu- 
tive conference room. The building was so new that it contained chairs 
but no conference table. The executive committee members sat in the 
chairs, and the members of the General Administration sat on sofas lined 
up against the wall. When everyone was seated, Governor Scott came in 
and sat on a credenza direcdy under a portrait of O. Max Gardner, the 
governor responsible for creating the Consolidated University in 193 1. 
Scott was angry. He believed that representatives of the Board of Trustees 
serving on the Warren Commission had used stalling tactics to thwart his 
wishes. Blundy, he informed the executive committee that he was recom- 
mending that the General Assembly adopt the majority report of the 

148 : Restructuring the University 

Warren Commission and that he did not care whether the Board of Trust- 
ees liked it or not. He said he had enough Green Stamps — "whole cigar 
boxes full" — in the General Assembly to get the legislation passed. He 
reminded them that, as governor, he was statutory director of the budget. 
He threatened to make things very hard for the Consolidated University if 
the trustees tried to oppose him. After a few more remarks delivered in 
the same vein, he rose and left the room. The members of the executive 
committee were furious. 

Scott's "Green Stamp Speech," in the opinion of Victor Bryant and 
Virginia Lathrop, served to unite the executive committee and the Board 
of Trustees in a determination to hold the Consolidated University to- 
gether at all costs. The battle was now joined and would not be settled 
until one side or the other had won. The board, in defiance of the gover- 
nor's threat, immediately went to work on the legislature to gather sup- 
port for its position, as the governor had been doing for months. Its 
strongest argument was that the University of North Carolina and its 
consolidated structure had existed for forty years and was recognized as 
one of the state's most valuable assets. Lindsey Warren himself had re- 
ferred to Chapel Hill, North Carolina State, and UNC-Greensboro as 
"die crown jewels of North Carolina." Why tear up something that had 
served the state so well for so long and replace it with some unknown 

The next day, May 25, Governor Scott addressed the General Assembly 
and recommended passage of the bills being prepared in the House and 
Senate Committees on Higher Education. He referred to the minority 
report signed by six University trustees in an openly derisive manner and 
urged quick passage of the bills. The bills were introduced three days later, 
on May 28. It was late in the session, and the General Assembly had a 
great deal left to do. No one wanted to take up such an explosive issue so 
late in the session. Furthermore, the legislators wanted time to think and 
to consult with their constituents. So the decision was made to postpone 
formal consideration of the bills until a special session could be called. 

In June, in the effort to make certain that the Warren Commission's 
report did not become law, interested University trustees set up a lobby- 
ing group under the leadership of Jacob Froelich of High Point, which 
matched the efforts of the opposing forces throughout the interim. 

The governor's retribution was not long in coming. In late June, during 
the regular session of the General Assembly, G. Andrew Jones, the state 
budget officer, appeared before the Joint Appropriations Committee with 

Restructuring the University : 149 

the information that Governor Scott had made commitments totaling 
approximately $4 million. In order to obtain funds, the committee was 
forced to cut $2.5 million from the budget of the University of North 
Carolina by changing the budget equation establishing the number of 
faculty members at each institution. At that time, the Chapel Hill campus 
received budget for one full-time equivalent faculty member for each 13.8 
full-time equivalent students enrolled. When that figure was changed 
from 13.8 to 14.5, it substantially reduced the number of faculty members 
at UNC-Chapel Hill. Before that time, and because of UNCA's special 
mission in higher education, it had been budgeted at one faculty member 
for each 14.5 students. This ratio was now changed to one faculty member 
for each 16 students, immediately reducing the budgeted size of the 
UNCA faculty by seven. At a small institution with little more than one 
thousand students, the removal of seven faculty members was a decided 
shock. At the same time, the Joint Appropriations Committee also signifi- 
cantly reduced the amount of money available for the purchase of library 
books. That was done just as UNCA was finally beginning to develop 
something approximating a satisfactory library for an undergraduate cam- 
pus of its size. The following figures clearly demonstrate the significance 
of this budget change. They do not include library budgets for staff and 
other matters. They pertain only to the purchase of additional books. The 
expenditures for books for the library were as follows: 

1968- 69 $75,075.18 

1969— 70 $107,718.85, which included a special 

These actions dealt a severe blow to the hope of building an under- 
graduate program of distinction at the Asheville campus of the University, 
because the two imperative ingredients for a such a program are an ade- 
quate library and a well-qualified faculty. Many believed the General As- 
sembly was simply following through on the threats that Governor Scott 
had made to the executive committee on May 24. 

Simultaneously, the General Assembly greatly increased tuition for out- 
of-state students. Until then, the various institutions had had quite a bit 
of leeway in establishing their own out-of-state tuition rates and the num- 

appropriation of $40,000.00 recommended by the 
Board of Higher Education 





150 : Restructuring the University 

ber of out-of-state students they would accept. The prominence of Chapel 
Hill and NC State made those schools very popular all over the eastern 
half of the United States, and the General Assembly reasoned that out- 
of-state students should pay a substantially larger share of the cost of 
their education. In some instances, this amounted to a tripling of tuition 
rates. The increase reduced the number of out-of-state students attending 
UNCA, thereby reducing the additional funds we were receiving from 
their tuition. 

Fortunately for UNCA, there was one bright spot in the General As- 
sembly before it adjourned. We had originally asked for $1.5 million for a 
new building for the social sciences. The request had been cut out by the 
Advisory Budget Commission and the governor in the budget that was 
presented to the General Assembly. The regular session of the 1971 Gen- 
eral Assembly was one of the longest on record, running well into July 
On the last day of the session, Representative Claude DeBruhl and Sena- 
tor Lamar Gudger, both on the Appropriations Committee, found an 
unallocated $950,000 and grabbed the money for UNCA's social sciences 
building. The amount was one-third less than we had requested, but it 
was a great deal better than nothing, and it was some solace from a session 
that had already hit us hard. 

Before the General Assembly adjourned, the legislators agreed to recon- 
vene in a special session the last week of October, although the governor 
tried to insist on a much earlier date. Frenzied maneuvering spread 
throughout the state, as opposing interests tried to influence the legisla- 
tors. When the General Assembly established the special adjournment 
date, it was generally understood that it would take some kind of action 
when it reconvened. It was inconceivable that the legislators would sched- 
ule a special session for the purpose of reviewing only one bill and go 
home a week later without resolving the situation. Gradually, the trustees 
of the Consolidated University had begun to accept the inevitability of a 
single board, although they were still seriously concerned about its com- 
position and responsibilities. President Friday, who was so close to all the 
elements involved in the restructuring movement, had at last convinced 
the majority of the Board of Trustees that it was imperative that it have a 
voice in whatever system emerged from the October session. After all, the 
campuses, faculties, students, and all of their activities would still be intact 
when the special session adjourned. The changes that would determine 
their futures would be made at the very top, and the Board of Trustees 
certainly needed to have a say. 

Restructuring the University 

Over the summer and early fall, the governor's office and the advocates 
of the Board of Higher Education continued to lobby mightily, and so did 
the forces of the Consolidated University. Throughout the regular session 
Representative John S. Stevens from Buncombe County carried a bill 
outlining the Consolidated University's position on restructuring higher 
education. Although it was never introduced, it carried fifty-four signa- 
tors from the House, and a companion bill was circulated in the Senate. It 
was the opinion of Stevens and many other legislators that there were 
enough votes in the two houses to assure that, if the University could not 
prevail in its suggested changes, the plans pushed by the governor's forces 
for the Warren Commission's report could be blocked. Stevens and the 
other signatories judged the plans of the report to be highly detrimental 
to the whole system of higher education and particularly to the graduate 
and research institutions. The legislators realized that major compromises 
would need to be made. In the prevailing circumstances, it was obvious 
that changes would be made. The premise of the proposed bill that Ste- 
vens carried was President Friday's considered judgment from the begin- 
ning of the conflict that the most practical solution would be the gradual 
assimilation over a two-year period of the other institutions into the estab- 
lished University system under the supervision of the experienced General 

The companion bills, House Bill 1456 and Senate Bill 893, as written, 
would deconsolidate the University, establish an appointed Board of Re- 
gents, whose number had begun at one hundred but was later reduced by 
the governor, first to forty-seven and then to twenty-five. Although it 
would be a stronger board than that envisioned by the Warren Commis- 
sion's majority report, it would still be a coordinating authority. For all 
practical purposes, it was a much-expanded version of the Board of 
Higher Education. The Board of Regents would be chaired by the gover- 
nor and would appoint a thirteen-member board of trustees for each 
institution. In the estimation of the Consolidated University forces, the 
bill would be a prescription for a monumental political scramble for fund- 
ing and programs, a situation that could spell disaster for higher educa- 
tion. It made little provision for the central board to control programs, 
budgets, or most personnel decisions, leaving most of those matters 
within the broad powers of the sixteen institutional boards. The existence 
of a University of North Carolina was a requirement of the state constitu- 
tion, so the central board would be called the Board of Regents of the 
University system. 

152. : Restructuring the University 

The General Assembly reconvened in special session on October 26. 
Subcommittees met over the summer to study the issue. The House and 
Senate Committees on Higher Education met first to make changes in the 
original bill. Cognizant that the companion bills faced almost certain 
deadlock, the committee made substantive changes. President Friday con- 
sistentiy advised that any central board must be strong enough to govern 
the institutions without argument over its authority. The committees 
made provisions for increased powers for the central board, and as a 
compromise between the University forces, which wanted a much larger, 
stronger board to protect the interests of the greater responsibilities of the 
consolidated campuses, and the regional universities and advocates of the 
Board of Higher Education, all of which feared being swallowed up by the 
historically more powerful University of North Carolina, the number of 
board members was raised from the governor's figure of twenty-five to 
thirty-two members. When the public hearings and the work of the full 
General Assembly began, it was the committee's substitute bill, not the 
original bill, that was debated. 

During the hearings, attended by almost every legislator, the atmo- 
sphere grew heated as speakers promoted their views. The ambitions and 
apprehensions of the regional universities and the Board of Higher Edu- 
cation were apparent; the governor's position was stated in forceful terms. 
While there was respect for Governor Scott's power, the programs and 
accomplishments of the senior institutions were paramount to those 
speaking for the position of the University, and they were determined to 
preserve the programs. The legislators were uneasy over the dimensions of 
the problem they had convened to solve. The delegations from the newly 
added institutions at Charlotte, Asheville, and Wilmington were adamant 
that no harm should come to the University of North Carolina. There 
were overtones of an urban-versus-rural fight, particularly in the east and 
in the far western counties, since the University was now ensconced in the 
largest population centers. The governor's forces, including the Board of 
Higher Education, whose membership was made up to a large degree of 
trustees of the regional universities, were determined to break the power 
of the University Board of Trustees. 

When the General Assembly began work on the committee's substitute 
bill, amendments were considered, voted up or down, then reconsidered, 
and the legislation was shuttled between the two houses, each seeking 
concurrence in its amendments. A major point of contention was the 
allocation of seats. The governor's forces had decided on fifteen seats for 

Restructuring the University : 153 

the Consolidated University, fifteen for the regional universities, and two 
for the Board of Higher Education. No seat was reserved for the North 
Carolina School of the Arts. The University forces, faced with the ma- 
jority of the enrollment and the vast preponderance of graduate and pro- 
fessional programs, insisted on at least half the seats. A majority of the 
Senate inclined toward the governor's position on the allocation of seats, 
but two amendments that gready weakened the governor's control over 
the proposed board were quickly accepted by the Senate. Offered by Sena- 
tor Lamar Gudger of Buncombe, the first eliminated the governor's 
power to appoint members to the new board, and the second provided 
that the members be elected by the General Assembly, half by the House 
and half by the Senate. The bill went to the House for concurrence but 
was recalled for a Senate vote on additional changes. Meanwhile, John 
Sanders, director of the Institute of Government, at the instigation of 
worried legislators, was churning out amendments in an attempt to create 
a workable arrangement. 

When the House received the legislation again, late on Friday, October 
29, it was for consideration of the bill as amended by the Senate on the 
makeup of the board. The Senate had failed to agree to the House version 
on the allocation of seats, sixteen for the University and sixteen for the 
other institutions. The Senate had amended the section to read that the 
board would be made up of fifteen members from the University, fifteen 
from the regionals, two from the Board of Higher Education, and, reflect- 
ing pressure from the Winston-Salem delegation, one temporary seat for 
the North Carolina School of the Arts. 

Here occurred one of those extraordinary coincidences that produced 
enormous results later and was in no way planned or even foreseen. The 
Buncombe area delegation in 1971 was made up of Senators I. C. Craw- 
ford and Lamar Gudger and Representatives Claude DeBruhl, Herschel 
Harkins, and John S. Stevens from Buncombe County and Hugh Beam 
from McDowell County. All had remained unwavering supporters of the 
University and UNCA throughout the special session. Just before the 
House vote, Representative Stevens was in a small room in the basement 
of the General Assembly Building, conferring with a group that included 
Representative Ike Andrews, floor manager for the University forces, 
Chapel Hill's Chancellor Ferebee Taylor, John Sanders, and Representa- 
tives McNeil Smith and George Miller. Stevens interpreted their remarks 
to mean that University forces had gathered every vote they could, had 
fallen short, and that the legislation as amended by the Senate would pass. 

154 : Restructuring the University 

The reasoning seemed to be that further efforts to fight might only widen 
the dissension, to the detriment of the quality of higher education that 
they were trying to protect. Stevens went up into the House, having 
decided that if the amended committee substitute was going to pass, he 
might as well be with the majority in order to have some influence with 
that group later on. So he voted to accept the amended version, much to 
the consternation of his colleagues. The House concurred with the Senate 
by a vote of 55-51. Representative Stevens and others recognized two 
things instantiy. First, a change of a few votes would reverse the House's 
position, because the tiny margin of four indicated that the House was 
deeply divided. Second, any system of higher education supported by 
such a slim margin after so much effort would find it very difficult to be 

Inasmuch as Stevens had voted with the majority, he could move for 
reconsideration, which he did just as soon as enough members had agreed 
to change their vote. The motion to reconsider ended in a tie, which was 
broken by Speaker Phil Godwin, who ruled that the motion had failed. It 
was clear when the House adjourned for the evening that the legislators 
faced a deadlock. Those members who considered that the governor's 
forces had won were quickly disabused of the notion that the fight was 
over. The tie vote set into motion a night of intensive negotiating to 
hammer out a settlement for a system of higher education that would 
provide the state with a representative board responsible for planning, 
coordinating, and, above all, governing. Legislators worked through the 
night for workable compromises to achieve those ends and to preserve the 
legal entity of the University of North Carolina. The work involved the 
abolition of both the one-hundred-member University Board of Trustees 
and the Board of Higher Education, the source of the two swing votes 
anticipated by Governor Scott. The legislators proceeded on the indisput- 
able logic that if the General Assembly was going to restructure higher 
education and form one central board, that board must have sufficient 
statutory authority to do the necessary work and end the questioning 
about where authority lay. 

On Saturday morning, Representative Jim Ramsey's motion to recon- 
sider the 55-51 vote of the previous evening passed by one vote, and 
Representative Stevens immediately moved to recall House Bill 1456 
from the enrolling office. The margin of Stevens's motion increased the 
shift by an additional vote. On a third procedural vote, the margin of the 

Restructuring the University : 155 

shift increased to six votes. A motion that the House rescind its concur- 
rence with the Senate amendment on the allocation of seats was followed 
by one asking that a committee of conferees be chosen to meet joindy 
with a Senate committee to work out differences between the two houses. 

Representative Perry Martin, chairman of the House Committee on 
Higher Education, had guided the writing of the House bill and had been 
the floor leader for passage of the legislation. When Ramsey's motion to 
reconsider passed by one vote, Martin realized the forces of the governor 
and the advocates of the Board of Higher Education had been oudobbied. 
After watching the increasing shift for a few minutes, he rose to support 
the call for the appointment of conferees. The motion passed by voice 

The House recessed long enough for a joint House-Senate committee 
to incorporate changes worked out by members of both houses the pre- 
vious evening and to make the positions of both houses parallel. Friday 
night's concentrated activity had been worthwhile. By late morning, legis- 
lators had worked out an agreement that everyone could accept, and this 
time there would be no question about the will of the General Assembly. 
There were only three dissenting votes in the House, and there were no 
votes against it in the Senate. 

Occasionally while the Warren Commission was meeting, there had 
been some talk about a "super board," but it had never amounted to more 
than a brief discussion. President Friday had convinced the executive com- 
mittee and the other members of the Board of Trustees and the legislators 
that if the state was to have one board for higher education, that board 
must have statutory authority for governance of the institutions. The gov- 
ernor was disappointed to have lost much of his ability to influence the 
new board, but he had gotten what he could accept — a central board 
responsible for all of higher education. And although that had not been its 
first choice, the University of North Carolina could accept a governing 
board with full authority. 

The initial board would include sixteen members from the Board of 
Trustees of the Consolidated University and sixteen from the other insti- 
tutional boards, including the School of the Arts, with the number of 
representatives based on the size of enrollment of each institution. Those 
members would serve terms ranging from 1973 through 1979, the length 
of their terms to be determined by lot or other acceptable means. The 
Board of Higher Education would be abolished, and its staff and budget 

156 : Restructuring the University 

would be merged with that of the General Administration. The Board of 
Governors would have one transitional year, from July 1, 1972, to June 
30, 1973; for that year there would be two nonvoting members chosen 
from the eight members-at-large of the expiring Board of Higher Educa- 
tion. The governor would serve as ex officio chairman until January 1, 
1973, when the elected chairman would preside over the board. After 
June 30, 1973, the two nonvoting members would no longer attend the 
meetings. The Board of Governors would meet no less than six times 

Beginning in 1973, eight members would be elected every two years by 
the General Assembly, to serve for eight-year terms, with the Senate 
choosing four members and the House of Representatives choosing four. 
Beginning with the Senate elections in 1973, and in the House elections 
in 1975, each house was instructed to elect every four years at least one 
woman member, at least one minority-race member, and at least one 
member of the largest minority political party represented in the General 
Assembly. As of July 1, 1973, no member of the General Assembly, offi- 
cer, or other employee of the state or of any constituent institution or his 
or her spouse could serve on the Board of Governors. 

The regional universities and the North Carolina School of the Arts 
would continue under their own names, and for the year of transition 
would retain their own boards of trustees. The one-hundred-member 
Board of Trustees of the Consolidated University, whose powers would 
pass to the Board of Governors, would be divided. After sixteen members 
had been chosen by that board as members of the Board of Governors, the 
other eighty-four would be divided to constitute a board of trustees for 
each of the six institutions that had been the Consolidated University. 
When the sixteen members were chosen, they constituted almost an exact 
roster of the old executive committee. The boards of trustees at each 
institution would be reconstituted on July 1, 1973, and each of the sixteen 
would receive a new board, including four members appointed by the 
governor and eight appointed by the Board of Governors. The thirteenth 
member would be the institution's president of student government. 

The institutions would lose the identification of "regional" or "Consoli- 
dated." They would bear the legal definition of "constituent institutions" 
of the University of North Carolina, all governed by the Board of Gover- 
nors. The board would elect its own officers. The president of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina system would be elected by the board, and he 

Restructuring the University : 157 

would be the chief academic officer of the University, empowered to 
choose vice-presidents and other staff. The General Administration, the 
only entity with extensive experience in operating a multicampus system, 
would remain intact, and its work would go on in the ample building 
recently constructed in Chapel Hill. The Board of Governors was in- 
structed to expand the Code of The University of North Carolina to take into 
account the practices and needs of all the constituent institutions. 

Given all the issues and struggles that preceded the final compilation of 
the legislation, House Bill 1456 was a masterpiece of accomplishment. A 
truly well-coordinated and well-directed system of higher education that 
would serve the entire state was finally possible. The legal provisions 
concerning the Board of Governors were codified in the 1971 General 
Statutes and extended for seventeen pages. Very few changes have been 
made in fifteen years, and none has diminished the powers of the board. 
The powers and responsibilities of the Board of Governors quoted below 
are the language found, without later amendments, in the Session Laws 
1 97 1, chapter 1244: 

§ 1 1 6-1 1. "Powers and duties generally." — The powers and duties 
of the Board of Governors shall include the following: 

( 1 ) Planning and development: The Board of Governors shall plan 
and develop a coordinated system of higher education in North 
Carolina. To this end it shall govern the 16 constituent institutions, 
subject to the powers and responsibilities given in this Article to the 
boards of trustees of the institutions. . . . 

(2) Governance: The Board of Governors shall be responsible for 
the general determination, control, supervision, management and 
governance of all affairs of the constituent institutions. For this pur- 
pose the Board may adopt such policies and regulations as it may 
deem wise. . . . 

(3) Functions, educational activities, and academic programs: The 
Board shall determine the functions, educational activities and aca- 
demic programs of the constituent institutions. The Board shall also 
determine the types of degrees to be awarded. The powers herein 
given to the Board shall not be restricted by any provision of law 
assigning specific functions or responsibilities to designated institu- 
tions, the powers herein given superseding any such provisions of 
law. The Board, after adequate notice and after affording the institu- 

i 5 8 

Restructuring the University 

tional board of trustees an opportunity to be heard, shall have au- 
thority to withdraw approval of any existing program if it appears 
that the program is unproductive, excessively cosdy or unnecessarily 

(4) Officers: The Board of Governors shall elect officers as provided 
in G.S. 1 16-14. Subject to the provisions of Section 18 of this Act, 
the Board shall also elect, on nomination of the President, the chan- 
cellor of each of the constituent institutions and fix his compensa- 
tion. The President shall make his nomination from a list of not fewer 
than two names recommended by the institutional board of trustees. 

( 5 ) Institutional personnel: The Board of Governors shall, on rec- 
ommendation of the President and of the appropriate institutional 
chancellor, appoint and fix the compensation of all vice-chancellors, 
senior academic and administrative officers and persons having per- 
manent tenure. 

(6) New institutions: The Board shall approve the establishment of 
any new publicly-supported institution above the community college 

(7) Tuition and fees: The Board shall set tuition and required fees 
at the institutions, not inconsistent with actions of the General 

(8) Enrollment levels: The Board shall set enrollment levels of the 
constituent institutions. 

(9) Budget: 

a. The Board of Governors shall develop, prepare and present to 
the Governor, the Advisory Budget Commission and the General 
Assembly a single, unified recommended budget for all of public 
senior higher education. The recommendations shall consist of re- 
quests in three general categories: (i) funds for the continuing opera- 
tion of each constituent institution, (ii) funds for salary increases for 
employees exempt from the State Personnel Act and (iii) funds re- 
quested without reference to constituent institutions, itemized as to 
priority and covering such areas as new programs and activities, ex- 
pansions of programs and activities, increases in enrollments, in- 
creases to accommodate internal shifts and categories of persons 
served, capital improvements, improvements in levels of operation 
and increases to remedy deficiencies, as well as other areas. 

b. Funds for the continuing operation of each constituent insti- 

Restructuring the University : 159 

tution shall be appropriated directly to the institution. Funds for 
salary increases for employees exempt from the State Personnel Act 
shall be appropriated to the Board in a lump sum for allocation to the 
institutions. Funds for the third category in paragraph a. of this sub- 
division shall be appropriated to the Board in a lump sum. The Board 
shall allocate to the institutions any funds appropriated, said alloca- 
tion to be made in accordance with the Board's schedule of priorities; 
provided, however, that when both the Board and the Advisory Bud- 
get Commission deem it to be in the best interest of the State, funds 
in the third category may be allocated, in whole or in part, for other 
items within the list of priorities or for items not included in the list. 

c. The Advisory Budget Commission may, on recommendation 
of the Board, authorize transfer of appropriated funds from one insti- 
tution to another to provide adjustments for over- or under-enroll- 
ment or may make any other adjustments among institutions that 
would provide for the orderly and efficient operation of the 

(10) Collection and dissemination of data: The Board shall collect 
and disseminate data concerning higher education in the State. To 
this end it shall work cooperatively with the Department of Commu- 
nity Colleges and shall seek the assistance of the private colleges and 
universities. It may prescribe for the constituent institutions such 
uniform reporting practices and policies as it may deem desirable. 

(11) Private colleges: The Board shall assess the contributions and 
needs of the private colleges and universities of the State and shall 
give advice and recommendations to the General Assembly to the 
end that the resources of these institutions may be utilized in the best 
interest of the State. All requests by private institutions of higher 
education for State assistance to the institutions or to students at- 
tending them shall be submitted first to the Board for review and 
recommendation before being presented to any other State agency or 
to the General Assembly. 

(12) Advice and recommendations: The Board shall give advice and 
recommendations concerning higher education to the Governor, the 
General Assembly, the Advisory Budget Commission and the boards 
of trustees of the institutions. 

(13) Delegation of authority: The Board may delegate any part of its 
authority over the affairs of any institution to the board of trustees 

160 : Restructuring the University 

or, through the President, to the chancellor of the institution in any 
case where such delegation appears necessary or prudent to enable 
the institution to function in a proper and expeditious manner. Any 
delegation of authority may be rescinded by the Board at any time in 
whole or in part. 

(14) Reserved powers: The Board shall possess all powers not specifi- 
cally given to institutional boards of trustees. 

In light of the events of 1971, UNCA had to reevaluate its basic role 
as an institution. Other campuses had to change their methods for receiv- 
ing approval and funding for their programs, but they did not have to 
reexamine their basic institutional missions. The changed faculty-student 
ratio at UNCA reduced the strength of the faculty. The library appropri- 
ations were significantly reduced. UNCA's relationship with Chapel Hill, 
UNC-Greensboro or NC State was now in no way different from its 
relationship with any of the other fifteen institutions. Furthermore, sup- 
port for the idea of a small, high-quality liberal arts college with an inno- 
vative posture and more expensive programs, as reflected in faculty 
strength and faculty salaries, had vanished. To make the situation more 
complex, Western Carolina University was expanding at Oteen with un- 
dergraduate courses in virtually all fields. 

There was only one viable solution. UNCA must work to preserve the 
sound educational foundation it had begun. At the same time, it would be 
necessary to expand the curriculum and to include degree programs that 
would strengthen enrollment and attract students who would otherwise 
not come to UNCA. That meant that career-oriented degree programs 
would have to be added to the classic liberal arts course of study. During 
1972 and 1973, there were constant discussions with and among the 
faculty, the senate, the students, and the board of trustees. Internal discus- 
sion became intense from time to time, as traditionalists failed to under- 
stand that changes in higher education in North Carolina made it impos- 
sible for UNCA to continue exclusively in the classic liberal arts tradition. 
By 1972 and 1973 students were seeking alternatives, and there was no 
support from the Board of Governors or the General Administration to 
continue. However, we had made significant strides in what we consid- 
ered one of the highest goals of education — to provide students with a 
sound education, aimed not at a particular vocation or career but at im- 
proving their ability to lead full, productive, and socially responsible lives, 
as well as to work at a trade or profession. 

Restructuring the University : 161 

At one of the regularly scheduled faculty meetings in the fall of 1972, I 
formally introduced an analysis of the problem, stating that we had to 
make changes of vast proportions, including expanding our enrollment 
and programs, as well as adding certain degree programs, to protect the 
viability of the institution. This viewpoint set off a series of furious discus- 
sions that lasted for months. It was discussed by the UNCA Board of 
Trustees, in the community, and on the campus. Emotions ran high, and 
we finally called a public meeting in early March 1973 for all interested 
students, faculty, and townspeople to openly discuss the future direction 
of the University of North Carolina at Asheville. The meeting was held in 
the Carmichael Humanities lecture hall. While opponents of change in 
any form attended, there were considerably more who recognized the 
need for flexibility and the necessity of expanding the UNCA curriculum. 

The UNCA Board of Trustees met on March 9. The motion was made 
that the university reconsider its mission and seek the inclusion of career- 
oriented courses that could be made compatible with the existing basic 
liberal arts program. The motion passed with only one negative vote, cast 
by Ray Gasperson, the president of the Student Government Association, 
who was closely associated with a group of students and some faculty who 
firmly believed the existing liberal arts program should remain intact. 
There was no question in the minds of most people, however, that if 
UNCA was to remain a separate, distinct, and viable institution, it would 
have to retain as much as possible of the general education curriculum and 
the major fields of study, incorporating other programs that could be 
strengthened by the great liberal arts tradition growing since 1963. 

Our position regarding expansion of the curriculum had been made 
clear in the fall of 1972 during a trip to Chapel Hill. Vice-Chancellor 
Riggs and I were accompanied by two leading members of the Faculty 
Senate, Professor Walter Boland in sociology and Professor Gene Rainey 
in political science. General Administration was holding similar meetings 
with all sixteen campuses as they prepared for the full changeover on July 
1, 1973. We discussed our tenure program and also reminded principal 
officers at General Administration of the attitude of the Board of Higher 
Education in 1964. We pointed out that the document written by Dr. 
Arnold King, which served as the basis for including UNCA in the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, had clearly and unequivocally stated that 
UNCA would be a liberal arts college. We added that we understood the 
changed situation. President Friday made clear to us that our original 
mission could no longer be supported. The events of 197 1, including the 

1 6 2. : Restructuring the University 

changed faculty-student ratio and the cut in library appropriations, indi- 
cated that our goals were no longer acceptable to the General Assembly 
Our meeting with President Friday was reported on the campus and acted 
as a determining factor in helping people redirect our mission as an 










A Time of Troubles — A Time 

Although new ideas about the institution and its mission mushroomed in 
the years between 1972 and 1978, it would be fitting to call those years a 
time of trouble. In spite of the growth and obvious improvement in many 
areas, it was, nevertheless, a period of apprehension. It is not difficult in 
retrospect to understand what was happening, although at the time it was 
often frustrating. 

The primary reason that Asheville-Biltmore College merged with the 
Consolidated University in 1969 was to protect the special purpose ap- 
proved for the institution by the Board of Higher Education and by A-B's 
board of trustees. From 1963 through 1970, this decision had been sup- 
ported budgetarily by recommendations of the Advisory Budget Commis- 
sion and appropriations from the General Assembly. The goal was to be a 
liberal arts college that stressed quality and innovation. But after restruc- 
turing, UNCA was one of the sixteen constituent institutions of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, and each one had the same relationship with 
the General Administration. We needed to find a role for UNCA that 
would be consistent with what we had already done, and at the same time 
we needed to learn to work on a limited budget with the new procedures 
for establishing necessary programs and generating the appropriations to 
fund them. 

The results of the 1971 General Assembly, both the regular and the 
special session that established the new Board of Governors, had altered 
significandy many of the important aspects of UNCA. The change in the 


164 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

faculty-student ratio decreased the size of the faculty, and the reduction of 
the library budget was devastating. The library barely met the needs of the 
campus community as it was, and it needed extra money to build to an 
acceptable standard. Since an adequate FTE base did not exist, UNCA 
could not function effectively on a formula basis of so many dollars for so 
many students. The full-time equivalency figure for any campus of the 
University of North Carolina system is the sum of all full-time and part- 
time students enrolled. Full-time students are those taking a minimum of 
twelve credit hours, and each one counts as a whole number. Anyone 
taking up to nine credit hours is considered three-fourths of a student, 
and those taking up to six credit hours are counted as halves. A student 
carrying only three hours is considered one-quarter of a student. A larger, 
older institution with an established library might be able to function on 
that formula, but a new institution just getting started could not. 

The sudden and significant increase in out-of-state tuition charges had 
a severe impact on the campus. Most of the students attending UNCA 
came from Asheville and the immediate vicinity, and even though they 
might be excellent students doing exemplary work, they needed the stimu- 
lus of constant exposure to ideas from elsewhere and to students from 
different backgrounds. That was part of the broadening process we con- 
sidered inherent to the workings of a liberal arts college. We could not 
alter events, but we could focus on learning to live with the changed 
situation. We began by listening to the students' perceptions of the insti- 
tution's strengths and weaknesses. 

The committee on more effective teaching was a joint student-faculty 
group that was active during 1971 and 1972. The members proposed that 
one day be set aside for an all-campus conference to review the present 
state of UNCA in relation to its original goals. The conference would 
focus on such topics as educational programs, teaching-learning methods, 
student-faculty-administration relationships, the quality of campus life in 
general, and any problem areas with opportunity for improvement. The 
conference was held on May 10, with concurrent sessions scattered in 
classrooms all over campus. Surprisingly, there was very little absenteeism. 
The students moved around to the various meetings, taking part in the 
discussions or sitting and listening to the exchanges. The day was well 
structured, with faculty members and knowledgeable students in place for 
each one of the sessions. It was an opportunity for everyone to examine 
the institution and ask questions — in particular, about the implications of 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 165 

the new system, the existence of a Board of Governors, and the events that 
had occurred as consequences of restructuring. The conference ended 
with a meeting in Lipinsky Auditorium, where the chairperson from each 
session reported on what had taken place. We knew there were certain 
problems that would arouse the students, such as parking, attendance 
requirements, and food service, but this meeting went far beyond peren- 
nial complaints, raising significant questions about new degree programs, 
degree program requirements, and the availability of faculty and adminis- 
trative advising. Many of the suggestions made that day gradually came 
about, although some were clearly impossible because they entailed new 
buildings, programs, or facilities for which we had no funding, but the 
conference gave us the opportunity to explain to the students how the 
budget and appropriations processes worked. 

The basketball team began the season with the Sixth Annual Optimists 
Club Tip-ofF Tournament. The Bulldogs won the first game over High 
Point but lost the final game to Gardner-Webb. The team was playing 
without Mickey Gibson or Jim Mcllheny, and the record was not quite as 
good as it had been in previous years. 

We attempted dialogue with President Alex Pow of Western Carolina 
University concerning the courses being offered at Oteen, but his letter to 
me dated September 17, 1971, stated that WCU would continue to offer 
undergraduate liberal arts courses at Oteen Center. 

As one result of the increasing impetus to include students on commit- 
tees that had been occupied only by faculty, we established a large com- 
mittee during 1971 and 1972 composed of faculty, students, and adminis- 
trators to try to develop what we called an instrument of governance. The 
purpose would be to establish clearly defined methods of adjudicating 
disputes, provide for a clear-cut decision-making process, and institute 
courts that would have jurisdiction over the type of infractions one finds 
on a college campus, such as illegal parking, speeding, unacceptable be- 
havior at social functions, cheating, and destruction of state property. The 
proposed instrument of governance would also provide planning groups 
for academic matters, as well as social and noncurricular activities. An- 
other aim was to bring the faculty, students, and staff together in trying to 
make campus decision making more reflective of the needs and interests of 
all of the constituencies. Dr. Shirley Browning was made chairman of the 
committee, and subcommittees were formed to look at various particulars. 
In the spring of 1972, the time came to vote on the instrument of gover- 

1 66 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

nance. The committee wanted to make it clear that if the measure passed it 
should, without question, be supported by all of the groups on campus. 
Therefore the committee ruled that the instrument of governance would 
not go into effect unless it was approved by a two-thirds vote of each 
constituency. There was some opposition regarding the measure and, 
when it went to the faculty, it failed to receive the required two-thirds 
support by the slim margin of one vote, even though it had considerably 
more than a two-thirds majority on the part of the students and staff. This 
result necessitated some rethinking and realignment among representa- 
tives of the various committees. The central committee reduced the num- 
ber of student representatives by one and added one faculty member. That 
change shifted the balance, but it still provided for substantial student 
participation. This time the proposal received more than a two-thirds vote 
of the faculty but did not receive even a majority of the student vote. The 
result was that the year-and-a-half-long effort to establish a campuswide 
system of governance in which all the constituencies would be involved 
failed because of territorial jealousy between the faculty and the students. 

Whether or not the instrument of governance would have worked we 
will never know. It was an effort to engage the students and faculty more 
effectively in the life of the institution, and we had made as good faith an 
effort as could have been made. Such a system could not be administra- 
tively imposed. It would have to be freely supported by all of the constitu- 
encies. Its failure left us somewhat in limbo. It was necessary to continue 
the method of managing the campus that had developed over the years, 
with the administration continuing its role and with the faculty speaking 
through the Faculty Senate and voting on those matters that the faculty 
considered its prerogative, particularly in the formal academic sense. That 
left the student government to run student affairs pretty much as its mem- 
bers wanted, without any guidance from the faculty. What eventually led 
to an entirely new method of using and distributing student funds began 
in the fall of 1971, when the Student Government Association decided 
not to provide any funds for the special programs committee for the 
academic year. Members decided to use those funds to bring the speakers 
they chose to the campus, and they did not want the special programs 
committee to play a role in the process. This decision marked the begin- 
ning of controversy over the method of controlling student activity funds 
that went on for several years before it led to a completely new arrange- 
ment for the use of such funds. 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 167 

In August 1972 the Asheville Citizen published an article with a large 
headline proclaiming that the UNCA faculty salary scale was at the top of 
all public institutions in the South. That was information based upon the 
annual report made by the American Association of University Professors. 
The qualification was that it pertained only to baccalaureate degree insti- 
tutions, not to those that offered master's or doctoral degrees, and there 
are not many such institutions in the entire South. The salary scale was the 
result of our ability at UNCA to retain ten-month salary contracts for the 
faculty, even though we had been required to cut back the length of the 
academic year to nine months shortly after we became a campus of the 
University. The General Administration was quite aware of the disparity 
in salaries, but we were able to persuade its members that the faculty 
should not be penalized, since they were doing excellent work. Though it 
was fine for faculty recruiting, the news did not help UNCA much locally 
because so many people wanted immediate expansion of the curriculum 
and did not see that happening. What people did not understand was 
that the salary ranking would be temporary or that, with the new Board 
of Governors assuming full authority over all programmatic decisions, 
changes could no longer be made at the local level. The board had to 
evaluate all sixteen institutions before it could begin to deal with the 
individual institutions' needs for improvement. 

One of the first actions the Board of Governors took was to ask for a 
complete inventory of all degree programs and special education activities 
at each of the sixteen campuses. The members put a freeze on approving 
any new degree programs or additional educational programs at any cam- 
pus until the inventory had been completed and until a long-range plan 
had been developed by the board for the entire state and for each of the 
constituent institutions. So even though there was a great deal of commu- 
nity and campus support for a broader curriculum, we were prevented 
from pursuing that until we had gone through the planning process and 
had presented our statement as to what we wanted to do for the next five 
years and received the board's permission. It was difficult to explain these 
restrictions to a public eager for immediate program expansion. 

When the local board met for the first time in the summer of 1972, the 
members elected Bruce A. Elmore as chairman. Elmore had been a mem- 
ber of the AsheviUe-Biltmore board of trustees from 1963 until the 
merger with the University in 1969. 

The 1972—73 academic year brought several new faculty members to 

1 68 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

the campus who would remain for years and work into positions of con- 
siderable influence. Among them were Dr. Marcel Andrade in Spanish, 
Dr. Phillip Cranston in French, Dr. Deryl Howard in philosophy, and Dr. 
Milton Ready in history. Several administrative appointments were also 
made: Ed Harris was made director of alumni relations, in addition to his 
other duties, and Dr. George Kramer was named director of institutional 
research. Also, after the retirement of Jackson Owen, Dr. Howard Rosen- 
blat was made director of testing, counseling, and advising. Paul Thomas 
Deason became dean of students, Alice Wutschel was appointed associate 
dean of students with special responsibility for women, and Mary Gilpin 
was named residence hall coordinator. Joseph Parsons of the mathematics 
department retained his tide as dean of men. 

After two years of activity, the little radio station in the Lipinsky Build- 
ing that was broadcasting downstairs to the cafeteria and to the dormi- 
tories, began to get more support from the Student Government Associa- 
tion. The long-range plan was to get approval from the Federal Commu- 
nications Commission for an educational FM station of 10 watts that 
could be heard in downtown Asheville and part of the county. 

In November 1972 the first women's basketball team was formed 
through the leadership of two students, Sandra Rogers and Rhonda Stew- 
art. The team started with seventeen women who had never played basket- 
ball before, but they played Warren Wilson College and won. The funds 
available to them were extremely limited, and few people at that time 
bothered to attend any of the games. However, the women's basketball 
team would soon become recognized as an intercollegiate activity and 
would have access to the intercollegiate athletic fund. 

In January 1973 we were able to secure the services of Dr. Claude 
Steen, who became the first campus doctor. The infirmary had been com- 
pleted, but heretofore we had had only a nurse. If anyone needed a doctor 
we had to send him or her off campus. Dr. Steen took sick call between 
eight-thirty and nine-thirty on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings, 
and he helped to establish a service that kept pace with increasing enroll- 
ment figures. 

The black students on the campus wanted their own organization and 
soon developed a group recognized by the Student Government Associa- 
tion as the Black Students Association. One of the group's first activities 
was to organize Black Awareness Week in March 1973. Bobby Brown was 
president of the BSA, and Audrey Byrd, who later went on to the Harvard 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 169 

University School of Law, was vice-president. Also in 1973 Sandra Kil- 
gore became the first black student to be elected homecoming queen. 

At that time there were still no black faculty members at UNCA, but 
there was considerable interest in special courses about the black experi- 
ence in American history. In the spring term, Dr. Ellis Shorb offered a 
course on black literature, and Dr. Milton Ready offered a course on black 
history. The black students made it clear that they would not be satisfied 
until special courses on the black experience were taught by black faculty 
members, who they felt could speak with more understanding and effec- 
tiveness. The well-known black poet Nikki Giovanni spent four days on 
campus during Black Awareness Week reading her works and talking with 
students. She and Harrison Salisbury of the New York Times were probably 
the best known people to visit the campus that semester. 

In the fall term, events demanded that we continue reevaluating the way 
student funds were expended under the direction of the Student Govern- 
ment Association. Ray Gasperson, president of the organization, sus- 
pended student fees to the Summit because the SGA did not appreciate 
the negative reaction that the students had given to the rather tasteless 
and, to many, openly offensive 1971-72 annual. The issue of student 
funds would become more acrimonious once it spilled over into a contro- 
versy between the Student Government Association and the campus 
newspaper, the Kidgerunner. Student newspapers must, of necessity, re- 
main independent rather than serve as the house voice of student govern- 
ment. The Bddgerunner frequendy criticized the SGA, which, in turn, kept 
threatening to withhold fees from the newspaper. 

With the limited enrollment, the funds available for many projects were 
also limited, particularly in the area of intercollegiate athletics. Coach 
Robert Hartman was concerned about providing funds for basketball, the 
only sport that had any kind of support either on or off campus. At this 
time, the debate began about sharing athletic money to provide for wom- 
en's intercollegiate teams. The search for equitable distribution of the 
athletics budget would become constant as enrollment increased. 

Suddenly the routine of the campus was shattered by the most tragic 
event ever to occur at UNCA. Sunday, April 15, was a beautiful, sunny 
day. The students who had been cooped up in dormitories and apartments 
during the winter months were out in full force, enjoying the warmth of 
spring. One of the dormitory students was Virginia Olson. She was a 
sophomore who had just returned from a forensics trip to Pfeiffer College 

170 : A Time of Troubles — A Time of Progress 

two weeks before. Traveling with the debate team, she, Lynn Hyde, Betsy 
Davidson, and Janie Fishburne had been successful contestants in inter- 
pretive reading and drama. Olson was becoming interested in drama and 
showed signs of a promising talent. She was a popular girl, and everyone 
called her Ginger. In the middle of the afternoon, Ginger Olson, book in 
hand, walked across W. T. Weaver Boulevard and climbed up the little hill 
overlooking the botanical gardens and part of the campus. Obviously she 
wanted to sit alone for a while and enjoy the view of spring. At least a 
hundred people were wandering through the botanical gardens just across 
the street. Several hours later a young boy walking through the area found 
her mutilated body in some nearby bushes. She had been raped and 
stabbed to death. News of Ginger Olson's murder created panic on the 
campus. There were no definite clues as to the identity of the person who 
had perpetrated such a hideous crime. Every male without an ironclad 
alibi was a suspect. Ginger's parents, who were on vacation, were finally 
found late in the evening in Missouri. By Monday the institution was 
virtually paralyzed. On Tuesday morning, all classes were canceled and a 
memorial service was held in Lipinsky Auditorium. There was not an 
empty seat in the house. Although her parents took her home to be 
buried, the shock and fear remained. It became clear that some step had to 
be taken to calm the students. The following Sunday was Easter, and we 
regularly scheduled Easter Monday as vacation. I met with Vice-Chancel- 
lor Riggs and the department chairmen in an emergency session, pointed 
out that little learning was taking place, and asked their opinions about 
closing the institution for several days so the dormitory students could go 
home. We hoped that they would be calmed down by the time they re- 
turned and that by then the murderer might be identified and appre- 
hended. We closed several days early and had an unusually long Easter 
vacation. To this date, Ginger Olson's murder remains a mystery. During 
the tragic episode, Deborah Grier, one of the dormitory proctors, showed 
a strength of character and a sensitivity not commonly found in such a 
situation. Dee was as deeply hurt by Ginger's death as were all her other 
friends, but she proved remarkably helpful in warding off open hysteria 
among the frightened young women. The school considered itself fortu- 
nate that she and her husband, Charles James, returned to teach after 
pursuing their higher academic degrees in literature and chemistry. 

Though it could not be said that campus life returned to normal after 
such a tragedy, the students did their best to put it behind them suffi- 
ciendy to finish their year's work, and the seniors prepared themselves for 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 171 

graduation. The 1973 graduating class had as its principal speaker Roy A. 
Taylor, a member of the first graduating class, of 1929, who was at that 
time serving his sixth term as a member of Congress. It was the third time 
he had been called upon to address a graduating class, but the first occa- 
sion for him to address the four-year school. 

It was clear during the mid-seventies that the faculty at UNCA could 
not do anything to influence the Board of Governors or the legislature. 
The result was that anxiety turned inward. One could see the formation of 
various cliques of faculty members who shared viewpoints and interests. It 
was a matter of great concern, in spite of our understanding that it was a 
normal human reaction to what seemed like threats from the outside and 
an uncertain future. Some of the faculty and students opposed bitterly the 
inevitable changes, particularly after March 1973, when the Board of 
Trustees took the necessary action that significandy broadened the base of 
the institution's mission. Most of the faculty members understood that 
the situation had changed significandy; it was not restructuring alone that 
mandated changes. The prospective students and the whole community 
were becoming increasingly insistent that UNCA must include more ca- 
reer-oriented programs in its curriculum. While the majority wanted to 
retain as much of the liberal arts posture as possible, they were willing to 
accept change and welcomed a significant broadening of the institution's 

The new board of trustees specified by restructuring came into being on 
July 1, 1973. The new governor, James Holshouser, the first Republican 
elected in the twentieth century to that office, made his four appoint- 
ments, and the Board of Governors had made its eight choices for what 
would now, with the addition of the president of the SGA, become the 
new board of trustees. We welcomed the return of several veteran mem- 
bers, three of whom were elected officers. G. Hoyle Blanton, Jr., of Forest 
City was made chairman, Dr. Francis Buchanan of Hendersonville vice- 
chairman, and Bernard Smith secretary. Among the new members who 
would be of tremendous assistance were Garza Baldwin, Jr., Cary Owen, 
Julia Ray, and Maurice Winger, Jr., of Asheville, and Dr. Frell Owl of 
Cherokee. The Board of Governors, in revising the Code of the University, 
had limited the area of responsibility for the individual boards of trustees. 
Though the group retained a great deal of authority, it became an advisory 
and recommending body in matters of budget, program, mission, top 
administrative personnel, and tenured faculty. 

Soon after the end of its transitional year, during which the board had 

172 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

revised the existing Code to serve the needs of the sixteen constituent 
institutions, the Board of Governors requested that each campus prepare 
regulations and procedures consistent with the amended Code in all mat- 
ters related to faculty personnel procedures. This was an extremely impor- 
tant issue. Although certain principles had to be followed by all institu- 
tions, the Board of Governors realized that one single system would not 
work for such diverse campuses and that the individual institutions should 
have some voice in the procedures. UNCA had been following the old 
Code of The University of North Carolina since the merger on July i, 1969. 
Although we did not anticipate significant changes, the revisions neces- 
sary for UNCA to satisfy the Board of Governors relative to the Code 
unfortunately became a subject of rather intense debate on the campus. A 
committee was established in 1973, and we adopted a set of guidelines for 
appointments, tenure, and related matters using the revised Code and the 
system and procedures we had been using in the past. Systems at large 
campuses were not suitable for UNCA because we had so many two- and 
three-person departments and there were no senior faculty members. Af- 
ter discussing this situation with the General Administration, a new com- 
mittee, representative of the faculty and selected from its tenured ranks, 
was established as a consulting and recommending body. The committee 
of the tenured faculty was intended to perform for the entire institution 
what the senior faculty did for the departments at the larger and older 
institutions. The new set of guidelines was satisfactory to me and to the 
Board of Trustees, but Chapel Hill rejected the document and asked us to 
start over again, particularly in terms of defining the function of the 
committee of the tenured faculty. 

The General Administration refused to accept that degree of responsi- 
bility for a faculty committee. That group insisted that the recommenda- 
tion for reappointment, promotion, and appointment to permanent ten- 
ure should be made first by the department chairman, second by the chief 
academic officer, and finally by the chancellor. The committee of the 
tenured faculty could consult with the vice-chancellor for academic affairs, 
but it was not to be allowed the authority of separate recommendation. 
This arrangement caused considerable anger within the faculty, because 
their role in the process would be diminished, and it came on the heels of 
the widely accepted set of guidelines that we and the Board of Trustees 
had approved. This particular complication lasted for a couple of years 
and was a source of discontent, although everyone understood the neces- 
sity of a tenure program and procedures for making decisions that would 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 


be acceptable to the General Administration and the Board of Governors. 
Either we would have such a procedure or we would have no system of 
tenure at all. 

The Board of Governors asked each of the sixteen campuses to develop 
a five-year plan to describe what the institutions should be doing between 
1975 and 1980. Beginning in 1973 we concentrated our time and effort 
on considering and documenting all the things we felt must be added for a 
broader-based curriculum. It is necessary to remember that one of the first 
major actions taken by the Board of Governors had been to suspend 
approval for any new degree program at any campus until a complete 
inventory was made of all of the degree programs and major educational 
activities at each campus. 

Though the formulation of a five-year plan would take much more 
time, we had, in early 1973, with the approval of the UNCA board of 
trustees, submitted to the General Administration and the Board of Gov- 
ernors a list of major programs we wanted to establish as soon as we 
received approval. They included (1) a major program in management, 
(2) a major program in environmental sciences, (3) a major program in 
music and dance, (4) a school of health sciences, and (5) graduate pro- 
grams within our competency. 

Although UNCA had been hit hard by some of the actions of the 
General Assembly in 1 971, we took great pride in the institution's accom- 
plishments. In the fall term of 1973, a little more than 70 percent of the 
faculty held doctorates in their teaching fields. That percentage placed 
UNCA only slighdy behind the three doctoral-granting campuses of the 
University. Privately we took satisfaction in the knowledge that more than 
one-third of the faculty were members of Phi Beta Kappa. Although most 
of the students came from Asheville and the vicinity, their Scholastic Apti- 
tude Test scores demonstrated that their ranking within the state was 
about the same as that of the faculty. During these years, the average SAT 
scores for incoming freshmen were considerably higher than the national 
average and only slighdy below those of the doctoral-granting institu- 
tions, a situation that has held steady over the years. 

Student financial aid was becoming more significant, and in 1973 the 
Office of Financial Aid was able to grant $337,000 to 269 students. This 
figure did not include campus jobs or veterans' benefits under the GI Bill. 
Much of the available money came from federal programs such as grants 
and aid, work study, and loans. 

The dormitories were full, and by the mid-seventies it was apparent the 

174 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

school would have to build new dormitories. It was impossible, however, 
to think of financing additional housing completely from student fees. 
The need reached crisis proportions before the problem was solved some 
years later. 

The UNCA Foundation did much better from 1973 to 1974 than it 
had during most of the previous years. The chairman of the board of 
directors was Dr. Desmond Coughlin. Although the foundation was still 
a young organization and limited in many ways, it established, and great- 
ly exceeded, a one-year fund-raising goal of $25,000 in response to insti- 
tutional needs. Ruth and Dr. Leon Feldman had given $10,000 to estab- 
lish a permanent Feldman Scholarship. Fifteen thousand dollars had been 
raised in cash, in addition to $20,000 in pledges. The Sara and Joseph 
Breman Fund of $100,000 had been established by the family of Helen 
and Coleman Zageir as a memorial to Helen Zageir's parents. The 
Breman Fund was the first major donation aimed at endowing support for 
a faculty member. It was established for the social sciences, and the yield 
from the fund could go either to a permanent faculty member who would 
be the Breman Professor or toward bringing in distinguished visitors. For 
the first several years, we used the income to bring to the campus visiting 
scholars who could stimulate the students and the faculty, and it proved a 
most worthwhile addition to the institution. 

One event during this time set off a wave of dissent. Pat Gainey was 
elected editor of the Ridgerunner, the campus newspaper. He was also an 
assistant to the public information officer, Peter R. Gilpin. Some faculty 
members felt there was an inherent conflict of interest. This was of par- 
ticular concern in one department, because Gainey, in an article in the 
Ridgerunner had blamed one of that department's members for influenc- 
ing students to vote against the instrument of governance, the document 
aimed at broadening the base of campus government, which had been 
discussed for almost two years. A member of the department wrote a 
stinging reply to the paper, accusing Gainey of a conflict of interest. 
Gainey, recognizing the potential for conflict of interest, decided it best to 
resign as editor, and Michael Hawkins took his position. 

Meanwhile, the paper continued to editorialize, charging that the SGA 
represented only a fraction of the students and that the members them- 
selves had acted irresponsibly in the allocation of a substantial amount of 
the money generated by student activity fees. Since the SGA funded the 
Ridgerunner, the running battle continued, with constant threats to with- 
draw financial support. The paper refused to become a house organ for 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 175 

the SGA, citing its legal and constitutional rights to publish as an inde- 
pendent voice. This situation came to a head during the 1973-74 year, 
when it became necessary to take decisive action to establish conclusively 
the role of the campus newspaper. 

In the fall of 1973 enrollment was fairly steady compared with the 
previous year: the head count was 1,138, and the full-time equivalent 
enrollment was 1,010. It was clear that we needed to move as vigorously 
as possible to broaden the curriculum in order to attract and retain more 
students, and we made every attempt to impress that fact upon the Board 
of Governors. 

At the same time, in the fall of 1973, there were some pleasant develop- 
ments on the campus. Scholarly publication was taking place in nearly all 
departments, and Dr. Guy Cooper of the classics department published in 
one semester seven papers for scholarly journals of international distribu- 
tion. He was developing a substantial reputation in classical languages and 
classical civilizations, and his students were being accepted by the nation's 
most prestigious institutions. 

The Board of Governors had, in its request for long-range planning, 
asked the campuses to take a careful look at their curricula to make them 
more responsive to students' needs. Since that assignment was parallel to 
our other planning, we set about it immediately. The Chancellor's Com- 
mittee on Curriculum Reform was established, and UNCAwas one of the 
first schools to receive funds from the Board of Governors for the work. 
The committee's assignment was to go beyond the simple matter of listing 
what courses were being taken, what should be added, and what majors 
should be offered on the campus; the group was also charged to consider 
and make recommendations for improving the quality of instruction and 
faculty-student relations. In October 1973, as a part of this intense exami- 
nation, Dr. John R. Haines of Higher Education Management Services 
came from New York to observe the institution's total program. He made 
some helpful suggestions and identified the need for better orientation of 
new students and clarification of admissions standards. He also approved 
the position of the UNCA board of trustees toward expansion into new 
program areas and expressed the hope that the Board of Governors would 
approve them. The faculty was pleased by his observation that "there is an 
innovative quality found here that just does not exist in many organiza- 
tions I have seen." His visit to the campus was helpful, and the committee 
appreciated his assistance. 

Later in the month, the ground-breaking ceremony was held for the 

i 7 6 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

new social sciences building, the building that had been funded through 
the quick action of Senator Gudger and Representative DeBruhl on the 
last day of the 1971 General Assembly session. Some other money had 
been added to the $950,000 appropriation, and J. Bertram King was 
selected as the architect. It would take about eighteen months to construct 
the building, and the departments looked forward to the completion of 
the badly needed facility. 

It did not take long for the department of political science to achieve 
statewide recognition for its inter-nation simulation program, and Profes- 
sor Bahram Farzanegan held a workshop at the North Carolina Education 
Computing Service in Research Triangle Park. One of the program's 
unique features was its use of college students to train high school stu- 
dents to participate in simulated exercises. 

In another significant advance during the fall of 1973, classes were 
begun joindy on the UNCA campus by the UNC-Chapel Hill School of 
Public Health and the Mountain Area Health Education Center. The 
program allowed area residents to receive a master's degree in public 
health with only a small amount of time spent in Chapel Hill. It was an 
excellent opportunity for the numbers of people enrolled and established a 
precedent that would be expanded later. 

When the proposed instrument of governance was defeated on campus, 
many people felt a great sense of loss because the purpose of the carefully 
crafted proposal had been to provide a much broader base for both guid- 
ance and communications. The failure of the proposal left us with a void 
that needed to be filled as quickly as possible. As a result, I discussed a 
different solution with Vice-Chancellor Riggs, Dean Deason, the presi- 
dent of the student government, and several others. We simply decreed a 
body to be called the Campus Forum, the purpose of which was to pro- 
vide monthly meetings during which anyone could bring up any issue or 
question anything that was going on. We counseled among ourselves and 
established an agenda, but the agenda was not restrictive. The Campus 
Forum was composed of sixteen members, with equal representation from 
the faculty, students, staff members, and administrators. The administra- 
tive members were the chancellor, the vice-chancellor for academic affairs, 
the dean of students, and the vice-chancellor for finance. We were assured 
of adequate publicity because the editor of the Ridgerunner was an ex 
officio student member. The Campus Forum met for several years. Over- 
all, it provided an excellent method for people representing the major 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 


constituencies on campus to have an opportunity to discuss events and 
consider necessary changes. 

At a UNCA board of trustees meeting in November 1973, I brought 
up publicly for the first time the matter of WCU classes at Oteen. I 
pointed out that one of the results was that taxpayers were paying for 
unjustifiable duplication of courses in Asheville. I reminded the board 
that in April 1970, President Friday and I had offered WCU the use of 
our facilities at night. We had an established library, and WCU students 
could take our undergraduate liberal arts and general education courses. 
Western Carolina could then have used UNCA classrooms and facilities 
for graduate work and for undergraduate courses in fields that UNCA did 
not offer. 

There had been serious internal troubles at WCU during 1972-73. Dr. 
Hugh McEniry, the vice-chancellor for academic affairs at UNC-Char- 
lotte, was assigned by the General Administration to serve as acting chan- 
cellor at WCU. He and I had many conversations about the activities of 
the two institutions in Asheville, and we both felt it necessary for the 
Board of Governors to state clearly what WCU could and could not do in 
Asheville. I told our board and Dr. McEniry that although Oteen Center 
was classified as a resident center, there were no resident faculty at Oteen 
or in Asheville; there were no laboratories; there was no library. WCU 
received full funding, as if the students were in full-time residence in 
Cullowhee, and the majority of the money was used for the Cullowhee 
campus. After that UNCA board of trustees meeting, Dr. McEniry and I 
released a joint statement to the media that promised we would do our 
best to provide maximum higher education in the area at a minimum cost 
to the taxpayer. We realized that competition could be stimulating, but in 
this situation the taxpayers were paying for unnecessary duplication of 
courses in the same city. 

After the death of Bill Cochran in 1972, we lacked personal contacts 
with the State Department for bringing the outstanding speakers who 
had made the Foreign Affairs Forum such a success. Our attempts to 
continue it without Cochran's network of associates were less than satis- 
factory, so Dr. Gene Rainey, then chairman of the political science depart- 
ment, undertook, with the cooperation of his colleagues, the responsi- 
bility of supplying an adequate replacement that would meet the desire of 
the community for informative discussions of international affairs. The 
Great Decisions Program, an important activity of the Foreign Policy 

178 : A Time of Troubles — A Time of Progress 

Association since the early fifties, had some roots in the area but had never 
had the encouragement of a local college. Rainey received approval for 
UNCA to present the program in western North Carolina from the North 
Carolina parent agency, the Center for International Studies at UNC- 
Charlotte. With university sponsorship and the organizational abilities of 
the department, it was not hard to revive interest and expand it with a 
good percentage of the former audiences of the Foreign Affairs Forum. 
Discussion groups were supplied with texts and articles, as well as with 
knowledgeable speakers and group leaders from political science, other 
interested departments, and the groups themselves. Before long the pro- 
gram was doing exceptionally well in Asheville, and requests made it nec- 
essary to plan for organizing groups beyond the community. 

Personnel decisions in March 1974 made in accordance with the tenure 
document approved by the Board of Trustees the previous November 
upset some faculty and students. The timing was accidental, but it was 
necessary that four members of the faculty being considered for reap- 
pointment and appointment to permanent tenure not receive contracts. In 
accordance with the tenure document, the decision gave them one year's 
notice to allow them to seek employment elsewhere. It was unfortunate 
that so many came up at the same time. The four faculty members — one in 
German, two in psychology, and one in economics — had each been on 
campus a different length of time, and it was entirely coincidental that 
their contracts all came up for review at the same time. Although the 
tenure document had not been approved by the Board of Governors, it 
had the approval of the UNCA board of trustees, and it was all we had at 
the time. The decisions, which were communicated in writing on that day, 
caused an explosion among students and faculty who were close to the 
individuals involved. There was no way that we could avoid making such 
difficult decisions, although we knew there would be some opposition. 
Within a few weeks, on April 21, the SGA voted 8-6 to go on strike 
against the institution, citing particularly the non-reappointment of the 
faculty members, whom the students referred to as being fired. They were 
not fired. Their contracts had expired, and they were informed that they 
would not be reappointed. 

The president of the Student Government Association, Kenneth 
Wright, led the call for the strike, which occurred on April 22 and was a 
rather strange event. Most of the students ignored it, but at 10:00 a.m. on 
April 22, about fifty students gathered in front of Ramsey Library and sat 
down on the ground shaded by the dawn redwood tree. It was an odd 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 179 

strike: although the idea was to strike classes, students would leave when- 
ever they had a class, then come back and sit down. Another intriguing 
aspect was that the students were also objecting to the food in the cafete- 
ria, but whenever they got hungry, one would take up money, go down to 
the snack shop, and come back with a bag of hamburgers. The next 
morning only twelve or thirteen people remained sitting on the lawn with 
their placards and banners. They did what was for them a very proper 
thing: they declared the strike a success and were done. It had no notice- 
able impact on campus operations. The Faculty Senate passed a resolution 
reminding all faculty members that they had an obligation to hold classes 
whether the students came or not. With exams approaching, the students 
had a lot more on their minds than becoming involved in the strike. 

It was gratifying at the 1974 commencement to see Sam Ferguson, a 
student who had been in Vietnam and was attending on the GI Bill, 
receive the A. C. Reynolds Citizenship Award. With veterans experiencing 
so many difficulties on college campuses, it was a real pleasure for such a 
student to receive a cherished award. 

In the spring, Zollie Stevenson, who had taken over the Ridgerunner at 
the time of student reaction to the tenure decisions, was elected president 
of the student government. He was the first black student ever to hold 
that position. 

That summer, Dr. James Stewart, who had started the Oxford Program 
in 1969, developed what he called a cultural odyssey for older citizens. 
There were no classes or credits involved. The planned two-week program 
in Britain was just a look at some of the beautiful and historic places and 
institutions with which Professor Stewart was so familiar. Everyone who 
went on the trip came back praising Stewart and UNCA for providing 
that opportunity at a cost they could never have duplicated on their own. 

An important personnel matter in 1974 was the return to the campus of 
Dr. Thomas Dula. He had served as dean of students from 1966 to 1971, 
when he left to become president of the Tennessee Military Institute. He 
returned, not as dean of students, the position held by Thomas Deason, 
but as director of administration and assistant to the chancellor. 

The most momentous development for the institution in the summer of 
1974 occurred on July 15, when the Board of Governors approved a 
bachelor of science in management degree for UNCA. This action was 
taken before the five-year planning program was well under way, in re- 
sponse to our obvious need for new programs, particularly one so badly 
needed in the Asheville area, with such potential for growth. The manage- 

1 8 o : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

merit program would have several tracks, which in many schools would be 
called separate majors: general management, personnel management, fi- 
nance management, and business management. The use of tracks within a 
major was a way to provide for separate types of concentration within the 
broad general field. The concept of the program as much broader than 
business administration came from Dr. Lester Zerfoss, who had been in 
personnel work in industry for many years, particularly at American Enka. 
He took early retirement at American Enka so he could serve as a research 
professor in psychology. His real interest was in management, particularly 
in personnel. Both he and UNCA were gready helped by Harry Clarke, 
president of Western Carolina Industries. It was through Clarke that we 
were able to reach hundreds of industries in western North Carolina and 
explain to them what the management program would be. It was distinc- 
tive not only because of the different tracks; it also included an internship 
in the senior year that would give students opportunities to go into plants, 
stores, or businesses and apply what they had learned in the classroom. 
Within a few years that feature became one of the most popular facets of 
the program, and industries and businesses in the area developed an insa- 
tiable need for our interns. Soon management would have the largest 
enrollment of any degree program on campus. We were not able to get 
faculty, classes, and schedules in place immediately, but planning for the 
program proceeded rapidly from the moment we learned it had been 

Another significant event that summer was the development of inter- 
active computing. UNCA computer terminals were placed at Asheville 
High School, Asheville Country Day School, and the Newfound School. 
The teachers in those schools came to the campus, where Dr. James Vin- 
son, chairman of physics, instructed them in the use of computers. It was 
a great boon to the schools, which at that time had not yet developed 
computer capabilities of their own, and it provided a further tie between 
the campus and the local schools. During the summer Dr. Lloyd Reming- 
ton of chemistry and Dr. J. J. Thompson of Oxford University in England 
began a joint special program for science teachers in the public schools, 
which proved popular and lasted for several years. It was a smoothly 
operated and informative cooperative venture between UNCA and Ox- 
ford University and the science teachers of both Britain and western 
North Carolina. 

Dr. H. F. "Cotton" Robinson became the chancellor of Western Caro- 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 1 8 1 

Una University on July i, 1974. He brought to that position a wealth of 
scientific and administrative experience, and he played an important role 
in the ongoing development of both WCU and UNCA. He had served as 
head of agricultural research for many years at North Carolina State. Just 
before assuming the position at WCU he had been the provost of Purdue 
University. Chancellor Robinson was a man of enormous physical and 
intellectual energy. Internal problems at WCU demanded a person with 
great experience, much imagination, and a strong hand, and he brought 
all of that to the position. He was experienced, smart, imaginative, and 
tough. I quickly achieved an enormous respect for his abilities and his 

Unfortunately we frequently found ourselves at odds over what was 
supposed to take place in Asheville. He inherited Oteen Center and recog- 
nized its potential importance to his institution. At the same time, he 
understood that UNCA was expanding its curriculum and growing, and 
that the presence of Oteen Center in Asheville would inevitably lead to 
clashes. We met several times that summer to discuss the resident center, 
its curriculum, and that of UNCA. We repeatedly made our points that 
WCU was offering courses that were a direct duplication of ours. We 
renewed the 1970 offer that President Friday and I had made for UNCA 
space and facilities for WCU graduate work and those courses UNCA was 
not authorized to teach, but the situation remained stalemated. 

On September 3, 1974, at a meeting in Chapel Hill, President Friday 
decided that the Oteen Center would close and that in the fall of 1975 all 
of its classes would be taught on the UNCA campus. Since Oteen was 
primarily an evening program and UNCA did not, at that time, have a 
large evening program, space was available. The WCU students would 
have access to the library, parking, classrooms, and other facilities. UNCA 
was to be reimbursed by WCU for the use of these facilities. The 1974—75 
academic year was spent planning for the transfer by setting up a schedule 
and resolving what facilities would be used, how the funds would be 
transferred, and a myriad of other details. Dr. Thomas Dula represented 
UNCA in these negotiations, and Harry Ramsey was appointed director 
of WCU programs at Asheville and moved to the UNCA campus in 
October 1974. We had to make adjustments in our own scheduling so 
that several classes that we had not previously taught at night would be 
available to Western Carolina and UNCA students. The agreement was 
loosely worded, and there were constant disagreements about precisely 

1 8 2 : A Time of Troubles — A Time of Progress 

what classes UNCA would offer and what classes Western Carolina would 
cancel so that WCU students could take ours. The basic thrust of the 
argument was to stop duplication of classes in Asheville. 

Enrollment was down slighdy in August 1974. Our experience had 
shown that the spring enrollment was normally 92 percent of what it had 
been in the fall, as a result of attrition. If nothing was done, we would be 
in dire shape that second semester, beginning in January, because a drop 
in enrollment figures would mean a reduced budget. We decided to start 
the new management degree program at night at the beginning of the 
October term rather in January. The first meeting of the Management 
Program Advisory Council, with Harry Clarke as chairman, took place on 
October 4. Representatives of the leading banks, businesses, and indus- 
tries of the area attended and agreed to support student internships. That 
component was central to the management degree program but could 
succeed only with the complete cooperation of these off-campus agencies. 
The first courses were elementary, and the class sizes were amazingly large. 
Initiating the management program boosted enrollment for the second 
term and put us in a good position for expanding in January. 

Additionally, a substantial number of faculty responded to the drop in 
enrollment by volunteering to organize and teach an additional course at 
night at no cost to the university. Their well-advertised courses added a 
total of 260 students and brought our enrollment far above the budgeted 
figure so we did not have to worry about a budgetary cut that year. The 
contribution was so valuable that the name of each volunteer should be 

Dr. John Barthel (economics) 
Dr. Verna Bergemann (education) 
Dr. Shirley Browning (economics) 
Patsy Clarke (speech) 
Tucker Cooke (art) 
Dr. Mechthild Cranston (French) 
Dr. Phillip Cranston (French) 
Robert Daughton (physical 

Elma Johnson (art) 

Olivia Jones (writing) 
Dr. Pat Laweral (economics) 
Dr. Arnold Sgan (education) 
Dr. Ellis Shorb (literature) 
Dr. James Stewart (philosophy) 
Dr. William Thurman (classics) 
Dr. James Vinson (physics) 
Dr. Philip Walker (history) 
Lutrelle Wishart (writing) 
Dr. Fred Wood (classics) 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 183 

The faculty's foresightedness was of much more consequence than the 
objective of protecting the budget. Examining the enrollment in the addi- 
tional classes, we observed that many people who could not attend in the 
daytime were interested in becoming UNCA students. Immediately we 
began planning for a much more expanded curriculum in the evening, one 
that would be a good deal more comprehensive than that projected to take 
care of WCU's move to our campus the following year. We took a closer 
look at continuing education and surmised that, if developed properly, it 
could provide a wider range of topics of special interest to more people in 
the community. We also organized a number of additional continuing 
education courses, to begin in January, structured as noncredit courses 
open to the public, with the fees set only high enough to cover the 
operating costs. In the course of the year special topics were offered in a 
wide variety of fields, including art, classics, economics, education, his- 
tory, humanities, foreign languages, management, philosophy, the sci- 
ences, and speech. Given the obvious demand, we determined to become 
more heavily involved in such services, and in 1975 continuing education 
became a part of our long-range-planning proposals. 

In September 1974 the Advisory Budget Commission visited the cam- 
pus, and we discussed with its members the needs of the institution at the 
time. The social sciences building was well under construction, and that 
would solve many of the problems. We asked for money to renovate the 
soon-to-be-vacated area in the Phillips Building so that it could serve 
other needs. We asked for much better equipment for the science labora- 
tories and for funds to bring the campus into compliance with the Occu- 
pational Safety and Health Administration regulations and requirements. 
We needed to renovate the library, to add more paving and parking, and 
to do more landscaping. The modest request came to about $3.2 million. 

During the summer and fall of 1974, the entire country felt the effects 
of the war between Egypt and Israel and the resulting oil boycott. The 
price of heating oil had risen alarmingly, and our budget was not adequate 
to cover the increase. The same was true of natural gas, and some of the 
buildings had gas furnaces. Sometimes it was necessary to warn students 
in the dormitories that there would be no hot water. Thermostats were 
lowered, and we made every effort to live within our budget and reduce 
the use of oil and natural gas. It was often uncomfortable, but nothing 
else could be done at the time. 

Several noteworthy events took place on the campus that fall. UNC 

184 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

public television offered an outstanding series presented by Jacob Bron- 
owski and called "Ascent of Man." As at other campuses, arrangements 
were made at UNCA for people who watched the series to earn credit. 
They were able to meet with the humanities faculty on the campus, discuss 
what they had seen on television and read in the text that accompanied the 
course, and take examinations. It proved a valuable experience for a large 
number of people. 

Continuing the work he had started several years before, Dr. John Ste- 
vens, in the chemistry department, received a $10,400 grant from the 
National Bureau of Standards to start the Mossbauer Effect Data Index. 
This grant would facilitate gathering all the data and publishing a sum- 
mary in an annual volume that would allow people in the field to keep 
abreast of developments in their particular area of spectroscopy every- 
where in the world. 

A new student honorary society, Phi Alpha Theta, for students major- 
ing in history or interested in historical studies, was organized that fall. 
The chapter became an extraordinarily vibrant student group. Over the 
years, the faculty and students have done some exceptional things working 
together. Phi Alpha Theta has won meritorious honors and is a credit to 
the study of history and to the institution. 

In another innovation that same fall, Dr. Robert Trullinger offered a 
course in humanities by newspaper. The carefully developed course was 
part of a national program. Humanities articles appeared in the newspa- 
per, students registered for credit, read the articles, met with Dr. Trul- 
linger to discuss them, and wrote papers. It was not the sort of thing that 
could be done often, but it was a unique addition to the services of the 
institution at that time. 

WCU moved its introductory chemistry classes to the UNCA campus 
in the fall of 1974. At the same time North Carolina State University 
began offering graduate work in engineering, and UNC-Chapel Hill con- 
tinued the program leading to a master's degree in public health. These 
programs were particularly significant because they proved that the 
UNCA campus could serve the area not only by developing its own pro- 
grams but also by making course work available from other campuses. It 
was gratifying to see four institutions of the same system using the same 
campus to expand opportunities for hundreds of students. 

The year ended on a note of great sadness with the death of Dr. 
Frederic Marcus Wood of the classics department. He was a gende, intelli- 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 185 

gent man who had an extraordinary rapport with students. He died on 
December 14, and it was a profound loss to his colleagues and students. 

The new year began with a $5,000 grant from the Research Corpora- 
tion of America to support student research in the Mossbauer effect. It 
was stimulating to have students recognized as coresearchers in work of 
this kind, and it was a tribute to the chemistry department to have majors 
advanced enough to share in the research responsibilities with faculty 

In January early announcements for a seventh summer at Oxford began 
appearing. The program continued under the direction of Professor Stew- 
art; it had become a regular feature of the institution's summer offer- 
ings. Arrangements had been made to provide regular Oxford tutors for 
courses in British history, Shakespeare, the contemporary novel, and a 
special course, "A Study of British Leadership." The people who had been 
to Oxford considered the program one of the most valuable opportunities 
for UNCA students. 

In February 1975 we were pleased to announce that Dr. Donald Hart 
would be joining us in the fall as chairman of the management depart- 
ment. We needed someone of his experience and stature and were de- 
lighted he was available. He had been president of Saint Andrews Presby- 
terian College in Laurinburg for several years, but his long career also 
included serving as dean of the College of Business Administration at the 
University of Florida and as president for one year of the American 
Academy of Collegiate Schools of Business. He had exactly what we 
needed in a leader of the new management program, which was to be 
built, in good part, along the philosophical foundations laid out earlier by 
Dr. Zerfoss, giving the students a broad base of general education in the 
liberal arts in combination with the career-oriented degree requirements. 
We also had need of his experience and effectiveness in working with 
faculty in other departments, some of whom were skeptical about man- 
agement. His leadership quickly lessened their reservations. 

Probably the most active and successful athletic program at the time 
was in swimming. For a nominal sum, Betsy Montgomery served as coach 
of the swimming team. She scheduled many meets with other institutions 
and had three swimmers who took seriously an opportunity to go the 
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletes tournament. They were 
Bruce Hobbs, Tom Zumberg, and Douglas Fleck. 

During the mid-seventies, we continued to seek funds needed to re- 


A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

move architectural barriers to handicapped students: constructing special 
ramps in the dormitories and into all the buildings, removing the steps 
whenever possible or building paths and ramps that people in wheelchairs 
could use to bypass them, and installing an elevator so that students could 
reach the second and third floors of the Lipinsky Student Center. It was a 
long, expensive process for a mountain campus to provide an environ- 
ment where people could safely go anywhere in a wheelchair or on 
crutches. We did receive the funds, however, and we were able to make 
substantial progress. 

The campus hosted a nuclear energy conference in March. Dr. Chaun- 
cey Kephart, a British scientist, discussed the alarming specters of nuclear 
war and the radiation from nuclear waste. As a physicist, he predicted the 
problem that would soon haunt the world. Events in the United States 
and western North Carolina since that time indicate that he was well 
advised to warn his audience of the other side of the nuclear energy 

Also in March, a Black Arts Festival grabbed the attention of all black 
students. Nathaniel Felder, who at the time was an adviser to the Black 
Students Association and director of institutional research, made a cogent 
comment at one of the meetings. He said, "Black people have not always 
been able to share in the fruits of their labors, but they were instrumental 
in making our country the strong nation that it is today." Since then, one 
month a year has been devoted to the black experience in America. It 
remains a meaningful experience for black students on campus and a 
learning exercise for many others, including high school students. 

Dr. Milton Ready and the history department, along with Luther Jones, 
a local high school history teacher, staged a reenactment of the battles of 
Lexington and Concord which had occurred on April 19, 1775. People 
from all over western North Carolina and upper South Carolina came to 
the two-hundredth anniversary celebration, dressed in Revolutionary-era 
uniforms. Students enjoyed the shooting contests with eighteenth-century 
black powder rifles, the military marches and the skirmishes. In the eve- 
ning there was a groaning board in the cafeteria, with food brought by all 
the participants and their families. Dr. Frank Edwinn of the department of 
art and music entertained with songs of the American Revolution. Many 
students realized for the first time that history could be a consuming 
interest of people in any number of vocations. 

During 1975 several UNCA people received the sort of statewide rec- 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 187 

ognition that is invaluable for a young and growing institution. Arnold 
Wengrow served the year as president of the Carolina Dramatics Associa- 
tion, Dr. Rainey as president of the North Carolina Political Science Asso- 
ciation, and I as president of the North Carolina Association of Colleges 
and Universities. 

In keeping with our interest in undergraduate participation in research, 
we received in April an $18,170 grant from the National Science Founda- 
tion to study the environmental, social and economic impacts of an aban- 
doned strip mine in the Spruce Pine area of Mitchell County. It was a 
highly relevant topic, and many of our students and faculty participated in 
the study. Shortly beforehand, Harry Caudill from Kentucky had spoken 
on campus about the environmental devastation caused by careless strip 
mining. He had written Nijjht Comes to the Cumberland, and his firsthand 
knowledge was chilling to students from the Carolina mountain region. 

The commencement that May was memorable. Eleanor McGovern, the 
wife of the 1972 Democratic candidate for president, was the commence- 
ment speaker because many members of the graduating class were no 
longer satisfied to have only figures well known in North Carolina politics 
or higher education. Even more memorable was that instead of participat- 
ing in a regular recessional, the platform party, the faculty, the graduating 
class, and the audience moved to inspect the new social sciences building 
once the commencement was over. The building was dedicated that night 
to Coleman Zageir. All of us were grateful that he was able to attend this 
special event. The school was gready indebted to Zageir and his wife, 
Helen, not just for recent gifts but also for their help in many ways during 
the early years, when we were desperate to find someone who would give 
us any help at all. 

Among the outstanding features of the Coleman Zageir Social Sciences 
Building was a simulation laboratory planned, in part, by Professor Far- 
zanegan. This was one of the few buildings in the country with such a 
facility. In addition, the classrooms, specialized laboratories, and offices 
for the departments were ample for the enrollment at that time. 

One student was the pride of the graduating class of 1975. Brenda 
Stewart was the first black graduate to receive magna cum laude honors 
and had been admitted to several outstanding law schools. She chose to 
go to Yale the following fall. Audrey Byrd, another black student, had 
paved the way the previous year with her admission to Harvard Law 
School. These moments inspired us to increase our efforts to provide 

1 8 8 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

education for black students and see them reach for their highest po- 

Shortly after the May commencement, there was another ground break- 
ing, this time for the new theater building. On May 16, 1975, architect J. 
Bertram King, Patsy Clarke, and Arnold Wengrow coordinated the cere- 
monies. The theater, was located just northwest of the Carmichael Hu- 
manities Building. It was a much-needed facility, since Lipinsky Audito- 
rium was not adequate for good theatrical productions. King's innovative 
design brought Wengrow's concepts to reality. The theater would be con- 
structed in an arena style, but it was flexible enough to be used whenever 
necessary in proscenium fashion. It would be almost two years before the 
building would be completed because the interior, with myriad provisions 
for computerized lighting, movable scenery, and other activities, was in- 
credibly complex. We had originally hoped to house art and drama to- 
gether, but the budget left us no possible way to provide reasonable facili- 
ties for both departments. The art faculty graciously withdrew its requests 
and expressed the hope that, when the next building was funded, there 
would be space for art. We agreed to provide adequate facilities at the first 

The reason we could make such a promise to the art department was 
that relief was in sight. Liston Ramsey of Madison County, chairman of 
the Finance Committee of the House of Representatives, had proposed a 
statewide bond referendum to provide funds for the top capital priority at 
each institution of the University of North Carolina. The top priority for 
UNCA was a $1.9 million classroom building for management and art. 
Although those two departments might seem incongruent, we were going 
to get only one building, and those were the departments that had the 
greatest needs for space. The vote was set for March 23, 1976, and we and 
the other campuses worked diligendy for statewide support for the bond 

When classes opened in August 1975, enrollment was 20 percent high- 
er than at the same time the previous year. The increase reflected the 
numbers of students who were enrolling for management courses, addi- 
tions to the evening program, and the basic liberal arts classes that had 
been taught at WCU's Oteen Center and were now being offered on the 
UNCA campus and credited to UNCA. Graduate courses and those 
courses that UNCA did not regularly teach were credited to WCU. 
UNCA was responsible for the general education and liberal arts courses. 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 189 

Students in those classes registered with either WCU or UNCA, which 
made no difference because all the classes had the same requirements, the 
same professors, and the same classroom. However, conflict over what 
constituted duplication would continue for several years. 

David Ramseur was the new editor of the Ridgerunner, and Gary Aiken 
was the new president of the Student Government Association. One of 
the long-awaited events on the campus occurred that fall, when the Fed- 
eral Communications Commission finally approved WUNF-FM as a 10- 
watt educational station. The Student Government Association contrib- 
uted $18,000 to buy the necessary equipment, and Larry Warren, a 
student with some experience in radio, was named station manager. 

It was our custom to introduce new faculty members at the first meet- 
ing of each year. An unusually good group joined us in the fall of 1975. 
Among them were Dr. Donald Hart in management, Dr. Thomas Coch- 
ran in psychology, Roxanne Schaffhausen in physical education, Dr. Jo- 
seph Sulock in economics, Dr. Ileana Grams in philosophy, and Dr. Henry 
Stern in German. 

We entered a tight fiscal year, even though our enrollment was greatly 
increased over the previous year. The Arab oil boycott had wreaked havoc 
on the American economy. State revenues were down, and when that 
occurs, the only alternative is to cut the budgets of all state agencies and 
institutions. So we were confronted in 1975 with a smaller budget and a 
significant increase in the number of students we were to serve. There 
were no salary raises of any consequence during that year of rampant 
inflation. Trying to plan the academic year so we could manage on a 
depleted coffer was a dismal project. 

Another problem that resurfaced that year and grew much larger later 
was the conflict known as the Adams case. The path toward desegregation 
had been thorny for the southern states since the 1954 Brown v. Board of 
Education ofTopeka decision that racially segregated public schools vio- 
lated the equal-protection provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment. In 
1957, three years after the decision, the General Assembly of North Caro- 
lina passed laws to begin the orderly desegregation of the public schools. 
Though the emphasis at that time was on the public schools, the Consoli- 
dated University and the colleges of the state began the process also. With 
the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, efforts were speeded to 
remove de jure segregation. Title VI of the act specified: "No person in 
the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be 

1 9 o : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

excluded from participation in, or be denied the benefits of, or be sub- 
jected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal 
financial assistance." UNCA welcomed its first black students in the early 
sixties and soon began an active recruitment program. In 1969 the De- 
partment of Health, Education, and Welfare, the agency assigned the re- 
sponsibility for enforcement of the act, began investigation of southern 
states with established dual systems of higher education. Though oppor- 
tunity and affirmative action had begun to make inroads into the histori- 
cally segregated systems in North Carolina, and more black students had 
enrolled at traditionally white institutions, in early 1970 the director of 
the HEW Office of Civil Rights reported that black students accounted 
for only about 2 percent of the enrollment at those institutions, while 
white enrollment at the black institutions was almost nonexistent. This 
was an unsatisfactory situation, particularly to civil rights groups. 

On October 19, 1970, the Legal Defense Fund of the NAACP filed a 
class action suit in Federal District Court for the District of Columbia on 
behalf of one Kenneth Adams and other black students against HEW, 
charging the department, then headed by Elliot Richardson, with failure 
to discharge its responsibilities for enforcing Tide VI of the Civil Rights 
Act in ten southern states. Judge John Pratt, who heard Adams v. Richard- 
son^ ruled in November 1972 that HEW had not properly discharged its 
responsibilities of enforcement of Title VI to eliminate segregation in the 
institutions of higher learning in the states with traditionally dual systems 
and, in a separate February 1973 ruling, held that HEWs policies of 
continuing federal financial assistance to the offending states had been a 
violation of the civil rights of the plaintiffs. He ordered HEW to begin 
proper enforcement within 1 20 days of the ruling. The department imme- 
diately appealed the order, and more time was allowed for the states to 
submit revised plans for desegregation before federal funds were cut off. 

For more than a year the General Administration and the Board of 
Governors of the University reworked all the plans for compliance, re- 
searching and expanding upon those begun earlier by the Board of Higher 
Education and gready enlarging their own previously considered plan- 
ning. The plan was modified many times before it was judged by the 
Board of Governors to be sufficiendy inclusive as to assure compliance 
with Tide VI. 

In June 1974 the Office of Civil Rights of HEW accepted the plan, and 
it was anticipated that it would be accepted by the court. Had it been, the 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 191 

story of the Adams case could have been concluded for North Carolina at 
that point. However, in December the long-studied question of the state's 
proposed new school of veterinary medicine was decided by the Board of 
Governors. Exhaustive studies and expert advice from established veteri- 
nary schools directed that the school should be placed at North Carolina 
State University rather than at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical 
University. The Office of Civil Rights immediately accused the University 
of failure to comply through the location of professional programs in a 
manner calculated to remedy the dual system of higher education. HEW 
was, at that time and until 1977, placated by the University's ability to 
prove that the goals for desegregation oudined in the plan were working 
well, and had been, in some cases, exceeded. However, civil rights groups 
were by no means convinced of the good faith of the state. 

The Adams case was renewed in August 1975, when the Legal Defense 
Fund filed a motion in Judge Pratt's court charging that HEW had failed 
to make any appreciable progress toward desegregation and asking that all 
of the plans then accepted by HEW be revoked. HEW had not yet placed 
itself in the adversarial position that it would later assume. The depart- 
ment was then earnest in following its legal obligation to assist the states 
in formulating policies that would achieve full compliance with Tide VI 
and with the orders of the court. Therefore, in 1975, when the case was 
renewed and renamed Adams et al. v. Weinberger et al., North Carolina 
was given no reason to believe it was a party to the renewed suit and 
continued to operate pursuant to the plan submitted in 1974 with respect 
to upgrading the traditionally black institutions and proceeding with its 
goals for integration of faculty and students throughout the system. Al- 
though the state did not intervene in the case, the precaution was taken of 
hiring private counsel on behalf of the University to assist the General 
Administration and the Office of the Attorney General in the event that 
the court should find North Carolina in noncompliance. It would again 
be two years before Judge Pratt ruled on the case, and more years before 
there was a settlement. It would not be practical to weave into the story of 
UNCA the intricate legalities of the matter, which was centered in Chapel 
Hill, but the case was of such magnitude to all of the constituent institu- 
tions that it will be necessary to oudine the remainder of the proceedings 

At UNCA, there were some changes in the board of trustees for the 
fall of 1975. David Felmet of Waynesville, Robert Carr of Morganton, 

192, : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

and Karl Straus of Asheville would be helpful additions. We were espe- 
cially happy to welcome Straus to the board; for years he had been instru- 
mental in adding to our local scholarship pool and finding money for 
special funding. Cary Owen, Bernard Smith, and Dr. Frell Owl received 
reappointments, this time for four years. Dr. Francis Buchanan was elect- 
ed chairman, Maurice Winger vice-chairman, and Bernard Smith secre- 

An important event planned for almost a year by Dr. Richard Reed, Dr. 
Michael Gillum, Arnold Wengrow, and several others on campus took 
place in October 1975. Thomas Wolfe, probably Asheville's most famous 
citizen, was born in 1900 and died in 1938. He had written such Ameri- 
can classics as Look Homeward, Angel and You Can't Go Home Again. The 
plan was to bring devoted Wolfe readers and followers from around the 
country to Asheville for special programs in honor of Thomas Wolfe's 
seventy-fifth birthday. There were three days of lectures, discussions, and 
readings from his works. Arnold Wengrow staged scenes from Wolfe's 
works at the Asheville Community Theatre. Among the best-known liter- 
ary figures who spoke about the author's life and work were Dr. Floyd 
Watkins of Emory University, Dr. Louis O. Rubin, Jr., and Dr. Hugh 
Holman, both from UNOChapel Hill. One member of Thomas Wolfe's 
immediate family was still living — his brother, Fred, remembered as Luke 
in Look Homeward, Angel. The most dramatic event of the series occurred 
when Fred Wolfe was introduced to a group of people filling the large 
meeting room of Pack Memorial Library. He talked about himself and his 
brother and then, looking up toward the heavens, he cried, "Tom! Tom, 
look at all of these wonderful people who have come here to talk about 
you. You can come home again, Tom. You can come home again." Melo- 
dramatic it may have been, but Wolfe fans loved it. They were genuinely 
moved and considered it the highlight of the celebration, which was called 
"Seventy-five Octobers." 

Many members of the faculty were becoming more involved in commu- 
nity affairs, and a high point came when Dr. Gene E. Rainey, chairman of 
the political science department, won a seat on the city council. He would 
be reelected for a second term before he decided to concentrate on his 
work on the campus. 

The tenure document that had been approved in the fall of 1973 by the 
faculty and the board of trustees had not yet been accepted by the General 
Administration and the Board of Governors. UNCA had stalled on the 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 


matter as long as possible, and in September 1975 we were required by 
the General Administration to revive the tenure document and bring it 
into compliance with the requirements being made of all campuses. The 
ad hoc committee was composed of Professor Philip Walker as chairman, 
Professors Harry Johnston, James Vinson, Shirley Browning, Arnold 
Sgan, and Walter Boland. George Kramer served as a consultant and 
research person, but he was not a committee member and did not vote. 
The difference between the document that UNCA had approved in 1973 
and the one the General Administration insisted on had to do with the 
authority of the Committee of the Tenured Faculty. The General Adminis- 
tration reminded us in no uncertain terms that the committee could con- 
sult with the vice-chancellor for academic affairs but could not have the 
authority to make separate recommendations. Recommendations would 
have to come from department chairmen and the vice-chancellor for aca- 
demic affairs, with the final decision being made by the chancellor of the 
institution. The committee members, as had the faculty for two years, saw 
this as weakening faculty influence in terms of the tenure document and 
future personnel decisions. However, there was nothing we could do be- 
cause the General Administration, representing the Board of Governors, 
had made it clear the document would have to conform to its specifica- 
tions. After considerable grumbling it was rewritten, approved by the 
faculty and the UNCA trustees in November, and forwarded to the Gen- 
eral Administration and Board of Governors for their acceptance, which 
they granted on February 4, 1976. 

An organization of art graduates called the Art Alumni Association had 
been formed. Betty Kdan was largely responsible for providing leadership 
and planning. In the fall of 1975 the group held its first fall festival of art. 
The weather was excellent, and UNCA was brightened by the artwork 
displayed around the campus. 

We had submitted to the Board of Governors our first five-year plan in 
1974. It focused on enrollment, facilities, buildings, and new degree pro- 
grams. We were then able to turn our attention to the need for some 
significant changes in the administration and management of student ser- 
vices. We thought the best way to approach this task would be to establish 
a joint, rather large, faculty and student committee to study the various 
elements and see how they could be improved. The dean of students, 
Thomas Deason, was to be in charge of the entire process, and subcom- 
mittees were formed to analyze and make recommendations for student 

194 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

government, broadcasting and publications, special programs, campus or- 
ganizations, athletics, intramurals, dormitories, and food service. Obvi- 
ously, such work would take a great deal of time, and many people would 
be involved. Work began in the fall of 1975, and it was at least a year 
before all the committees could complete the various studies that were 
necessary, ascertain how similar work was being done at other campuses, 
and come in with a coherent set of recommendations. 

At the fall meeting of the board of trustees, the president of the Student 
Government Association, Gary Aiken, introduced the subject of financing 
women's intercollegiate athletics and advanced the idea of equal emphasis 
in terms of facilities and finances. The board of trustees had elected new 
officers, with Dr. Francis Buchanan serving his second year as chairman, 
Maurice Winger as vice-chairman, and Bernard Smith as secretary. The 
board members recognized that Tide IX requirements made it imperative 
that more funds go into women's intercollegiate athletics and indicated 
their desire that it be done. At the same time, they recognized that the few 
intercollegiate athletics we had were poorly funded and if money were 
taken out of what was already available we would not have a viable pro- 
gram for either men or women. Student fees were commensurate with the 
rising enrollment, but other funding had to be generated by the teams 
themselves and from other sources. There would be no appropriated 
money for this priority, so we needed to plan for both a reordering of the 
athletic budget and an appeal to the community for additional support to 
make the teams attractive enough to interest paying audiences. 

To try to work out an initial agreement for women's intercollegiate 
athletics, Dean Deason called a preliminary meeting of Robert Hart- 
man, Robert Daughton, Betsy Montgomery, Gary and Nora Aiken, Fred 
Tone, George Lancaster (who was serving as interim basketball coach for 
women) and several of the women basketball players. Like the men, the 
women were primarily interested in basketball, but they also wanted other 
sports, such as volleyball and tennis. The situation required a serious look 
at the athletics budget. 

The faculty adopted a new constitution for the senate in the fall semes- 
ter of 1975. Many of the changes during the previous several years, such 
as the adjustment in the calendar, the broadened mission of the institu- 
tion, and the increased enrollment of students and size of the faculty, led 
many people to want to change the way the senate participated in deci- 
sions. Heretofore, the senate met as a committee of the faculty to study 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 195 

matters and make recommendations. When an issue reached the floor for 
discussion, all members of the faculty were permitted to speak, and all of 
the recommendations of the senate were voted on. Problems came about 
as the faculty grew larger and more people wanted to speak, some repeat- 
edly and at length on an increasing number of issues. Meetings grew 
longer and progressively more tedious, and many faculty members felt 
that a change in the authority of the senate would alleviate the problem. 
Dr. Shirley Browning, who was chairman of the Faculty Senate, a position 
he has held five times, believed the time had come for a more effective 
senate. The new document made it a legislative rather than an advisory 
and research committee. Henceforth, the senate would give a report of its 
actions to the general faculty, who would receive it as information rather 
than as an opportunity for discussion. The faculty did have the authority 
to initiate a change in anything the senate had done, but it was necessary 
to have a two-thirds majority of the faculty to overrule any legislative 
action. The senate installed standing committees to do the work and bring 
back their recommendations to the meetings. The standing committees 
were the academic policies committee, the institutional development com- 
mittee, and the faculty welfare committee. The senate was gradually be- 
coming a vital part of campus activity and would, in due time, play an 
even more important role in looking at institutional development and 
planning for new programs. The work of the Faculty Senate was taken so 
seriously by the group itself and by the faculty at large that it was, in good 
part, responsible for much of the internal growth of the institution from 
that time forward. It also helped improve the atmosphere on the campus, 
because nearly everybody felt they were represented through the senate 
and that their ideas and views could be heard in a more orderly envi- 

One outcome of the Arab oil boycott of 1973—74 was heightened con- 
cern nationwide about energy, its sources, and its conservation. The ques- 
tion was a priority on the UNCA campus. It was determined that an open 
meeting could inform the public about some of the matters pertaining to 
energy problems. UNCA, in conjunction with the Asheville Chamber of 
Commerce and the American Petroleum Institute, invited George Patton 
of the American Petroleum Institute and Thomas Belford of Common 
Cause to discuss the matter in public debate. Actually, it did not turn out 
to be much of a debate because there was general agreement about the 
necessity for a federal energy policy aimed at reducing the consumption of 

196 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

oil and gas. A capacity crowd turned out to hear the two respected au- 
thorities speak on one of the most disturbing topics of the time. 

During the months before the transfer of WCU's evening students to 
the UNCA campus, Harry Ramsey of WCU and Dr. Thomas Dula of 
UNCA had gone over many aspects of the plan. This was imperative 
because there were 424 undergraduates and 645 graduate students, for a 
total head count of 1,069 WCU students. Arrangements were made for 
them to have special UNCA I.D. cards, which were the same as those of 
UNCA students, except that they had "WCU Student" stamped on them. 
WCU students also had library cards, privileges to use the bookstore, the 
infirmary, the tennis courts, and the pool. They could attend all cultural 
activities along with UNCA students. Western Carolina University in- 
sisted on keeping all the athletic fees so that WCU students could attend 
games in Cullowhee if they chose; therefore we did not allow WCU stu- 
dents to attend UNCA basketball games free of charge. 

The enrollment continued to grow. When the figures for term two were 
added to term one enrollment figures for the semester, the total number 
of students now taking courses at UNCA, exclusive of students taking 
WCU courses, was 1,850, an increase of 650 students over the enrollment 
in 1973, when the new system went into effect. If the students from 
Western Carolina, Chapel Hill, and NC State who were taking courses on 
the UNCA campus were included, the number rose to 3,000. The class- 
rooms were all in use from 8:00 a.m. until 10:00 p.m. The campus was 
becoming decidedly crowded, and it had grown as difficult to find a place 
to park at night as in the daytime. 

A special event for the entire area took place on November 28 at the 
opening night of the annual tip-off tournament. The gymnasium was 
filled to capacity, and people were there from all over western North 
Carolina and other parts of the state. Between tournament games, the 
athletic facilities were dedicated. The complex was called the Charles Jus- 
tice Sports, Health, and Recreation Center. An Asheville native, Choo- 
Choo Justice had earned an extraordinary record as a local football player 
before he entered the armed service. After World War II he was an ail- 
American at Chapel Hill and one of the best breakaway runners of all 
time. In the mid-forties he had worked out with the Asheville-Biltmore 
team before practice started at Chapel Hill. There was genuine approval 
for the decision, because Charlie Justice had long been recognized as the 
most outstanding athlete from the Asheville area. 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 


In early 1976, the State Board of Science and Technology granted 
$13,500 for an X-ray diffraction facility to be shared by UNCA and the 
Minerals Research Laboratory, which is located in downtown Asheville 
and owned by North Carolina State University. 

Also in January 1976, Dean Deason released the tentative five-year 
plan for all of the different elements that composed student services. It 
would take several years before money could be obtained to implement 
two of the recommendations: to build a new student center and to con- 
struct a dormitory that could accommodate three hundred more resident 

UNCA had begun studies and publication of statements concerning 
nondiscrimination on the basis of sex in accordance with Title IX. A 197 1 
amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the premise of Tide IX is that 
"No person . . . shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation 
in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any 
educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." All 
educational institutions were directed by HEW to evaluate current poli- 
cies and procedures by July 21, 1976, to determine compliance with the 
law. In January, Dr. Roy Riggs, vice-chancellor for academic affairs, was 
named Title IX officer for the campus. He established committees to 
study UNCA's policies for admissions, financial aid, housing, curriculum, 
general coverage of educational programs and activities, athletics and ath- 
letic scholarships, and employment of faculty, staff, and students. Any sex 
discrimination was to be remedied by policy changes and the use of affir- 
mative action. Grievance procedures were to be established for the resolu- 
tion of student and employee complaints alleging such discrimination. 
Compliance with Tide IX would, from that time on, become a permanent 
goal of the institution. 

Professor Stewart, the director of international studies, announced early 
in 1976 plans for several overseas experiences for the following summer. 
The summer school at Oxford would be in its eighth year. In addition, 
plans were all set for a group to study at the Institute Montpelier in 
France. Dr. Lloyd Remington and Dr. J. J. Thompson were completing 
preparations for a third year for British and American science teachers 
at Oxford. And the combined work of Dr. Stewart, Dr. Milton Ready, and 
historians from the United Kingdom produced the Irish-American Col- 
loquium, a scholarly meeting that would be held first at the New Univer- 
sity of Ulster in Coleraine, Northern Ireland. Invitations were sent out all 

198 : A Time of Troubles — A Time of Progress 

over the United States and the United Kingdom for scholars to present 
papers to be read at Coleraine. The intention was to continue the col- 
loquium every other year, with the 1978 meeting to be held in Asheville, 
with the New University of Ulster and UNCA as the joint sponsors. This 
first colloquium drew large numbers of people to Northern Ireland to 
discuss common heritage and the movement of the people known as the 
Scotch-Irish to the United States. The Irish were delightful hosts, and the 
program was intellectually stimulating. As soon as it was over, plans began 
taking shape to invite people from Ireland to attend the 1978 fall meeting 
in Asheville to continue the dialogue about Irish-American history and 
the relationships between the two countries. 

The swimming team, under the direction of Betsy Montgomery, was 
continuing to do well in the spring of 1976. The UNCA team had beaten 
teams from several other institutions in dual matches and, by the end of 
January, had won five and lost only one. Many of the swimmers and divers 
were beginning to prepare for the National Association of Intercollegiate 
Athletes championship. 

During the second term of the spring semester, the campus welcomed a 
distinguished scholar who was the first visiting professor to come under 
the aegis of the Breman Professorship. He was Dr. Barrington R. White, 
principal of Regents Park College, Oxford University. Our students stayed 
at his college during the summer program at Oxford, and we felt it appro- 
priate to invite him to the UNCA campus. He and his wife were here for 
about eight weeks during the fourth term. Dr. White talked with students 
and faculty, made several public addresses, and presented a public lecture 
series on recent British political history. He was an articulate man and 
made a large number of friends in Asheville in a short time. The two-way 
relationship was particularly advantageous because students who could 
not journey to Oxford had the opportunity of hearing White and engag- 
ing in discussion with him. 

In early 1976 the Board of Governors released its first five-year plan. 
In the document was a statement that UNCA should expand its curricu- 
lum and increase enrollment. The enrollment was rising rapidly, and new 
courses and classes were added within the existing departments to keep 
pace with it. However, other than the continuation of the management 
program, with an expansion of its various tracks, none of the new degree 
programs that we had urgently requested were approved. We were disap- 
pointed, since we were eager to start programs in several other areas, but 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 199 

we recognized we did have a long way to go to get the two-year-old 
management program fully functional. 

Shortly after the release of the five-year plan, attention turned to the 
bond referendum, which was due for a vote on March 23. All of the state 
campuses worked vigorously on this issue, and the overall approval state- 
wide, as well as in Buncombe County and western North Carolina, was 
54 percent. This result assured construction of the management and art 
building that UNCA so desperately needed. Part of the art department 
was, of necessity, housed in an abandoned supermarket on Merrimon 
Avenue almost one mile away. 

By 1976, Black Awareness Week had been extended by the Black Stu- 
dents Association to a full month, with the theme "Black People in the 
Building of America." It was joindy sponsored by the BSA and the special 
programs committee. Clyde McPeters, from Nigeria, performed African 
music during the course of the celebration, and soon afterward became 
the second black student to become president of the Student Government 

In the spring of 1976, all of us were aware that the following year was 
the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the institution. I asked Dean 
Alice Wutschel, who had just received Marquette University's Outstand- 
ing Alumnae Award, to cut back on all of her other activities and to devote 
a major portion of her time to preparing for an alumni meeting in Febru- 
ary of 1977. She contacted hundreds of alumni and planned so efficiendy 
that the anniversary celebration marked the institution's first really good 
alumni meeting. 

Roy Taylor retired from Congress in 1976 and made plans to sponsor a 
public-speaking contest. He felt that the experience he had received as a 
student in public speaking was instrumental in the success he had achieved 
during eight terms in the Congress of the United States. He wanted to 
give the students both an opportunity and an incentive, so he gave the 
foundation a grant of $5,000 to be put in permanent investment; the 
income would be used for the annual Roy A. Taylor Public Speaking 
Award. His contribution was welcome, and the cash award has continued 
to stimulate a substantial number of students to compete each year. Both 
Roy and Evelyn Taylor attend the contest, and he has always been sup- 
portive in his comments and generous in his congratulations to all the 

A statewide organization of student government presidents was estab- 


A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

lished in 1976. Tom Zumberg, who was president of UNCA's Student 
Government Association at that time, was named the first president of the 
North Carolina Association of Student Governments. 

Dr. James Perry, along with the members of the biology department 
and the Botanical Gardens Association, held their fourth Spring Wild- 
flower Pilgrimage, and once again it was a great success. People came from 
all parts of the country to enjoy the wildflower pilgrimage, the hikes, and 
the bus trips. It was a delight to see so many people experiencing the 
pleasures of the botanical gardens and the beauty of Asheville and the 
surrounding area in the spring. 

Because Dr. Barrington White, UNCA's first Breman Professor, was on 
campus at the time, we asked him to be the commencement speaker that 
year. The Reid Award for the person graduating first in scholarship that 
year went to Barbara Frady. At the same graduation, the institution con- 
ferred the Distinguished Service Award on Dr. Lester Zerfoss and Dr. 
James Stewart, both of whom were retiring at that time. Each of them was 
considerably beyond normal retirement age, and yet each had continued 
to make valuable contributions to the institution. 

We had been in communication with Western Carolina University for a 
couple of years concerning a cooperative venture in the field of nursing. 
UNCA could not support a separate school of nursing, primarily because 
it took one full-time teacher for each eight full-time equivalent students to 
be accredited by the State Board of Nursing and the National Board of 
Nursing. Since our overall budget was based upon a ratio of one professor 
for each sixteen students, it would have required an exorbitant portion of 
our budget to fund a nursing program. At the same time, Asheville is the 
medical referral center for western North Carolina. With the constant 
demand for well-trained nurses in the area, UNCA needed to be involved 
in helping to alleviate the perennial nursing shortage. In July 1976, Chan- 
cellor Robinson of WCU and I announced a joint nursing program that 
proved to be a satisfactory way of solving the problem. Students who 
wanted to receive a bachelor of science degree in nursing could attend 
UNCA for two years for their basic sciences and general education 
courses. Then, if their grades were satisfactory, they would be admitted to 
the WCU School of Nursing. The third year would be spent at WCU and 
the fourth year back in Asheville, doing mosdy clinical work in the Ashe- 
ville hospitals. Upon graduation, those who had started at UNCA would 
have their names listed in our graduation program as receiving a bachelor 
of science degree in nursing. The program's adviser was John Bernhardt 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

20 1 

of the biology department, who also advised the premedical students on 
the campus. He took this additional duty seriously and over the years has 
been an extremely effective adviser. 

Two events in 1976 exacerbated some of the internal difficulties alluded 
to earlier, causing a great deal of dissension. The first was Governor James 
Holshouser's decree that all travel funds would be severely limited and 
that no one would be allowed to travel out of state without approval from 
Chapel Hill and Raleigh. The other part of the governor's order was that 
the institutions would permit in-state travel only when it was essential to 
the mission of the institution or agency. This decree applied not just to 
UNC campuses but to all the institutions and agencies of the state; it was 
a consequence of the continuing economic downturn that had started in 
1973. Most people recognized that this limitation was simply a response 
to a real public need and went about their business as best they could. 
Some canceled their trips, others continued with their planned trips with- 
in the state and elsewhere, paying their own expenses. However, two 
members of one department took issue with Vice-Chancellor Riggs and 
the way he had handled the matter, charging that he had discriminated 
against their department in the distribution of travel funds in the spring of 
1976. Both were aware of the governor's order, because the information 
had been sent throughout the campus, but they asserted that others were 
allowed to go to meetings, while their requests were refused. Dr. Riggs 
explained the nature of the governor's decree, the absence of travel funds, 
and that those who had made trips after the two were turned down had 
had travel applications approved long before the governor's order had 
been issued. Nevertheless, the explanation aroused a surprising amount of 
hostility, and Dr. Riggs finally turned the issue over to the Faculty Senate 
to determine whether there had been any unfair use of travel funds that 
spring. The matter lay at rest during the summer, but it was one of the 
first matters considered by the Faculty Senate the next fall. The issue grew 
particularly unpleasant when a man who had no relationship to UNCA 
attended a senate meeting and attempted to harangue the group into 
supporting the dissatisfied professors. The members of the senate did not 
know that four representatives of a labor union had called on me. One of 
the faculty members involved in the dispute was a political ally, and they 
did not want him harmed by an action of the senate. Obviously they had 
no idea how colleges and universities operate: they were totally surprised 
and disbelieving when I told them I had nothing to do with the senate. 
The men made some veiled threats before they left. The senate went into 

202 : A Time of Troubles — A Time of Progress 

executive session for three hours and, by an 1 1—4 vote, adopted a motion 
stating that they could find no improper distribution of travel funds in the 
spring of 1976. That settled the matter from a legal and procedural stand- 
point, but the sense of hostility that had been engendered remained. 

A much more significant case erupted in the spring of 1976 with regard 
to a faculty personnel decision. The new tenure document was approved 
by the Board of Governors in early February and went into effect ninety 
days later. It met the specifications ordered by the Board of Governors 
and had been approved by the faculty, the chancellor, and the UNCA 
board of trustees. Thus, it was the official document for the campus. In 
March 1976 several faculty members were not reappointed after the end 
of their contracts. In accordance with the tenure document, they were so 
notified one year before their contracts expired, which gave them ade- 
quate time to find positions elsewhere. One person who was not recom- 
mended for reappointment and permanent tenure was a woman who had 
the support of some good friends on the faculty and many students who 
thought she was doing a good job teaching. However, others in her de- 
partment, including the chairman, considered her an abrasive individual 
and a discordant member of the department, and opposed her being 
reappointed with permanent tenure. The next step in the process was 
consideration by the six-member committee of the tenured faculty, repre- 
senting the various disciplines of the campus. This advisory committee, in 
its consultation with Vice-Chancellor Riggs, was evenly divided; three 
wanted the faculty member to be reappointed with tenure, and three 
wanted her contract to be terminated at its expiration. Vice-Chancellor 
Riggs considered the judgment of the department chairman accurate and 
recommended that she not be reappointed. There had been a negative 
recommendation every step of the way, with the exception of the advisory 
committee of the tenured faculty, which indicated an even division for and 
against. When the decision of the chief academic officer reached the 
chancellor's office, I felt it would be a mistake to overturn the docu- 
mented recommendations that had been reached at two previous levels in 
accordance with the tenure document. Following the procedure specified 
by Tenure Policies and Regulations, I wrote to the faculty member inform- 
ing her that she would not be recommended for reappointment and that 
her contract would expire in one year in accordance with the terms of the 

A portion of this chapter has detailed the long hesitation of the faculty 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 203 

in completing the tenure document to the satisfaction of the Board of 
Governors. That mandatory decision still rankled a number of the faculty, 
so the protests concerning the failure to reappoint the individual came as 
no surprise. Although the advisory committee in its tie vote had been of 
no assistance to the vice-chancellor, the division signaled trouble. The case 
called into serious question the decision-making process and the role of 
the faculty in matters of tenure. It caused some divisive factionalism, 
which only exacerbated personality differences and for a time threatened 
to disrupt the normal work on the campus. 

Both the Code and the Tenure Policies and Regulations established specific 
channels for review, and throughout the appeals process, every precaution 
was taken to give the faculty member a fair hearing to determine whether 
there had been flaws at any point in the decision-making process. Accord- 
ing to long-standing University of North Carolina policy and the new 
tenure regulations that had gone into effect at UNCA in March 1976, a 
faculty member does not have a contract right to reappointment. The 
institutions are free to decide contracts according to their own needs and 
judgment, whether for initial appointment or reappointment, but both 
the Code and the tenure document set forth certain impermissible reasons 
for not reappointing a faculty member. A section of the Tenure Policies and 
Regulations provides that review of a "nonreappointment decision shall be 
limited to determining whether the recommendation to reappoint was 
based upon . . . [impermissible] grounds, those being (a) the faculty 
member's exercise of rights guaranteed by either the First Amendment to 
the United States Constitution or Article I of the North Carolina Consti- 
tution; (b) discrimination based on the faculty member's race, sex, reli- 
gion or national origin; or (c) personal malice." 

As was her right, the faculty member sent her initial complaint in writ- 
ing to the faculty committee on hearings, as stipulated by the document. 
It was denied on the grounds that the written evidence did not support 
the contention that any of the impermissible reasons lay behind the deci- 
sion for nonreappointment. 

The Code of The University of North Carolina provides that any faculty 
member may appeal the decision of any grievance to the UNCA board of 
trustees, and as was her right, the professor, through her attorney, con- 
tacted the committee on educational programs of the board of trustees by 
letter, requesting that the committee and the full board grant her relief by 
reemploying her with tenure, invoking the tenure document to challenge 

204 : A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress 

the nonreappointment decision on the grounds of sex discrimination 
and/or personal malice. In the interest of assuring the full rights of the 
aggrieved faculty member, the board of trustees requested the committee 
on hearings to grant a full hearing. In November 1976 the faculty mem- 
ber presented her case before the committee of her colleagues, asserting 
that sex discrimination and personal malice had been factors in the deci- 
sion not to reappoint her with tenure. The committee, after the presenta- 
tion of evidence, concluded that she had not established her contention. 

The decision was unsatisfactory to the faculty member and her attorney, 
who appealed again to the UNCA board of trustees. Because there was 
little established precedent, the institution proceeded with extreme cau- 
tion. In January 1977 we asked for legal assistance from General Adminis- 
tration attorneys Richard Robinson and Jeffrey Orleans as to how to 
proceed. They were accompanied in their first meeting with the board by 
UNC vice-president Raymond Dawson. The three men made a thorough 
review of the policies of the Code and the Tenure Policies and Regulations as 
they related to the case, and from that point on, Robinson and Orleans 
became our legal counsel in the matter. 

The board asked the committee on educational programs to make a 
thorough study of the sections of the Code and the tenure document that 
pertained to the case and of the proceedings of the committee on hear- 
ings. The committee could find no basis for the contentions alleged by the 
faculty member but surmised that the faculty committee, not having legal 
experience, might have inadvertentiy terminated the hearing too soon, as 
charged by the woman and her attorney. Determined to grant the faculty 
member her full rights for appeal, the board of trustees remanded the case 
to the 1977 committee on hearings, to be assisted by more complete 
guidelines and legal counsel. The case was heard in May, and the second 
faculty committee came to the same conclusion that had been reached by 
the previous committee in November 1976, that she had failed to estab- 
lish her contention. 

The case came back to the board, which formed an ad hoc committee, 
to whom the faculty member appealed her case. On June 16, 1977, the 
board of trustees adopted the decision of the ad hoc committee that the 
faculty member had failed to present a prima facie case for her contention 
that the decision had been made on the impermissible grounds of sex 
discrimination and/or personal malice. Each decision garnered extensive 
coverage in the local media. 

A Time of Troubles - A Time of Progress : 20 5 

Early in 1976 the faculty member and her attorney had registered a 
complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the 
Office of Civil Rights in Atlanta. After a year of written communication 
among the various agencies involved, a team representing the Office of 
Civil Rights visited the campus in March 1977, preparatory to making 
recommendations on this and a second, more recent charge of sex dis- 
crimination. A woman who had applied for the position of assistant to the 
dean of students had not been hired, and she had registered a complaint 
with the Office of Civil Rights. She felt that her experience and qualifica- 
tions exceeded those of the man, Zollie Stevenson, who was placed in the 
position. Upon finding that Stevenson was black and that he had a wealth 
of firsthand knowledge from his years of work with student government 
while a student at UNCA, the team looked no further into the woman's 
charge of discrimination on the basis of sex. 

The case of the faculty member continued into 1978. On the grounds 
of a violation of civil rights, she and her attorney prepared to present the 
case in federal court, but it never reached the hearing stage. After negotia- 
tions among General Administration attorneys, the Office of the Attorney 
General, and the professor's attorney, the decision was made to reach an 
out-of-court settlement. Weighing heavily in the decision were the needs 
to diminish the dissension that the issue had caused among the faculty and 
the necessity to get on with the regular business of the institution. The 
professor accepted a monetary settlement equal to two years' back pay to 
cover the time that the case was under consideration. The settlement 
provided that neither party would make further statements to the public 
for or against the various positions. The contents of the settlement and 
additional information were published in the Asheville newspapers and 
are a matter of public record. The woman found a position elsewhere, and 
the work of her department went on unimpeded. 

In early 1979, months after the settlement, we received a letter from the 
Office of Civil Eights, which had finally reviewed the case and concluded 
that UNCA was guilty of discrimination on the basis of sex. The institu- 
tion was given ninety days to comply with the order of the Office of Civil 
Rights. We had to turn to the attorneys of the General Administration 
and the Office of the Attorney General to seek relief from the order, but 
the case was settled and the aggravation was put behind us. We were too 
occupied with other things to spend more time on such a divisive issue. 


1 1 

A New Atmosphere 

The campus welcomed fourteen new faculty members in the fall of 1976. 
Among the most exceptional were Dr. Phyllis Betts in sociology, Dorothy 
Sulock in mathematics, and Jozef Vandermeer in art. Jerry Greene, who 
had played basketball for A-B in the mid-sixties and had gone on to 
become a very successful high school coach, came to work as Bob Hart- 
man's assistant coach. Dr. Thomas Cochran, an assistant professor of psy- 
chology, volunteered to coach the women's basketball team. Given the 
budget at the time, volunteer help was about the only way we could 
provide coaching for women's basketball. Dean Alice Wutschel replaced 
Dr. Riggs as the Tide DC officer for the campus. We were especially con- 
cerned about the difficulty of funding various intercollegiate sports, and 
we felt that the dean would work to provide a women's intercollegiate 
athletic program without draining the men's program. 

Not long after the academic year began in August, WUNF was under 
way as a 10-watt educational radio station that could be heard throughout 
most of the southern half of Buncombe County. The station played mostiy 
the rock music that students liked, but it also broadcast many announce- 
ments about happenings at UNCA. 

Once again, only UNC-Chapel Hill, NC State, and UNC-Greensboro 
had incoming freshmen with higher SAT scores than those who enrolled 
at UNCA that year. In a correlative statistic, 49 percent of the incoming 
freshmen had ranked in the top 20 percent of their high school graduating 
class. These indications were confirmation that we were continuing to 
attract the kind of students our program was designed for. 


A New Atmosphere : 207 

In September, the art students joined the Art Alumni Association to 
present a second fall festival. The quadrangle was covered with paintings, 
musicians played a variety of instruments, and the entire event had the 
air of a folk festival. About the same time, the North Carolina Sym- 
phony Orchestra, with Conductor Benjamin Swalin, performed in Lipin- 
sky Auditorium. The stage was too small for a full-size orchestra, but the 
musicians managed to squeeze themselves and their instruments onto it. It 
was a stimulating concert by an excellent orchestra. 

In October 1976, Arnold Wengrow presented Thornton Wilder's clas- 
sic, Our Town. It was one of the last dramatic performances in Lipinsky 
Auditorium because the new theater was under construction. Wengrow 
had designed the stage in a raised oval configuration and anticipated train- 
ing his performers for theater-in-the-round. Our Town was a near-flawless 
production, and it helped generate a great deal of excitement about the 
opening of the new theater. 

That same month, Professors Bahram Farzanegan of political science 
and John Braggio of psychology discussed simulation and its psychologi- 
cal implications at a meeting of the North American Simulation and Gam- 
ing Association. We did not realize at the time that this was the beginning 
of close ties between UNCA and NASAGA. 

Dr. Gene Schapiro, who had been on the board of directors of the 
foundation for some years, was elected president of that organization, and 
we were indebted to the members for their work in raising scholarship 

In November 1976 the history department and the History Association 
staged a military reenactment of "Buncombe Day" in the city-county 
plaza to celebrate the bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence. 
They organized companies, marched around in eighteenth-century mili- 
tary uniforms, held a black-powder-shooting contest with flindock rifles, 
and played eighteenth-century songs. The students and wives of the his- 
tory faculty prepared another groaning board, with musical entertainment 
throughout the entire meal. It was a great deal of fun, and it was amazing 
to see how hard people had worked to make sure their costumes were 

The Management Association was formed in December 1976 to bring 
majors together on a regular basis so that they could discuss their mutual 
concerns and interests. Joe Bly, a graduate of the junior college class of 
1947, was elected president. An excellent speaker and a natural yarn- 

2o8 : A New Atmosphere 

spinner, Bly loved the idea of returning thirty years later to become presi- 
dent of a student association. 

The first games played with Jerry Greene as assistant coach took place 
during the traditional tip-off tourney, which UNCA won by defeating 
Carson-Newman College of Tennessee in the finals. 

That December, after many months of discussion and the approval of 
the dean of students and the chancellor, we formed the Campus Commis- 
sion on Student Services. The organization included students, faculty, and 
staff, and its function was to allocate funds and supervise on-campus 
student activities. The commission provided an orderly way of handling 
the money collected as a required fee from all students. The Student 
Government Association had become somewhat lax in the way it handled 
money, and the faculty and administration, as well as a majority of the 
students, were concerned about the situation. Although SGA president 
Randall Kindley vigorously opposed the loss of full control and the board 
of trustees did not take a formal stand in the matter, the commission 
began its work. It established an effective means of assuring that the 
various student groups would receive their fair share of student activity 
funds and be held accountable for the proper use of those monies. 

Early in 1977, it was necessary to appoint a search committee for a new 
vice-chancellor for academic affairs. Dr. Riggs would turn sixty-five the 
following year and, in accordance with the Code of The University of North 
Carolina, he would no longer be eligible to continue in the position. The 
search committee numbered six faculty members selected by the senate to 
represent the various major divisions of the campus, three students chosen 
by the faculty, and one member of the alumni association. Dr. Robert 
Trullinger of the history department was chairman. The committee began 
its time-consuming work in the fall of 1977, after the appropriate notices 
had been sent to hundreds of colleges and universities all over the country 
and the position had been advertised in the Chronicle of Higher Education. 
It was the type of work that required total confidentiality, and no one 
violated that self-imposed rule. Five candidates from a pool of 429 appli- 
cants would be invited to the campus to spend an entire week talking with 
various faculty, student, and administrative groups. It was an extremely 
vigorous approach that would require nearly a full year, but the situation 
at the time indicated the need for the most careful consideration. 

By 1977, Dr. Farzanegan had assumed full responsibility for the grow- 
ing Great Decisions Program, thereby freeing Dr. Rainey for other impor- 

A New Atmosphere : 209 

tant civic work. Dr. Farzanegan arranged for grants, secured local funding 
and support, scheduled speakers and discussion leaders, and managed the 
advertising for the annual series. The program had begun expanding to 
towns beyond Asheville because there was sufficient interest and flexibility 
for it to reach a wider audience than the Foreign Affairs Forum had. 
Hundreds of members took full advantage of the text included in the 
membership fee and came to each discussion well prepared for intelligent 

When UNCA and Western Carolina University began jointiy present- 
ing the inter-nation simulation program, the number of counties and high 
school students involved increased considerably. It was an excellent exam- 
ple of a cooperative venture in a field in which both institutions had high 
stakes. As a result of the growing interest in simulation and gaming as 
learning tools, Professors Rainey and Farzanegan conducted workshops in 
Macon, Georgia. 

Something everyone who was on campus that year will remember was 
the unbelievably cold weather in January and February. It was the coldest 
winter on record, and it caused a shortage of fuel oil and natural gas. The 
dormitories and the infirmary used natural gas, so the shortage meant that 
we could provide hot water only on an on-and-off, publicized basis. The 
students recognized that the matter was beyond our control and proved 
themselves to be very good sports. 

Homecoming 1977 celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the founding 
of the institution. Dean Wutschel did a magnificent job of contacting the 
alumni and assembling material about the history of the university. Here- 
tofore, the annual alumni gatherings had usually numbered forty to fifty 
people, but this event drew several hundred to the Hilton Hotel. Former 
president Glenn Bushey came back for the occasion. Dean Wutschel and 
her committee had put together a comprehensive and entertaining slide 
show, with photos from 1927 to the present. For the first time, the alumni 
recognized that continuity did exist between the junior college days and 
the senior college experience. The result was a new and gready revived 
alumni association. During the afternoon, the alumni awarded special 
honors to two people who had been associated with the institution for a 
long time: Virginia Bryan Schreiber and Roy A. Taylor. Everyone was 
invited to a basketball game against Belmont Abbey that night, and most 
of the alumni came. The dance at the Grove Park Inn following the game 
was also well-attended. All in all, it was a most enjoyable event. The 

2io : A New Atmosphere 

Asheville Citizen ran a special edition commemorating the school's anni- 
versary and delved into newspaper files to review much of the early history 
of the institution. 

This meeting turned out to be extremely important in that it got more 
alumni involved and made it possible for UNCA to combine some of its 
own funds with alumni money to employ Christelle Royalle as part-time 
director of alumni affairs. Her main job for several years was to get gradu- 
ates' names and current addresses and to initiate correspondence. It was a 
big job, but she was able to locate many people who had not been con- 
tacted until then. 

One of the proposals considered by the 1977 General Assembly was the 
Adams-Ramsey Bill. Its aim was to provide funds for the capital needs of 
higher education institutions without raising taxes, by instead accelerating 
the payment of corporate income taxes. Although the General Assembly 
never approved the bill, its discussion did benefit UNCA. For many years, 
the dormitories and student centers at various campuses in the state were 
built by bond issues that were paid back by student fees. Our enrollment 
was not large enough to generate enough in fees to support construction 
of a badly needed dormitory and student center. We were also still paying 
off debt for the first group of dormitories. The Adams-Ramsey Bill, how- 
ever, broke precedent and positioned the new dorm and student center to 
be built at state expense whenever the funds were available. 

One of the most pleasurable experiences I had in the spring of 1977 was 
the privilege of introducing Professor Bell I. Wiley of Emory University at 
the regional meeting of Phi Alpha Theta. Dr. Wiley had been a professor 
of mine at Louisiana State University in the forties, and it meant a great 
deal to be able to introduce a scholar of his stature to the students. He 
gave an excellent address about his research experiences in writing books 
about the American Civil War. 

An event took place that April that we had been looking forward to for 
two years — the grand opening of the new theater building. Irwin Belk of 
Charlotte contributed the money for the entire lighting system. While it 
was extremely expensive, it was essential to the type of productions being 
planned. The contribution covered the cost of the equipment, but the 
complicated installation remained to be done. We contacted professionals 
in the field, who quoted us a fee of $22,000 — money we simply did not 
have. Paul Sweeney, who is extraordinarily gifted in lighting and electron- 
ics, recruited a few students and installed the computerized equipment 

A New Atmosphere 211 

exactly as he and Arnold Wengrow wished. We were proud to name the 
building the Carol Belk Theatre. It opened with a Wengrow adaptation of 
an old English classic, A School for Scandal. Irwin and Carol Belk, along 
with her parents, were our guests at this grand opening. 

Dr. James Perry and the people in the biology department coordinated 
another Spring Wildflower Pilgrimage, this time with the help of employ- 
ees from the National Park Service. The program included field trips to 
the Blue Ridge Parkway and Grandfather Mountain, as well as walking 
excursions throughout the area to see the extraordinary profusion of 
wildflowers. A measure of the program's popularity was the increase in the 
number of participants each year. 

By the spring of 1977, the institution was able to offer a much larger 
amount of scholarships, grants, and aid to students. The financial aid 
office was becoming increasingly important as federal programs expanded 
to keep pace with increased enrollment across the country. At the same 
time, many individuals and companies in the area contributed scholar- 
ships, and their numbers grew each year. American Enka, the family of 
Ernest Mills, Olin-Matheson, Ruth and Dr. Leon Feldman, the Breman 
family, Helen and Coleman Zageir, and Dr. Sprinza Weizenblatt were 
leaders among those providing multiple and continuing scholarships. 

In April, Dr. Bruce Greenawalt of the history department initiated what 
came to be known as the Southern Highlands Research Center. Green- 
await set in motion a search for documents, family papers, photographs, 
newspaper articles, books, and any other material pertaining to the history 
of the Asheville area. The center, which was located in the library, became 
the single location for information about the development of local indus- 
try, the ethnic mix that set the area apart from the rest of southern Appala- 
chia, and the business and cultural events that made Asheville distinctive. 
We believed that the city and its immediate environs, unique since the 
days of George Vanderbilt, warranted such a center. 

A special kind of graduation ceremony that year commemorated our 
fiftieth anniversary. Several people who had played instrumental roles in 
the development of the school received UNCA's highest commemorative 
honor, the Distinguished Service Award. Among them was Ainsley Whit- 
man, who was retiring as librarian. When he joined UNCA in 1962, the 
library contained only a few thousand volumes, many of which had no 
place in a college library. Whitman had worked with the architects in 
building the library and had diligentiy developed a well-trained and effi- 

212 : A New Atmosphere 

cient staff. The library was the heart of the campus, and Ainsley Whitman 
took great pride in ensuring that the facility would grow to serve the 
campus population. We also gave the Distinguished Service Award to 
Charles G. "Buzz" Tennent, UNCA's landscape architect since the institu- 
tion had moved to its permanent location, and to three former trustees 
who had worked together in the sixties to achieve four-year status for the 
school and to secure a merger with the University of North Carolina: 
Manly E. Wright, John M. Reynolds, and Bruce A. Elmore. Two other 
recipients were Wilma Dykeman Stokely, the graduate of the junior col- 
lege class of 1938 who had earned a national reputation as a southern 
Appalachian writer, and Roy Taylor, a retired congressman, member of 
the first class, a long-term trustee, and, over the years, one of the institu- 
tion's strongest supporters. The opportunity to honor such individuals 
made the fiftieth anniversary graduation a memorable occasion. 

In June 1977, UNCA became the first campus in the state to develop a 
Center for Economic Education. Dr. Shirley Browning, chairman of the 
economics department, was its first director. The center was dedicated to 
helping public school teachers at all levels understand the basic principles 
of economic education, and it expanded throughout the region before 
many years had passed. 

In July 1977, Governor James Hunt reappointed to the UNCA board 
of trustees Julia Ray and Cecil Cantrell. Carl Loftin of Asheville was 
welcomed as a new member. At the annual meeting, Maurice Winger was 
elected chairman of the board, David Felmet vice-chairman, and Cary 
Owen secretary. The trustees would be involved in many important mat- 
ters during the next few years. 

UNCA received some welcome news that summer when Whitiey Ayers 
completed his doctoral thesis in Chapel Hill. Dr. Ayers had done his 
work in political science, and his research project compared, campus by 
campus, Scholastic Aptitude Test and National Teacher Examination 
scores throughout the University system. He began with the assumption 
that institutions that admit students with high SAT scores would probably 
have graduates with high NTE scores. It was a perfecdy valid assumption, 
but Ayers wanted to dig deeper. After comparing incoming SAT scores 
with NTE scores four or five years later, he compared the sixteen institu- 
tions to determine which ones were the most effective when it came to 
preparing teachers. It was an elaborate statistical study, and when Ayers 
was through, it was clear that UNCA was number one in the state. At 

A New Atmosphere : 213 

every level of incoming SAT scores, UNCA students had the highest NTE 
scores at graduation. The conclusion that Dr. Ayers reached was that the 
type of program UNCA had established years before, with its emphasis on 
liberal arts and its program requiring teacher-certification students to earn 
degrees in specific academic fields, was the most effective in the system. It 
was gratifying to have an objective person and hard statistics confirm the 
position we had held all along. 

The fall of 1977 was complicated by a personal health crisis that began 
on August 14. 1 became aware that something was seriously awry with my 
muscular system, and by the time I was admitted to the hospital that 
afternoon, my muscles were rapidly ceasing to function. My wife and I 
battled the specter of paralysis for two days before an accurate diagnosis 
could be made. Acute polymiositis is a painful degenerative disease of the 
muscles, but we were assured it could be reversed by medication, physical 
therapy, and extensive exercise. After three weeks in the hospital I was 
warned by my physician that, even under optimal conditions, it would be 
several months before I would be physically able to return to work. 

I was kept isolated from campus news at first and was unaware of 
newspaper articles full of misdiagnoses and dire predictions. Then, to my 
great dismay, I learned that the rumor mills had been working overtime; 
speculation about my health and eventual return to work was running 
wild. I had hoped the faculty members would use such a time to pull 
together to maintain the normal operation of the campus. Unfortunately, 
the opposite occurred. Some faculty who had disagreed with university 
policies for years became unnecessarily concerned about their own posi- 
tions. A group of sixteen registered their alarm by petitioning President 
Friday to appoint an acting chancellor from off campus to help resolve the 
bad feelings that had resulted from personnel decisions in recent years. 
President Friday and Vice-President Raymond Dawson came and met 
with the board of trustees and as many faculty as were interested. Shortly 
thereafter, President Friday called to tell me he was appointing Dr. Arnold 
King acting chancellor and urged me once again to do whatever was 
necessary to recuperate. 

Unaware that I had been in frequent contact with Chapel Hill from the 
time I was allowed to receive phone calls, the faculty petitioners never 
realized that their plea was extraneous. On those rare occasions when a 
chancellor must leave his post for an appreciable length of time, the Gen- 
eral Administration deals appropriately with the absence. It is probable, 

214 : A New Atmosphere 

however, that the plea accounted for the degree of sensitivity with which 
President Friday and Vice-President Dawson responded. Both the faculty 
and I were pleased, but for different reasons. Dr. King's experience with 
the University assured me there was no problem on any campus that he 
could not handle in his calm and reasonable way. I suspected he would 
smile privately at the campus infighting that, compared with other situa- 
tions he had untangled, was minuscule. And because I trusted his judg- 
ment completely, I was certain that no new personnel problems would 
arise while he was on campus. He was also familiar with UNCA's prob- 
lems, and I, along with the other chancellors, sought his advice often. It 
was my hope that he could find a solution to the continued bickering 
between UNCA and WCU over academic turf. 

By early November, I had regained sufficient strength to resume my 
duties as chancellor. I was deeply grateful to Dr. King for interrupting his 
work and his personal life to come to Asheville. Because I was familiar 
with his expertise, I was not at all surprised to find the university quiet. 
Personal hostilities had been diverted by campuswide interest in the search 
for a new vice-chancellor. Fall enrollment was up 10 percent over 1976 
figures, which translated into a welcome budgetary increase. New faculty 
hired during the spring and summer had started work. Among them were 
university librarian Malcolm Blowers, Dr. Sally Bauman in French, Dr. 
Lisa Friedenberg in psychology, Luther Lawson in economics, Dr. Russell 
Reynolds in Spanish, and Dr. Thomas Seism in political science. 

Upon my return, my assistant, Carolyn Frady, showed me a letter dated 
October 25, 1977, which had been sent by the acting chancellor, Dr. 
Arnold King, to President Friday. It enumerated suggestions relative to 
our situation with WCU significant enough to cite in original form, keep- 
ing in mind that Dr. King was President Friday's special assistant and that 
the two men shared close ties. 

It is my opinion that a fair division of responsibility would be that 
of allocating the administration and provision of instructional ser- 
vices for all undergraduate study carried on by the University in the 
Asheville area to the Asheville campus. The students would be ad- 
mitted here, they would be registered here, their records would be 
kept here and academic authorities here would be responsible for 
providing faculty drawn whenever necessary from the faculty of 
Western Carolina University, to maintain satisfactory programs of 

A New Atmosphere 


instruction or over a period of time be authorized to employ addi- 
tional faculty that might be warranted by FTE enrollment. 

In the case of graduate instruction a similar arrangement could be 
worked out giving Western Carolina University responsibility for 
graduate instruction; however, in view of the superior qualifications 
of many members of this faculty special attention should be given to 
utilizing their talents in graduate instruction. 

I notified President Friday that I wholeheartedly agreed with Dr. King's 
suggestions. His letter addressed many of the problems of the duplicate 
undergraduate courses still being offered by both institutions in Asheville. 
President Friday agreed. We adopted Dr. King's proposal to establish a 
four-year joint planning committee, including three representatives from 
both campuses, which would meet, review various disagreements, and 
plan for the presentation of programs on the UNCA campus. The com- 
mittee began meeting in early 1978 and continued beyond the four-year 
period suggested. It was one of the important steps in gradually delineat- 
ing the responsibilities of both UNCA and WCU in this area. 

We had another Breman Professor on campus for an eight-week term 
during the fall of 1977. Dr. Arthur Vidich, who was invited by the soci- 
ology department, was a professor of sociology and anthropology at the 
New School for Social Research in New York City. He held student semi- 
nars, talked with faculty members, delivered a number of public addresses, 
and proved to be a fine lecturer and an outstanding scholar. The fact that 
several sociology students followed him to New York to study for their 
doctorates is indicative of his positive impact. The value of the Breman 
Professorship in bringing to the campus people who could inspire our 
students and faculty was becoming increasingly apparent. 

During 1977, difficulties at the student radio station caused WUNF- 
FM to cease broadcasting for several months. The business records were 
in such disarray that no one could determine what was going on. At the 
same time, there was no student on the campus qualified to operate the 
station. This recurring problem caused us to have serious doubts as to the 
continued viability of the radio station until a program in communica- 
tions could be established. The university had no funds to support the 
station, and the students had made it clear that they wanted to operate the 
station themselves, but being forced to go off the air periodically did not 
generate respect for the station. 

2i 6 : A New Atmosphere 

Several other significant events occurred that fall. An exhibit loaned by 
Lucy Herring went on display in Ramsey Library. "The History of Black 
Highlanders" included photos, clippings, and other documents pertaining 
to the cultural activities of black people living in the Asheville area over 
many years. 

Dr. Gene Rainey was invited to the United States Military Academy at 
West Point for two weeks as a visiting lecturer. He discussed perceptions 
of power relations in the world at that time, which had been the focus of a 
book he had published the year before, Patterns of American Foreign Policy. 

In early September 1977, the graduating class of 1929 commemorated 
the school's fiftieth anniversary with a dawn redwood tree planted on the 
quadrangle. The tree was a match for one planted by the Baha'i congrega- 
tion eleven years earlier. Both trees and their accompanying bronze 
plaques are magnificent testimonies to the occasions they commemorate. 

In September members of Phi Alpha Theta took a tour of Historic 
Wilmington. Everyone had a great time, and one of the highlights of the 
trip was a visit to the USS North Carolina, which played such an impor- 
tant part in World War II and is now a tourist attraction located in the 
Cape Fear River in the middle of Wilmington. 

In the fall of 1977, Roy Taylor donated his papers, covering his years in 
the House of Representatives from 1959 to 1976, to the Southern High- 
lands Research Center. His major committee had been Interior and Insu- 
lar Affairs, and the papers constituted an important addition to the re- 
search capacities of the newly formed center. 

Dr. John Stevens returned from his summer at the University of 
Niijmegen in the Netherlands, where he had worked on the Mossbauer 
effect in research chemistry. Stevens was well on the way to becoming an 
internationally known scientist in the field of spectroscopy. 

The University Committee on Special and Cultural Programs brought 
Jules Bergman, science editor for ABC television, to campus that fall. He 
had the respect of everyone familiar with his frequent appearances on 
news telecasts. Bergman spoke about the scientific and technological de- 
velopments that would be available worldwide by the year 2000. 

UNCA received two citations from the Human Resources Research 
Organization for the academic computer system developed by Dr. James 
Vinson, which involved a great deal of student work in the installation 
and use of the young Computer Center. 

For several years, Peter Gilpin, the public information officer, and Pro- 

A New Atmosphere 217 

fessor Trullinger of the history department, had moderated a WLOS-TV 
program called "University Dialogues." These stimulating weekly discus- 
sions focused on important current issues and campus events. The pro- 
grams were broadcast from 6:30 a.m. to 7:00 a.m., and a surprisingly 
large number of people watched the show every week. 

That November, more than 350 high school students came to the cam- 
pus to participate in Science Day. One of the principal sponsors was a 
group of UNCA students called the Undergraduate Research Organiza- 
tion, under the direction of Dr. John Stevens. Most of the members were 
majoring in the natural sciences, and they wanted to give high school 
students an opportunity to see the science work being done at UNCA. 
The students displayed their own projects, ate lunch, and viewed demon- 
strations presented by the various science departments. Prizes were award- 
ed both to individual students and to the high schools. Probably the most 
effective way to communicate with high school students is to bring them 
on campus and let them experience what actually goes on. The event has 
since become one of the highlights of the academic year. 

Beginning in the fall of 1977, the department of management and the 
Management Association began inviting executives from area industries 
and businesses to discuss with our students the employment picture for 
management graduates. This was in addition to the internship program, 
an important feature of the management program from the beginning. 

As the year drew to a close, Dr. Dexter Squibb, chairman of the chemis- 
try department, and Dr. Harold Crutcher, an employee of the National 
Climatic Data Center and a part-time teacher for many years, had been 
made Life Fellows of the American Institute of Chemists. It was a high 
honor, and UNCA was extremely proud of both men. 

In January 1978, UNCA's public information officer, Peter Gilpin, left: 
for Washington, D.C., to join the staff of Congressman Lamar Gudger. 
He had become an integral part of the university, and we missed him a 
great deal. It took some time to find a replacement because we needed a 
person attuned to working with the local media. We settled on William 
Mebane, who had worked at the Asheville Citizen and at WLOS. 

That spring, the Board of Governors authorized the university to plan 
and establish a degree program in atmospheric sciences and meteorology. 
This tied in with our efforts to bring the National Climatic Data Center 
to our campus by using the old Grove Arcade Building in downtown 
Asheville for some other purpose and having the federal government 

2i 8 : A New Atmosphere 

build a new facility on land immediately east of W. T. Weaver Boulevard. 
We had already arranged to lease ten acres of that forty-five-acre plot to 
the U.S. Forest Service. Having the NCDC on campus in conjunction 
with a degree program in meteorology, as well as a projected program in 
environmental studies that would dovetail with the Forestry Service, 
would cement relationships that were unique in the United States. Our 
management majors would benefit as well, because both agencies wanted 
them to serve as interns. Congress granted the appropriation for the for- 
estry building, which serves as headquarters and principal laboratory for 
the five southeastern states. We have not been able to get the General 
Services Administration to agree to move the National Climatic Data 
Center there, although the issue will continue to crop up since the Grove 
Arcade is no longer adequate for NCDC needs. 

During the fourth term of the spring semester, Dr. James Vinson, chair- 
man of the physics department, offered a special evening course titled 
"How Computers Do It" to students and anyone from the community 
who wished to learn something about basic computers. The number of 
applicants was indicative of the widespread interest in the use of personal 

Without question, the largest single issue on the UNCA campus in the 
spring of 1978 was the selection of a new vice-chancellor for academic 
affairs. The committee invited each one of the five final candidates to 
spend five days on campus, which was ample time for adequate exposure. 
We selected Dr. Laurence Dorr, a faculty member at Kean College in New 
Jersey. He had been the academic vice-president of the institution and had 
other administrative experience at Central Michigan University. There was 
an enormous sense of relief on campus upon the resolution of an issue 
that had been hanging fire for a year. 

One of the interesting announcements in early 1978 came from the 
Office of International Studies. Working in conjunction with the art de- 
partment, we had developed a unique summer session composed of two 
weeks spent on the UNCA campus in preparation for a three-week trip to 
Florence, Italy. While on campus, participants viewed slides and heard 
lectures on the history of Italian Renaissance art. The time in Florence was 
spent exploring various galleries to see in real life the art captured on the 
slides. The course did not have to be taken for credit, and many citizens in 
the community who had no interest in a degree signed up. Afterward, 
many of the participants wrote glowing letters about the benefits of the 
summer program. 

A New Atmosphere : 219 

Almost everyone who was present will remember the 1978 graduation 
as the Gwen Summey Commencement. The seniors felt it was time for a 
student to address the graduates, and Gwen Summey was the unanimous 
choice. She was going to receive the top award for scholarship and, al- 
though we did not know it when she was chosen to speak, she had also 
been selected to receive the A. C. Reynolds Citizenship Award. In addi- 
tion to those awards, it was announced that Gwen Summey had won a 
Fulbright scholarship to study chemistry at the University of London. 

That summer, Milton Ready replaced Dr. James Stewart as director of 
the international studies program. Dr. Stewart had established the pro- 
gram in 1969 and had been responsible for all the trips to Oxford, as well 
as trips to other parts of Europe taken by students and townspeople. 
Stewart and Ready had worked together in the Irish-American Program 
in 1976. 

UNCA participated in the Elderhostel Program for the first time dur- 
ing the summer, with Alice Wutschel in charge. The basic purpose of the 
program was to enable senior citizens to live on campus at a modest cost, 
buy meals at student prices, and spend their days participating in special 
courses. Probably no outside group ever expressed greater appreciation 
for our efforts than the Elderhostel participants. The program has grown 
even more popular since that first Elderhostel in 1978. 


Gathering Momentum 

In July 1978 we had the pleasure of breaking ground for the largest 
classroom building in our history. Funds had been made available by the 
bond issue passed in 1976 to provide top-priority construction funds for 
all university campuses. The new chairman of the board of trustees, Mau- 
rice Winger, presided over the ceremonies. We described plans for the 
building and announced that the board had selected J. Bertram King to be 
the architect and designer. The audience was pleased to learn that the 
building would be named for Charles D. Owen. Before his retirement, 
Owen had been highly successful in textiles and blanket manufacturing for 
many years. The building that would house our management program 
could not have been better named. 

Art and management would share the new building because those were 
the two departments with the greatest need for space. With approximately 
fifty thousand square feet of floor space, the structure could handle the 
needs of both departments for several years. Therefore the chairmen and 
the faculty of both departments were involved in designing the building 
to make the best use of the space. The art department benefited gready, 
given the rather miserable space that had been its home for years. The art 
department was popular and had to close out its classes faster than almost 
any other department. 

The school has had the good fortune to attract many excellent people, 
but few have made a more immediate and positive impact than Dr. 
Laurence Dorr, who assumed his office as vice-chancellor for academic 


Gathering Momentum : 221 

affairs on July 1, 1978. A former Jesuit, he had decided that the priest- 
hood was not his life's calling and had obtained his academic degree in 
higher education administration from the University of Michigan. He had 
spent several years at Holy Cross, Boston College, and Central Michigan 
University before becoming academic vice-president at Kean College of 
New Jersey. With his philosophical, theological, and academic training, 
coupled with years of negotiating with teachers unions, he was admirably 
equipped to address what had been, for some time, a situation of lowered 
faculty morale. After his week's interview on campus, he had written a 
perceptive consultant's report. In it he noted that the qualifications of the 
faculty were excellent but that there was a general feeling of unease about 
faculty-administration relationships involving the decision-making pro- 
cess. This he set out to repair by listening at great length to each member 
of the faculty, thus beginning the gradual process of establishing trust in 
the office of the vice-chancellor. It was apparent that more distinct operat- 
ing policies needed to be put into place. Early in his first semester, he 
established monthly meetings of all department chairmen, a forum that 
was badly needed. Shortly thereafter he established the Council of Chair- 
men, with six members, to help him establish a basic agenda for matters of 
particular concern to the chairmen, making it clear that they were to be 
fully consulted in the process of policy-making. Dr. Robert Trullinger was 
elected to chair the council. Among its members were several faculty who 
had been at UNCA long enough to have a clear perspective on past 
difficulties, among them Professors Richard Reed, Michael Gillum, and 
Ted Seitz. The development of an open environment at Dr. Dorr's office 
and the certainty of an unbiased hearing did much to reassure the full 
faculty, and a mutual trust began to grow. Dr. Dorr also made clear to the 
senate that certain matters were its responsibility. So quickly did the thaw 
come about that several of the faculty who felt they had been ill-treated 
asked a representative from the North Carolina Association of Educators 
to speak with Dr. Dorr and to relay the message that they wanted to meet 
as a group with him. He immediately arranged the meeting and listened 
while every member talked. He concluded that what bothered nearly all 
the group most was the feeling that the majority of the faculty looked 
upon their past behavior as unprofessional and counterproductive. When 
they had all aired their personal views, Dr. Dorr reasoned that the only 
logical path back into the good graces of their colleagues was to begin to 

222 : Gathering Momentum 

play a constructive role on campus. Nearly all of them accepted that, and 
most of those who had felt at cross-purposes with the administration and 
fellow faculty from the mid-seventies quickly learned that good work and 
positive visibility went a long way toward restoring the respect they had 
previously enjoyed with their colleagues. Before long, thanks to Dr. 
Dorr's perceptive guidance, there was far more harmony within the fac- 
ulty than had been enjoyed for years. In fact, several of those members 
who had felt excluded were later appointed by the vice-chancellor to be 
department chairmen. 

At the end of Dr. Dorr's first year, it was apparent that the crush of his 
duties required an assistant, and Dr. Thomas Cochran, from the psy- 
chology department, became assistant vice-chancellor. For a short time he 
retained a half-time position in psychology, but rising enrollment and the 
addition of new faculty soon required him to spend his full time attending 
to his new responsibilities. These included budgeting in the academic 
departments, as well as much of the time-consuming student traffic for 
routine matters, which was channeled to him. The computing center, 
established by the physics department with the aid of a grant received by 
Dr. James Vinson, who was then chairman, had heretofore been used 
almost exclusively by physics. It was recognized that the center was a 
necessary tool for the whole campus, and Dr. Cochran was given supervi- 
sion of the existing computer. With the cooperation of Dr. Robert Cole, 
the new chairman of physics, a complete system for establishing a work- 
able data base for student information was in place within a year. It was 
the beginning of the much more sophisticated record-keeping system for 
the whole campus that would emerge in the early eighties. 

The new vice-chancellor took note of the need to involve more of the 
community with the campus. Not only did he emphasize increased faculty 
involvement in civic activities but he also began to place considerably 
more emphasis on the evening program, involving additional regular fac- 
ulty in a broader range of credit courses to be taught at night. Over a 
period of time everything that was needed for a degree would be offered 
in the evening. The community was reminded frequendy that part-time 
students were equally welcome in all day classes. As a consequence, the 
number of part-time day students increased considerably. 

At the same time, other important changes were taking place in the 
administration. Thomas Deason decided that summer to return to the 
mathematics department and to complete his career in his chosen field. 

Gathering Momentum 223 

We established a search committee and late in the summer of 1978 located 
a person who would do an outstanding job as vice-chancellor for student 
affairs. Dr. Eric Iovacchini quickly became known to everyone on campus 
as Yav. He was an extremely energetic young man who was only thirty-one 
when he took this position. He had already received a law degree from the 
University of Nebraska and a Ph.D. in student services at the University 
of Wyoming, where he had served as assistant vice-chancellor for student 
affairs. He was approachable and articulate, and he understood from both 
experience and formal training what UNCA needed. He rapidly gained 
the confidence of the students and of his colleagues. His enthusiasm for 
student activities caused that area to expand and to improve. 

In the fall of 1978 several students were interested in establishing a 
magazine or journal that would be more specifically oriented toward art 
and literature. The Ridgerunner had been going steadily downhill because 
of lack of interest. Each year would begin with great expectations and end 
with the editor struggling almost alone to see that the paper got out. The 
Rag and Bone Shop began publication in early 1979. Dierdre Morro was 
the first editor and brought a new dimension to publications on the 

It was an unusual year for the Student Government Association. Lynn 
Smith was elected president, and Michael Ochsenreiter was elected vice- 
president. Lynn Smith was the first female student to be elected president 
of the SGA in the entire history of the school. 

We noted earlier that when Arnold Wengrow came to the campus in 
1970, he showed a unique talent for taking classical plays and putting 
them in modern idiom, with modern music and modern methods of act- 
ing. In the spring of 1979 Wengrow staged a memorable performance. 
He adapted several of the stories from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and 
produced modern jazz that effectively reflected the action on stage. The 
production was hilarious and played to packed houses and sparkling re- 
views. Had a most memorable performer been chosen from the excellent 
cast, it probably would have been Tom Lea, who played the rooster, 

That March, one of the most renowned of the British Africanists, Dr. 
John Blake, came as the Breman Professor. Because he had recendy retired 
from the New University of Ulster, he was able to teach for the full fourth 
term. In his long career, including chaired positions at British universi- 
ties, Blake had published a number of scholarly volumes dealing with the 

224 : Gathering Momentum 

southern half of the African continent. Though he could not, in an eight- 
week course, make instant Africanists of UNCA history students, he 
greatly aroused their intellectual curiosity, for he came prepared to give 
them a tantalizing taste of the vastness of what is known by specialists in 
his field. His students were awed by his intimate knowledge of a part of 
the world that holds so much interest, but about which so little is actually 
known in the States, outside a few major universities. Not only had he 
spent years in research on the continent but he was personally acquainted 
with past and present heads of state from Kenya to Botswana and had 
spent ten years as president of a university he helped establish to serve 
three southern African states. Students quickly overcame their hesitance 
when they saw his willingness to share his store of knowledge and his 
patience in introducing them to a factual history of a part of the world 
almost totally foreign to them. Dr. Blake gave several public lectures, 
which were of immense interest to his audiences, and he was our com- 
mencement speaker in May. His term on campus made a lasting impact on 
his students and convinced us of the advisability of having the Breman 
Professor spend a more extended length of time. At that point, we began 
our search for a full-time Breman Professor. 

That spring, Robert Hartman told me that he wanted to resign as head 
basketball coach and to continue as athletic director. We decided to give 
the head coaching job to Hartman's assistant, Jerry Greene, who had 
played at UNCA in the middle sixties and had been a championship- 
winning high school coach. After three years as an assistant coach at 
UNCA, Greene knew our program and its limitations. He immediately 
began recruiting students to prepare for the next year's basketball season. 

One of the most active and productive student groups on campus is Phi 
Alpha Theta, sponsored by the department of history. Mary Jan Vander- 
horst read a paper which won first place in a statewide competition 
among chapters of Phi Alpha Theta from all the other public and private 

A tragedy hit the UNCA campus in early April. Manly E. Wright died 
suddenly. A longtime member of the board of trustees, he had been chair- 
man of the board during the sixties, from the time we had become a four- 
year institution until we merged with the University of North Carolina. 
Long after his direct involvement ended, Wright remained one of the best 
friends we had in the community. He had been a banker and insurance 
executive. His death affected not only UNCA; the city sorely missed his 

Gathering Momentum : 225 

active participation in many civic activities. Mrs. Wright changed the 
name of the annual scholarship award that had honored her father, Cecil 
Reid, to the Manly E. Wright Award. 

The enrichment courses for advanced high school students, a continua- 
tion of efforts we had made in previous years, were upgraded that sum- 
mer. The chemistry program was handled by Dr. Dexter Squibb, and 
Thomas Deason was in charge of the mathematics program. Both were 
exceptional teachers and attracted some very intelligent high school stu- 
dents to the campus. The classes rendered an important service to high 
school students who thrived on more advanced courses than those avail- 
able in the high schools. 

Several people who had been with the institution for some years re- 
ceived special recognition for the quality of their work. Dr. Dexter Squibb 
received the American Chemical Society's Stone Award for outstanding 
work in the Carolinas. The honor was well deserved. He had done out- 
standing work in teaching and research at UNCA. He was the leader of 
the student chapter of the American Chemical Society and was prominent 
in regional American Chemical Society activities. After serving several 
years as a member of the UNC Faculty Assembly, Dr. Shirley Browning 
was named chairman of that group. The assembly represents all sixteen 
campuses, and members meet as a group to hear periodic reports from the 
president and officers of the University system. They frequentiy draw up 
resolutions intended to reflect the attitude of the entire faculty of the 
University of North Carolina system. It was a challenge for Browning to 
serve in that position for two years and an honor for UNCA to have one 
of our faculty members serving as chairman of such an elite academic 

We had felt for several years that we were shortchanging women's inter- 
collegiate athletics, even though our budget was barely enough to cover 
the cost of the men's intercollegiate athletic program. In the light of both 
our concerns and our constraints, we needed to name a director of wom- 
en's intercollegiate athletics who would also serve as women's basketball 
coach. We selected Barbara Quinn, a well-qualified coach whose last posi- 
tion had been at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. She began her 
work with a total of eight scholarships for women's athletics, which had to 
be divided among basketball, tennis, and volleyball. 

In the early summer of 1979, we lost another good and longtime 
friend when G. Hoyle Blanton, Jr., of Forest City, died. He had served 

226 : Gathering Momentum 

on the board of A-B College for several years and was chairman of the 
UNCA board of trustees from 1973 to 1975. His service on the boards 
totaled fourteen years. We missed his support and his enthusiastic coop- 

One of the most important developments since our merger with the 
University of North Carolina took place in June 1979. The General As- 
sembly appropriated $4,882,000 for a new dormitory and a new student 
center. These, buildings, when complete, would solve the problem of 
inadequate facilities for student life for some years. Lipinsky Student Cen- 
ter had been built in 1964 for a small institution. It was hopelessly inade- 
quate for the needs of the growing student population. The cafeteria was 
too small to function effectively, and the auditorium badly needed renova- 
tion. The additional housing would go a long way toward solving the 
problem of being such a commuter-oriented institution. We had no doubt 
that the dormitory would be filled quickly and that we would then soon 
need to consider building another. 

We had needed these facilities for years but had had no way to pay for 
them on a self-liquidating basis. The members of the General Assembly 
had appropriated enough money so we could proceed with the buildings 
without worry about paying off more than a small portion of both 
projects. Especially gratifying was the fact that this was the first time in 
more than twenty years that the General Assembly had appropriated 
money for a dormitory or student center. 

At the July 1979 meeting of the board of trustees, David Felmet of 
Waynesville was elected chairman. The vice chairman was Carl Loftin, 
and the secretary was Julia Ray. The appointment of Morton Cohn, Fran- 
cine Delany, James Ellis, and Durward Everett as new trustees gready 
strengthened the board. 

Mary Cordell Nesbitt, a member of the Buncombe-Transylvania legisla- 
tive delegation and an A-B College alumna, died on August 2, 1979. Her 
husband, Martin, had devoted his working career to public education, and 
she had spent twenty-nine years in the county system before being elected 
to the General Assembly. Her son, Martin Nesbitt, Jr., was appointed to 
finish her term and later was elected to the office. The young attorney 
carried to Raleigh the same commitment to education that his parents had 

One of the important events of the era was the downfall of the Shah of 
Iran. As a result of the drop in oil production, prices quickly soared. 

Gathering Momentum 227 

Thanks to the efforts of Congressman Lamar Gudger, presidential adviser 
James Frie visited the campus. He was an authority on the worldwide oil 
and energy situation, and it was a pleasure for us to welcome to UNCA 
someone from the White House to talk about the crisis. 

Among the new professors joining UNCA in the fall of 1979 were Dr. 
Leo Bares in chemistry, Dr. Joyce Dorr in music, Dr. Margaret Weshner in 
counseling and career development, and William Sabo in political science. 

During this time we had been planning with Chancellor Joab Thomas 
and Dr. Larry Montieth, dean of engineering at NC State, for the estab- 
lishment at UNCA of a two-plus-two transfer program in the field of 
engineering. There was growing local interest in this field. The formal 
arrangement specified that NC State would accept our students on a 
transfer basis, knowing that they had already completed courses equiva- 
lent to the first two years of study required by almost any engineering 
program there. Dr. Richard McCormack was sent from NC State to be 
the first director and to establish the program, which would begin with 
the fall semester of 1980. This plan initially satisfied the long-standing 
interest of many businesses and individuals, but before long we began 
receiving requests from many people in industry and the community for a 
full engineering program at UNCA. The area most frequendy mentioned 
was industrial engineering. 

Aaron Schandler, a longtime member of the alumni association and a 
lieutenant colonel in the Army Reserve, arranged for two concerts in 
October of the Army Field Band and Soldiers' Chorus. The concerts were 
open to the public, and the tickets were given away, but people had to 
come either to UNCA or to the Citizen-Times Building in order to get 
them. The concerts played to packed houses, and Schandler was immedi- 
ately besieged with requests to arrange for return performances. 

That same fall, the political science department, in conjunction with 
the League of Women Voters, brought an internationally known authority 
on energy to the campus. Although Andre Lavin was a young man, his 
knowledge of the worldwide energy crisis was helpful to people who were 
eager to learn more about the problems. It was an excellent program, and 
the auditorium at Lipinsky was filled for the full-day session. 

Professor Farzanegan became director of community services in the fall 
of 1979. Under his leadership the Great Decisions Program had more 
than six hundred active members in twenty-seven discussion groups in 
Asheville, Hendersonville, Tryon, Black Mountain, and Weaverville. On 

228 : Gathering Momentum 

their invitation, he introduced the program to the campuses of Mars Hill 
and Warren Wilson Colleges, whose professors proved valuable as discus- 
sion leaders and speakers. At UNCA and Warren Wilson, it was possible 
for participating students to gain one hour of credit through the series. 
The program was well publicized, and some discussion groups were 
broadcast over radio. UNCA contributed that year to the national Great 
Decisions series shown on public television. Provisions were made with 
the Asheville city school system for participating teachers to receive re- 
newal credit for certification. Dr. Farzanegan began training advanced 
students to assist as discussion leaders, and he expanded the program into 
five high schools in conjunction with the simulation training already in 
progress in dozens of schools. Because he had become highly visible at 
the national level on the board of the North American Simulation and 
Gaming Association, it was appropriate for him to assume the director- 
ship of the simulation laboratory. In October he was elected president of 
NASAGA. Colleges and universities all over the country were rapidly 
becoming aware of the value of simulation and gaming in classroom 

That fall, after years of working with the appropriate congressional 
committees, the U.S. Forest Service received a $3.6 million appropriation 
to build on the land immediately south of W. T. Weaver Boulevard. The 
building would be the research headquarters for Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Georgia, and Florida, and we looked forward to an excellent relationship 
between the Forest Service and our anticipated environmental studies pro- 
gram. Senator Jesse Helms, who had been instrumental in pushing this 
project, was the principal speaker at the ground breaking. 

In the fall of 1979, enrollment topped two thousand for the first time, 
an increase of 12.93 percent over 1978. It was an indication of what we 
could expect in the future as new programs were added. 

While supervising the internationally oriented meetings of the Great 
Decisions Program, Dr. Farzanegan became increasingly aware that a fo- 
rum on domestic affairs would be equally well received by many of that 
program's membership, so he searched for funds for a trial series. A 
$12,000 grant from the North Carolina Humanities Council, heavily sup- 
plemented by city and county organizations and agencies, made it possible 
for him to plan for an eight-week series called "People and Issues," which 
he organized along the lines that had been successful for Great Decisions. 
He obtained cooperation both from professors of several UNCA depart- 

Gathering Momentum : 229 

merits and from outstanding outside professionals in a number of fields, 
who wrote preparatory papers and served as speakers and discussion lead- 
ers. Presented late in the fall semester, the series covered a wide range of 
topics of interest within the state. The issues sparked lively debate. Some, 
such as the Equal Rights Amendment and liquor by the drink, generated 
more heat than light, but a majority of the topics aroused less emotional- 
ism and were discussed in a substantive fashion that proved highly infor- 
mative. The size and interest of the audience warranted repetition on a 
larger scale, and Dr. Farzanegan began planning for another series. 

That December the Campus Community Concert Band performed its 
first concert. It was free, and Lipinsky Auditorium was full. The event was 
jointiy produced by Dr. Joyce Dorr and Patricia Garren, a band instructor 
in the Asheville city school system. Together, the two could accomplish 
almost anything when it came to developing campus music programs. 
The band included UNCA students and faculty, as well as people from the 
community who simply enjoyed playing. They all met one night a week to 
practice and, although there were a few rough spots during the concert, 
Dr. Dorr was on the way to establishing a community tradition. A num- 
ber of different organizations and several choral and instrumental groups 
grew out of that first performance. The music program was perceived by 
the community to be one of the most exciting activities on campus, and it 
began to foster excellent area relationships with people who had previ- 
ously had little or no acquaintance with UNCA. 

December 16, 1980, marked the culmination of work by representa- 
tives of UNCA and Asheville-Buncombe Technical College (hereafter re- 
ferred to as A-B Tech) for the establishment of policies for the transfer of 
specific credits to the department of management at UNCA, and A-B 
Tech president Harvey Haynes and I formally signed a memorandum of 
agreement satisfactory to both institutions. Though some students had 
transferred from A-B Tech in the preceding years, they had received no 
credit for hours accumulated because of the difficulty in equating course 
work at the different types of institutions. After the management program 
was in place, A-B Tech graduates expressed great interest in the bachelor 
of science degree in management, and Chairman Donald Hart began ex- 
ploratory talks with A-B Tech administrators in 1977. He and Vice-Chan- 
cellor Dorr began serious negotiations in the winter of 1978-79, and Dr. 
Robert Williams of the management faculty became the third member of 
the UNCA team. They began their initial planning with Dr. Olin Wood, 

230 : Gathering Momentum 

A-B Tech's vice-president for institutional services, and other members of 
the A-B Tech administration, but most of the actual work was assigned to 
Sarah Morris, director of the Division of Business Education, and the 
division chairmen. Some of the course work was fairly simple to equate, 
but experience with A-B Tech and UNCA graduates and an evaluation of 
the curriculum at both institutions showed that, though certain course 
titles were identical, the amount of material covered differed greatiy. Rep- 
resentatives from the two institutions were more concerned with adequate 
preparation of the prospective management majors than with a defense of 
their own programs, and the negotiations, though time-consuming, pro- 
ceeded smoothly. Finally equivalencies satisfactory to both institutions 
were arrived at. The Faculty Senate approved the arrangement when its 
members understood that the transfer students would all be required to 
take the complete sixteen-hour humanities program, a course in bibliogra- 
phy, the core curriculum for management, and certain other courses, de- 
pending on previous training received at A-B Tech and on the academic 
requirements for the specific management track into which the student 

The terms of the document began with the agreement that "graduates 
of A-B Tech who have the Associate in Applied Science degree will be 
admitted to UNC-A with junior standing as degree candidate students in 
the Department of Management." The students were able to transfer sixty 
hours of credit, some of it as electives, and precise requirements were 
stipulated for completing degrees in each of the seven tracks of manage- 
ment. Graduates holding associate degrees in applied science in eight 
areas were welcomed to UNCA, in the fields of general business adminis- 
tration, including accounting, banking and finance, and marketing; nurs- 
ing; engineering technology; secretarial science; electronic data process- 
ing; dental hygiene; medical technology; and radiologic technology. Half 
of these areas fitted into the track on health care administration, and the 
others into older tracks of the management program. Although the trans- 
ferees technically had the status of juniors, all of them needed to take a 
number of additional hours to satisfy the requirements for graduation 
from UNCA, which worked out to be an average minimum of seventy- 
two hours, somewhat above the normal sixty hours expected for juniors 
who had begun their work at UNCA. However, the requirements were 
well publicized and published in the catalogs of both institutions. The 
transfer students understood the necessity for the additional course work, 

Gathering Momentum : 231 

and in a short time UNCA was receiving great numbers of A-B Tech 
graduates into the management program. 

Over the spring and summer of the next year, Dr. Dorr and Dr. Wil- 
liams worked out similar agreements with two other institutions. In mid- 
August 198 1, an agreement was signed with Blue Ridge Technical Col- 
lege and, three days later, with McDowell Technical College. The A-B 
Tech model was used to sign an agreement with Mayland Technical Col- 
lege in June 1983. As the management graduates have begun to move 
into business and industry, we have had no occasion to question the judg- 
ment of making transfer agreements with the four area technical colleges. 

On December 19, 1980, the last working day of the year, we dedicated 
the Charles D. Owen Building. The formal ceremony took place in the 
conference center on the top floor. It had excellent acoustics, a sliding wall 
that could divide the room into two sections, a food-assembly kitchen, 
and excellent facilities. The conference center soon became a much-used 
facility for meetings of all kinds. At the dedication, representatives from 
the departments of art and management were stationed at key locations, 
explaining to the visiting crowd what would soon take place there. After 
people toured the building, they returned to the center for refreshments. 
The entire Owen family, three generations strong, was present, and they 
were pleased with the appearance of the whole building. But even their 
approval paled beside the excitement of the faculty and students of the 
departments of art and management. After years of inadequate facilities, 
they were at last at home in an ample and totally functional environment. 
Architect J. Bertram King had done a magnificent job of designing the 
building to satisfy the exacting needs of the two diverse departments. 

In June 1979, long before the building was opened, the Owen family 
had presented 835 shares of company stock to the management depart- 
ment management fund. The income was to be used for library books, 
faculty training and academic travel, guest lecturers, scholarships, and 
other needs of the department. In June 1986 the fund's value stood at 
$138,702, and the income was proving to be of great benefit to manage- 
ment faculty and students. 

As the year ended, the University of North Carolina was deeply en- 
meshed in the frustrating and seemingly endless legal battle of the Adams 
case, to which previous reference has been made. Because it will be neces- 
sary to make a marked change of format to adequately examine the prog- 
ress made on the UNCA campus from 1980 through 1986, it is preferable 

232 : Gathering Momentum 

to conclude discussion of this important case as a coherent unit. Action in 
the case was played out in Chapel Hill and in the courts, and neither 
UNCA nor the other campuses had much control over events, although 
the final decision was to have great impact on all sixteen institutions. 
There will be no attempt to detail the numerous plans, revisions, motions, 
and countermotions involved in the latter years of the case, but a brief 
accounting of the major events will give some indication of the difficulties 
faced by the University administration and the state throughout the final 
years of the battle. 

As mentioned in chapter 10, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund filed a 
class action suit against HEW in October 1970, charging failure to bring 
ten southern states into compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act 
of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the grounds of race, color, or 
national origin under any program receiving federal financial assistance. 
The case of Adams v. Richardson was heard in the Federal District Court 
for the District of Columbia by Judge John Pratt. His decision, handed 
down in the fall of 1972, held HEW at fault for failure to meet its obliga- 
tions under Tide VI to eliminate segregation practices in programs receiv- 
ing federal financial assistance in ten southern states. In February 1973 
Judge Pratt further decided that HEWs continuation of permitting fed- 
eral financial assistance to those states was a violation of the plaintiffs' civil 
rights, and he set a 1 20-day deadline for a cutoff of federal assistance to 
those states that had not begun substantial compliance with Tide VI. 
HEWs successful appeal of the arbitrary date chosen gave the states addi- 
tional time to perfect plans for compliance. 

The General Administration of the University and the Board of Gover- 
nors then turned their energies toward satisfying the requirements of 
Judge Pratt's orders and of HEW. After much concentrated work, which 
was complicated by the Office of Civil Rights's ambivalent insistence that 
greater integration be achieved without destroying the "racial identifi- 
ability" of the traditionally black institutions, the Board of Governors 
thought that it had made adequate provision to desegregate the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina in accordance with HEW regulations and the court 
rulings. The Office of Civil Rights had accepted the UNC plan, and it is 
possible that the University's efforts might have been successful had con- 
troversy not arisen over the decision to place the new school of veterinary 
medicine at North Carolina State rather than at North Carolina A & T. 
The case, now tided Adams et al. v. Weinberger et al.^ was reheard in the 
summer of 1975, again by Judge Pratt. Once again, there was a delay of 

Gathering Momentum : 233 

almost two years before the judge rendered his decision on April 1, 1977. 
He ruled that the various state plans accepted by HEW had made little 
significant progress in meeting desegregation requirements, and he or- 
dered HEW to establish new standards for the elimination of dual systems 
and for massively upgrading the traditionally black institutions. 

Gradually the other states that were parties to the suit were adjudged to 
be approaching compliance, so they were dropped from the litigation. 
Most of the complaints against them were settled by negotiation. None of 
these states had as many traditionally black institutions as North Carolina 
did. By 1977, HEW had adopted a confrontational and coercive policy 
toward the University of North Carolina. Judge Pratt's 1977 ruling re- 
sulted in the formulation of a set of criteria by HEW that would have 
given the department broad powers over higher education, among them 
the authority to require programs to be moved to traditionally black insti- 
tutions from traditionally white institutions. Relinquishing responsibility 
over programs and curricula was unacceptable to the University, but the 
Board of Governors was prepared to greatly enhance and expand pro- 
grams at the traditionally black institutions and to work for greater inte- 
gration. Work began at once to deal with the new criteria insisted upon by 
HEW. By late August 1977, the Board of Governors was ready to submit 
a revised plan demanded by the court. Secretary Joseph Califano an- 
nounced on February 2, 1978, that the University of North Carolina's 
revised plan was unacceptable. The demands of HEW and the Office of 
Civil Rights brought down on the University a flood of bureaucratic 
experts on desegregation, few of whom had any experience in higher 
education. They insisted on innumerable solutions of dubious educational 
value, and threats to cut off federal financial assistance were ever present. 

Throughout the later years of the battle, the team from Washington 
seemed not to perceive President William Friday's strength of character 
and dedication to strengthening all campuses. With restructuring, he had 
been handed a monumental task. He was aware that the University system 
had problems and was cognizant of the critical changes that would be 
necessary at the traditionally black institutions and of the need for addi- 
tional facilities and programs at others, UNCA among them. Backed by 
the exceptional team he had gathered around him in the General Adminis- 
tration and supported by an intelligent and serious-minded Board of Gov- 
ernors, President Friday refused to be stampeded into accepting cosmetic 
schemes that would have lowered academic standards and demoralized 
students and faculty throughout the state. The streams of advisers from 

234 : Gathering Momentum 

Washington and Atlanta seemed not to comprehend that President Friday 
thoroughly understood and was sympathetic to the philosophy behind 
Tide VI. His greatest contribution to the situation was his unshakable 
judgment that the General Administration and the Board of Governors, 
not the federal government, had the responsibility for maintaining the 
integrity of the University of North Carolina, and that no arbitrarily im- 
posed set of criteria would solve the long-standing deficiencies existing at 
a number of the constituent institutions. 

While an initial study of the curricula and general needs of the sixteen 
constituent institutions was in progress, plans were set in motion to en- 
hance the educational opportunities at the traditionally black institutions. 
This approach not only demonstrated the University's willingness to com- 
ply with the law but began to elevate these institutions toward the level 
expected of constituent institutions of the University of North Carolina. 
Increased state appropriations began to pour into these campuses for new 
and improved facilities; new programs were established at each of the 
institutions; the number of faculty and their salaries were increased, and 
efforts proceeded to integrate faculty, students, and staff at all the con- 
stituent institutions. 

In the meantime, the conflict with HEW had grown to such propor- 
tions that the Board of Governors asked the state to retain the legal firm 
of Charles Morgan, Jr., of Washington, D.C. It was apparent that the 
University needed its own expert counsel in the field of civil rights. The 
Board of Governors and the General Administration remained adamant 
that they would not accept a bureaucratically imposed quota system for 
the institutions, nor would they relinquish the University's control over 
curricula and programs to an agency of the federal government. They 
were exhausted with endless argument over eliminating duplication of 
programs in a sixteen-campus system that enrolled more than 117,000 
students and with the semantics of such terminology as "enrollment of a 
significant proportion of students in unduplicated programs." 

Governor James B. Hunt, who had worked diligentiy to reach a solu- 
tion, proposed to the legislature that appropriations of $40 million be 
made to enhance new and existing programs and to build new facilities 
and to renovate others at the traditionally black institutions. The General 
Assembly, equally eager to have the matter settled, was favorably inclined 
toward Governor Hunt's proposal. 

On April 20, 1979, the Board of Governors authorized the North 

Gathering Momentum : 235 

Carolina attorney general and Charles Morgan, Jr., to file suit to engage in 
settlement negotiations with HEW. Based on that authorization, Secre- 
tary Califano immediately ordered that federal funds to the University 
would begin to be cut off on May 2. A suit was filed on April 24 in 
Federal District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina to en- 
join the cutoff of funds. Two days later, Judge Franklin Dupree issued a 
temporary restraining order, pending a complete hearing on the matter. 
HEW argued its position vehemendy and attempted to have the suit 
transferred to the jurisdiction of Judge Pratt's court, but Judge Dupree 
refused to relinquish jurisdiction. In early June he ruled that the govern- 
ment could not withhold funds until an administrative hearing had been 
held on the matter and that he would rule on the injunction after the 
hearing. The case did not come before an administrative law judge until 
July 1980, and it lasted for almost a year. About fifteen thousand pages of 
testimony were amassed. The case was settled by a consent decree in July 

In 1980 Congress, on President Carter's recommendation, divided the 
responsibilities of HEW and established the separate Department of Edu- 
cation. In early 198 1, Dr. Terrell Bell, who had vast experience in higher 
education, was appointed by President Reagan as Secretary of Education. 
Bell studied the implications of what was being required of the University 
of North Carolina and signified his willingness to work with University 
officials for an agreement that would be satisfactory to all concerned. The 
General Assembly had accepted and included in the budget Governor 
Hunt's proposal for the appropriation of $40 million for the enhance- 
ment of the traditionally black institutions, and that was added to the $30 
million already appropriated and being used for capital construction at 
the five institutions. The Board of Governors determined that conditions 
seemed right for the filing of a proposed consent decree in Federal Dis- 
trict Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina. In June, attorneys 
for the University and counsel for the federal government joined in pre- 
senting the proposed consent decree before the court. The Consent Decree, 
North Carolina v. Department of Education^ was accepted on July 17, 198 1. 

The Legal Defense Fund immediately tried in Federal District Court for 
the District of Columbia to prevent the acceptance of the consent decree 
by Secretary Bell, but Judge Pratt ruled that his court no longer had 
jurisdiction. Two attempts were made to have the consent decree over- 
ruled by the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia 

236 : Gathering Momentum 

and, failing there, appeal was made to the United States Supreme Court. 
In February 1984, the high court refused to hear the case. After fourteen 
years, the Adams matter ground to a conclusion. 

The State of North Carolina had spent more than $2 million in legal 
fees. There is no way to estimate the monetary worth of the time and 
energy expended by President Friday and the General Administration, the 
Board of Governors, the Office of the Attorney General, successive gover- 
nors and committees of the General Assembly. The Board of Governors, 
not a government agency, would determine the policies of the University, 
and the sixteen campuses would move toward the educational standards 
expected of the constituent institutions. Although the University never 
consented to imposed quotas, it set its own goals for integration of the 
constituent institutions on the basis of what was considered possible, 
given the demographics of the state. It offered to work toward the goal of 
raising the number of white students at the traditionally black institutions 
to 1 5 percent within a period of five years and of raising the number of 
black students in the predominandy white institutions to 10.6 percent 
during the same time. In fact, thousands of black students were already 
attending traditionally white institutions as the result of the 1954 Brown v. 
Board of Education ofTopeka decision, which led to the abolition of de jure 
segregation, and as a result of increasing recruitment efforts of the pre- 
vious decade. The state's graduate and professional schools had been pro- 
gressively integrated throughout the same time period. The state and the 
University pledged to speed up the integration of faculty at all institu- 
tions, to continue to add new programs at the undergraduate and gradu- 
ate levels with a corresponding increase of qualified faculty at the five 
traditionally black institutions and to upgrade faculty and to equalize fac- 
ulty salaries. For a five-year period, beginning at the end of December 
198 1, the University of North Carolina was required to submit annual 
progress reports to the Federal District Court, which would monitor the 
good-faith efforts set forth in the consent decree for two additional years, 
through December 1988. 

In the intervening years, as a result of the additional degree programs 
and upgraded faculty and facilities at the traditionally black institutions, 
the self-imposed goal of 15 percent white enrollment had been met by 
1985. Despite massive recruitment efforts, the predominandy white insti- 
tutions were still two points short of their black enrollment goal as of 
December 1986. 

Gathering Momentum : 237 

At UNCA the goal was to reach 6.9 percent black students by Decem- 
ber 1986. Although many students enroll from oriier areas, our main 
drawing area is the Eleventh Congressional District, which, including the 
Cherokee Indian Reservation, has a minority population fractionally be- 
low 6 percent. Our recruiters travel throughout the state and into neigh- 
boring states seeking black applicants. Every possible incentive is offered 
black graduates of local high schools, since the preponderance of western 
North Carolina's black population resides in and around Asheville. We 
have encountered the same problems faced by the other historically white 
institutions in scrambling for the same group of students pursued by 
recruiters from all of the public and private institutions, traditionally black 
and white. The goal of the university has been, and will remain, to pro- 
vide all its students with an education of superior quality and to provide 
new programs as rapidly as possible. UNCA perseveres in its intensive 
efforts to integrate faculty, students, and staff and to provide for expanded 
educational opportunities for all its students. 


1 3 

The Roaring Eighties 

The period between 1980 and 1986 was one of new degree programs, 
appropriations for new facilities, the renovation of existing buildings, 
more faculty to keep pace with a growing enrollment, and the continual 
upgrading of instruction and curricula within all departments. In order to 
convey accurately the growth and change that took place during these 
years, this final chapter will examine the impact of individual areas on the 
institution rather than follow a narrative, chronological format. The chap- 
ter will include four sections in all: administrative and general, student 
affairs (including intercollegiate athletics), university relations, and aca- 
demic affairs. A full listing of UNCA trustees from 1980 through 1986 is 
included in Appendix B. 


Most of the expansion in facilities during the late seventies and early 
eighties resulted from the hard work of the local legislative delegation. 
The 1 97 1 bill restructuring the state higher education system gave the 
Board of Governors responsibility for presenting a single, unified, recom- 
mended budget for the University of North Carolina that would include 
capital improvement, expansion, and operational costs for each one of the 
sixteen campuses. While granting enormous power to the Board of Gov- 
ernors, the General Assembly did reserve the right to make special appro- 
priations for capital improvements at individual institutions should spe- 


The Roaring Eighties : 239 

cific needs arise. Given the many complicated and cosdy issues facing the 
board, administrators at each campus and their local constituents often 
felt that their particular needs warranted a direct appeal to the legislature 
for funding over and above allocations made by the Board of Governors. 

In earlier times, members of the local delegation sometimes worked at 
cross-purposes, but they have worked smoothly together for the past sev- 
eral years and increased their effectiveness in serving their constituents. 
Credit has already been accorded Speaker of the House Liston Ramsey for 
proposing a statewide bond issue intended to benefit the entire University 
system, which allowed UNCA to construct the Charles D. Owen Build- 
ing. He also worked closely with the local delegation to get state funding 
for the first high-rise dormitory and the new student center. The local 
delegation, Senators Robert Swain and Dennis Winner, along with House 
members Marie Colton, Narvel Jim Crawford, Gordon Greenwood, and 
Martin Nesbitt, Jr., have worked consistendy as a team. Such cooperation 
carries great weight in Raleigh, and the legislators' efforts have benefited 
UNCA in many ways. They were the major force responsible for the latest 
$4,882,000 dormitory and the new science building. In the May 1984 
special session, the legislators were able to add fifteen thousand square 
feet to the original 1983 appropriation, more than doubling the size of 
the science facility. Along with more space for the departments and far 
more sophisticated laboratories, the addition houses the university's Com- 
puter Center and allows the mathematics department to return to its logi- 
cal home. It is also the site of a multimillion-dollar microelectronics link 
with a number of institutions across the state. 

Although local industrialists had advocated strongly for advanced engi- 
neering education at UNCA, it was not economically feasible to build 
another school of engineering. President Friday and the legislators de- 
cided instead to hook UNCA up to the existing telecommunications net- 
work, thus providing two-way television access to engineering courses 
being taught on the NC State campus, as well as numerous graduate and 
undergraduate courses from other institutions linked to the system. The 
hookup also allows high-speed transmission of data in a number of tech- 
nical fields. The legislative delegation was also instrumental in obtaining 
funds for the renovation of the Lipinsky Building, converting the former 
student center into a permanent home for the growing music department 
and a number of administrative offices. 

Several organizational changes during this period of climbing enroll- 

240 : The Roaring Eighties 

ment streamlined the channels of communication campuswide. By 1980, 
enrollment services — including admissions, advising, financial aid, and the 
registrar's office — reported directly to the chief academic officer. By the 
following year, the University Planning Council operated through the 
office of the vice-chancellor for academic affairs as well. Since the council 
was established to deal with budgetary priorities, faculty positions, and 
the academic direction of the campus, the faculty needed to be directiy 
involved in major decisions under consideration. As a result, the Faculty 
Senate's standing committee on institutional development was made an 
integral part of the University Planning Council, with a full voice in the 
council's decisions. Probably few college faculties are as aware of where 
the academic money goes and how faculty positions are decided as the 
UNCA faculty. 

The term system had provided students with an effective, flexible sched- 
ule when enrollment was lower, but the increase in the number of students 
generated an avalanche of work for the record-keeping offices and made 
reporting to the General Administration quite complex. Since there was 
no evidence that students were finishing their course work any faster 
under the term system, UNCA converted completely to the semester sys- 
tem by 1980. 

The UNCA-WCU joint planning committee slowly picked its way to- 
ward conclusion. Certain matters were never satisfactorily settled, but the 
General Administration resolved the issue of course duplication at the two 
campuses in September 1982 when it determined that, after one year, 
WCU could no longer duplicate UNCA course offerings. 

A decision had to be made regarding graduate work. WCU proposed a 
merger that would give it responsibility for graduate work in Asheville, 
but that solution was unsatisfactory to UNCA. The university preferred 
having its own center, along with the freedom to incorporate graduate 
programs from the multicampus system and include fields that UNCA 
faculty were qualified to teach. A committee appointed by President Fri- 
day was sent to study the problem. On October 11, 1983, Dr. James 
Ferguson, former chancellor of UNC-Greensboro, Dr. Dean Colvard, for- 
mer chancellor of UNC-Charlotte, and Dr. Winfred Godwin, president of 
the Southern Regional Education Board in Adanta, told President Friday 
that a separate graduate center should be established at UNCA. They 
recognized that the university had an excellent faculty, capable of teaching 
graduate courses in several fields, and they believed the Asheville area 

The Roaring Eighties : 24 1 

would be better served, in terms of quality and quantity, if the constituent 
institutions offered graduate studies at UNCA as the need arose. Cogni- 
zant of the friction between the two universities, the committee members 
also proposed that the director of the center be appointed by and report 
directiy to President Friday. Their collective judgment was accepted. On 
January 3, 1984, plans were set in motion for a graduate center at UNCA. 
Dr. Eugene McDowell was appointed its first director. WCU has since 
offered opportunities for graduate students to take courses at UNCA that 
apply toward master's degrees in education and business. Students inter- 
ested in a doctorate in educational administration can complete the ma- 
jority of UNC-Greensboro's program requirements at UNCA. Doctoral 
candidates then travel to the Greensboro campus every Saturday for one 
year to finish up their course work, which means they do not have to take 
leave from their jobs. NC State has offered courses that apply toward a 
master's degree in industrial engineering, and in 1985 UNC— Chapel Hill 
instituted classes for a master's degree in social work for the second time. 
In the fall of 1985, the UNCA Graduate Center had an enrollment of 
more than 700 students. 

Although UNCA itself remains predominantly an undergraduate insti- 
tution, planning for a master of liberal arts program began shortly after 
the establishment of the Graduate Center. In 1985 the Board of Gover- 
nors gave its approval for the advanced degree program, one that capital- 
izes on the school's specific area of expertise, and a committee headed by 
Dr. Deryl Howard, chairman of the philosophy department, began the 
detailed work of building UNCA's first graduate program. 

Undergraduate enrollment climbed from 2,099 m 1980 to 2,931 in the 
fall term of 1986. The FTE, the number on which UNCA's annual budget 
is based, rose from 1,443 in 1980 to 2,198 six years later. Many students 
work full-time and have families, so they pursue their degrees at a slower 
pace than traditional undergraduates do. Nevertheless, there must be suf- 
ficient faculty and facilities for 2,931 undergraduates and 700-plus gradu- 
ate students, which requires careful budgeting. 

A high percentage of UNCA students receive institutional scholarships, 
as well as state and federal funds, but there is still a need for more financial 
aid. In 1980 the Office of Financial Aid assisted approximately two-thirds 
of the eligible students who applied for funds. For the 1980-81 year, the 
Office of Financial Aid awarded $1,292,155 to 742 students. During the 
1985-86 academic year, however, 981 students received $1,830,769 in 

242. : The Roaring Eighties 

institutional scholarships, state and federal assistance programs, and guar- 
anteed loans. Fortunately, the state increased tuition only slighdy during 
this period. 

In November 198 1 the UNCA Foundation honored twenty-six indi- 
viduals and groups for their philanthropic efforts in providing multiple 
scholarships. Ernest Mills received the foundation's Distinguished Service 
Award. At that time, fifty students had received Mills Foundation Scholar- 
ships to help with their college expenses. 

With enrollment on the rise and an increase in the number of graduate 
students, WCU undergraduates, and those taking noncredit courses, fa- 
cilities were overcrowded campuswide. Nowhere was the strain more ap- 
parent than in overflowing science laboratory courses, long waits for com- 
puter terminals, a shortage of practice rooms for music majors, and 
limited library space. Although relief was in sight for the music and sci- 
ence departments with the renovation of the Lipinsky Building and the 
opening of the new science building, the library was already hopelessly 
overcrowded when the appropriation for its expansion was approved in 

The Board of Governors gradually increased the university's library 
budget to offset the drastic cuts of 1971 and keep pace with the increase 
in enrollment during the late seventies and early eighties. By the 1979-80 
year, library holdings numbered 152,719 volumes in the circulation col- 
lection and 10,040 volumes on microfilm. By 1985—86, Ramsey Library 
held 371,664 volumes on open shelves and 177,715 on microfilm. Stu- 
dents were literally sitting on the floor to study when, in 1984, the legisla- 
tors made a library addition their top priority. That fall the new chancellor 
went to work to convince the Board of Governors and the Advisory Bud- 
get Commission that the library was in desperate straits. During the 1985 
General Assembly session, the board appropriated $7.2 million for the 
55,000-square-foot structure that had been approved. The architectural 
firm of Boney Associates of Wilmington was put in charge of the addition 
to the existing 51,000-square-foot library. 

The first of two major changes in administrative leadership took place 
on July 1, 1984, when the new chancellor began work. At a meeting of 
the UNCA Board of Trustees in April 1983, I had announced that the 
following year would be my last as chancellor. Since I was tenured in the 
history department and was leaving office before the mandatory retire- 
ment age, I accepted President Friday's suggestion to remain on campus 

The Roaring Eighties : 243 

for a few years as a part-time member of the faculty and research profes- 
sor. I looked forward to returning to teaching and made plans to begin 
writing the history of UNCA. After years as chancellor, I thoroughly 
enjoyed the chance to work closely with students, but a serious illness 
during the spring of 1985 brought about an early end to my practice of 
the teaching profession I had chosen and put on hold for more tiian thirty 

Immediately after my announcement to the board, the chairman, 
Thomas Arnold, began putting together a search committee to select a 
new chancellor. The board, faculty, students, and alumni were all repre- 
sented. After months of sifting through the flood of applications, the 
committee chose to interview those individuals who seemed attuned to 
UNCA's unique mission in higher education. 

Dr. David G. Brown was the clear choice of committee members and 
faculty alike. He held his doctorate in economics from Princeton and had 
taught during the mid-sixties at UNC-Chapel Hill. He had been provost 
at Miami University for twelve years and had served for one year as presi- 
dent of Transylvania University in Lexington, Kentucky. During the year 
before he came to UNCA, he had worked with Dr. Clark Kerr and Dr. 
David Riesman, two renowned leaders in the field of higher education, on 
a commission studying the role of the college presidency. A highly ener- 
getic and imaginative person, Dr. Brown had been attracted to UNCA by 
its reputation for providing a strong liberal arts education for all students, 
including those majoring in career-track programs. 

President William C. Friday presided at Chancellor Brown's impressive 
formal installation on March 31, 1985. North Carolina Supreme Court 
Justice Henry Five administered the oath of office, and Dr. Clark Kerr 
gave the installation address honoring his friend and colleague. Dr. 
Brown's address, titled "The Great Enabler," focused on the significant 
contributions that universities make to the quality of life in their commu- 
nities, their regions, their states, and the nation. 

The new chancellor wasted no time. He knew he had inherited a faculty 
dedicated to undergraduate education, with scholarship abilities equal to 
those of faculties at universities many times the size of UNCA. He agreed 
that although UNCA had been the fastest-growing institution east of the 
Mississippi River from 1978 to 1984, campus facilities were less than half 
those needed to serve the existing enrollment. He knew the average age of 
the full-time students was higher than that of student populations at tradi- 

244 : The Roaring Eighties 

tional universities and agreed that it made for an excellent competitive 
mix. He observed, however, that the university's relative youth and a 
missing tradition of alumni support had weakened the university's public 
profile. He therefore focused on leadership. 

Chancellor Brown agreed with the long-held premise that the humani- 
ties program was the core of each student's interdisciplinary study and 
was pleased to find the faculty both skilled and supportive. Since he 
wanted to recognize and encourage particular peaks of excellence, one of 
his first major decisions regarding curriculum enhancement was to chan- 
nel $50,000 above and beyond regular funding to three areas, of which 
the humanities program was one. Dr. Brown also established the Chan- 
cellor's Colloquium, which allows outstanding students a variety of op- 
portunities to become familiar with public speaking and other aspects of 

In order to maintain the attractiveness of the campus in the face of 
widespread expansion, Dr. Brown and the board of trustees retained 
Enright and Associates of Columbia, South Carolina, to draw up a tenta- 
tive plan. At the same time, he began the search for a professional 
landscaper to further beautify the expanded campus. His decision to pur- 
chase sixty-two acres above Lookout Road will prove tremendously valu- 
able to the university in the future. Securing the $1 million appropriation 
to buy the land from Paul Goodman amounted to a crash course in work- 
ing with the General Administration, local legislators, other members of 
the General Assembly, the Office of Property Control, and local support- 
ers — most notably attorney Karl Straus, 1982—83 board chairman and 
longtime advocate for the university. The land purchase will allow the 
expanding campus to include some of the most breathtaking views in the 

Because he considers a close relationship between campus and commu- 
nity essential, Dr. Brown began working collaboratively for the revitaliza- 
tion of downtown Asheville and was one of the two cofounders of Ashe- 
ville-Buncombe Discovery. He is a strong advocate for keeping the 
National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, and he kept alive the proposal 
for turning the overcrowded Grove Arcade Building into state office space 
and moving the center to a new building on UNCA land near the Forestry 
Research Building. In short, his economics background has benefited 
both the campus and the community in many ways. 

After two years as chancellor, Dr. Brown led the community to a deci- 

The Roaring Eighties 245 

sion that a total enrollment of 5,000 students would be ideal — allowing 
the university to expand its programs and hire more faculty without sacri- 
ficing its commitment to the liberal arts. Even if the growth rate does not 
remain as high as it was during the 1978—84 peak years, an annual in- 
crease of only 5 percent will allow the university to achieve an enrollment 
figure of 5,000 — including 1,200 graduate students — by 1995. 

The chancellor is supportive of the Graduate Center and believes that 
UNCA will soon assume full responsibility for its operation from the 
General Administration. In addition to graduate courses offered by con- 
stituent universities, Dr. Brown foresees UNCA faculty developing and 
teaching interdisciplinary master's degree programs in the humanities, 
and perhaps in the natural sciences and social sciences. A $335,000 grant 
allowed the architectural firm of Wood and Cort to begin work in the 
summer of 1986 on plans for a Graduate Center building. As a rule, most 
graduate programs offer evening courses, so daytime use of the facility for 
undergraduate instruction will increase classroom space by 30 percent and 
relieve overcrowding in the Carmichael Humanities and the Zageir Social 
Sciences buildings. 

One of the most intriguing aspects of the "Land Use Master Plan" that 
Enright and Associates presented to the chancellor in January 1986 was 
the suggestion that forty acres on the south side of Weaver Boulevard, 
across from the botanical gardens, be designated as UNCA and Affiliates 
Park. Land would be leased for building by organizations similar to the 
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station and the National Climatic Data 
Center — those that could justifiably occupy state land and would be likely 
to generate student internships and hire Ph.D.'s who might be interested 
in teaching on campus. Facilities such as UNCA's science laboratories and 
instrumentation, Ramsey Library, the Computer Center, and the micro- 
electronics link would attract organizations to the park, which would also 
include a joint-use convention and conference center. The proposed park 
would benefit the campus and establish links for providing a wide range 
of community services. 

While campuswide construction, renovation and new parking facilities 
were under way, the playing fields were being enlarged and improved. In 
the spring of 1986 they were named for Gordon Greenwood, one of 
Buncombe County Junior College's first athletic stars and dean of the 
local legislative delegation to the General Assembly. 

All these developments and more occupied Chancellor Brown during 

246 : The Roaring Eighties 

his first two-and-a-half years at UNCA, and it quickly became clear that 
his long-range goals and methods of achieving them were consistent with 
the traditional mission of the university. 

The second major administrative change during these years came when 
Laurence Dorr, the vice-chancellor for academic affairs, asked to be re- 
lieved of his duties so he could return to teaching philosophy Since the 
process of replacing the chief academic officer would take approximately 
one year, Dr. Jeffrey Rackham, chairman of the department of literature 
and language, was asked to serve as acting vice chancellor for the 1986-87 
academic year. 

Dr. Dorr's training, experience, and innate sensibilities had enabled him 
to involve the faculty in all academic decisions, establish clear-cut policies 
for the operation of the office, and plan well for changes in enrollment at a 
time when the university was growing faster than any other in the system. 
His judgment in all academic matters was respected campuswide, and his 
talents made him a difficult man to replace. As he moved to join the 
faculty, many of whom he had hired or promoted, emotions were mixed. 
No one wanted him to leave the office, and everyone was relieved that he 
had chosen to remain at UNCA. 

One of Dr. Dorr's most significant accomplishments as vice-chancellor 
was the role he played in restructuring the general education core curricu- 
lum. The curriculum, required of all UNCA students, had been a source 
of dissatisfaction among faculty and administrators since it was altered 
during the Vietnam War years. Many believed the changes had weakened 
the general education requirements, but a succession of Faculty Senate 
committees had failed to come up with a coherent set of improvements 
that the faculty as a whole would endorse. In March 1982, a general 
education review committee was established, with Dr. Merritt Moseley 
as chairman and Vice-Chancellor Dorr and Associate Vice-Chancellor 
Cochran as representatives for academic affairs. Progress was slow because 
the changes involved many departments. However, the leadership was 
excellent, and in September 1984 the University Planning Council ac- 
cepted the plan and forwarded it to the Faculty Senate for review Chair- 
man Alan E. Comer skillfully guided it through the public hearings, and 
the senate accepted an amended version in the spring of 1985, to go into 
effect the fall of 1986. The new document returned the core curriculum in 
large measure to the one in effect before the early seventies. It now in- 
cluded a foreign language requirement, with no options, a six-hour social 

The Roaring Eighties : 247 

sciences requirement, a five-hour laboratory science course, three hours in 
an interdisciplinary science, four hours in mathematics, a four-hour arts 
experience requirement, and the sixteen-hour, four-course humanities se- 
quence. A one-hour health promotion course was substituted for part of 
the physical education requirement. 

In the fall of 1984, a faculty committee began work on the model for an 
honors program for incoming freshmen in the top 20 percent of their 
class, with SAT scores above 1,000, and for continuing students with 
records of solid academic achievement. Dr. Phyllis Betts from the depart- 
ment of sociology became director of the new program the following 
spring and contacted all eligible students. Ninety percent of those invited 
chose to participate in the program and enrolled in general education 
honors sections in humanities and composition, as well as a range of 
special topics courses. A senior colloquium was designed to cap off the 
five-course honors requirement. Within one year the program had grown 
to include approximately two hundred students, and an average of forty- 
five to sixty freshmen enroll each year. 

Computing at UNCA came of age in the eighties, progressing in a 
series of distinct stages. Initially, Dr. Wayne Lang, current chairman of 
the computer science department, divided his time between directorship 
of the Computer Center and his faculty duties. There was no localized 
computing on campus to begin with. Rather, a teletype connection linked 
the university to the Triangle Universities Computation Center (TUCC), 
an IBM mainframe computing consortium of UNC-Chapel Hill, NC 
State, and Duke, located at Research Triangle Park. This hookup later 
grew into a statewide network that enabled the university to offer courses 
in FORTRAN and COBOL. In 1973, Dr. James Vinson introduced a 
minicomputer used for general university computing and courses in 
BASIC programming. Seven years later, another minicomputer was han- 
dling administrative computing. Dr. John Stevens of the chemistry depart- 
ment served as the center's acting director from July 1982 to December 
1983. During that time, he helped introduce the university community to 
the advantages of personal computing. The university also acquired its 
first large central computer, capable of handling more terminals and 
more tasks more quickly. To begin with, university computing was a cen- 
tralized function, but the growing professional importance of microcom- 
puters and word processing eventually distributed computing activities 
campuswide. Dr. David Miller, who served as director from July 1984 

248 : The Roaring Eighties 

through June 1985, built on the progress that Dr. Stevens had made with 
regard to personal computers and laid the groundwork for the acquisition 
of an administrative computer to handle financial record systems. Dr. 
Miller's assistant, A. Kern Parker, assumed the directorship when he left. 
Since then, he has concentrated on developing the campus network and 
enhancing centralized computing resources. In addition, he has focused 
on developing personal computing at UNCA, encouraging faculty, staff, 
and students to use IBM PCs, Zenith compatibles, and Macintoshes for 
appropriate desktop applications. A computerized mail network is now in 
operation as well, facilitating communication between faculty and admin- 
istrative offices campuswide. 


UNCA's growing enrollment during the late seventies has had a tremen- 
dous impact on the Office of Student Affairs. In short, the additional 
funds have enabled the office to provide the wide range of activities that 
students expect from a modern university. Dr. Eric Iovacchini, the vice- 
chancellor for student affairs, assumed his position in 1978. Within a year, 
he recommended that we employ Sharyn McDonald as director of student 
activities. Her experience in a similar position at the North Carolina 
School of the Arts in Winston-Salem made the team twice as effective. In 
addition to revitalizing and expanding existing programs, the Office of 
Student Affairs established a number of new organizations to round out 
the scope of activities at UNCA — for resident and commuter students 

I greatly appreciated the decision by the board of trustees to name the 
university center in my honor. As soon as it was ready for use, a newly 
established Student Union Board began planning special activities for 
students. The first campus chapters of sororities Alpha Xi Delta and Alpha 
Delta Pi and fraternities Theta Chi and Pi Lamda Phi were established 
during the early eighties. A number of academic honoraries and special- 
interest organizations were formed for those departments that had not 
developed their own. 

Of particular significance was the rewriting of the student government 
constitution, which had not been revised for many years. The new consti- 
tution established guidelines governing the organization's role, proce- 

The Roaring Eighties : 249 

dures, and expenditure of funds. Kenneth Cagle, who was twice elected 
president of the SGA and served from 1983 through 1985, worked with 
other members of the association to put together the new document. 
During this time, the student judicial system was completely and effec- 
tively reorganized. In fact, the North Carolina Association of Student 
Governments honored Cagle by electing him president. Today, the stu- 
dent-operated system benefits the entire campus. 

Coupled with Governors Village, which houses approximately two 
hundred students, and the high rise that accommodates three hundred, 
the new dormitory under construction will allow for considerable experi- 
mentation with specialized student housing once it is completed. The 
present goal is to have at least one thousand undergraduates living on 
campus, constituting a critical mass for a number of programs that cannot 
function effectively without the support of resident students. 

Another UNCA characteristic is a high percentage of nontraditional 
students. More than 50 percent of the students are twenty-five years old 
or more, and well over 50 percent are women. While figures such as these 
are common at other urban institutions, UNCA seems to be on the cut- 
ting edge when it comes to meeting their needs. The Office of Student 
Affairs provides guidance and counseling services for hundreds who are 
returning to college after many years or who are enrolling for the first 
time. Nontraditional students are often anxious about attending classes 
with those who are fresh out of high school, even though statistics indi- 
cate that they are highly motivated and generally lead the class. Linda 
Hall, the director of adult student services, provides them with valuable 
reassurance. And since most nontraditional students have litde interest in 
customary college activities, she provides a variety of programs designed 
to meet their specific needs and interests. 

The vice-chancellor for student affairs is also responsible for supervising 
intercollegiate athletics, which is no easy task. As in so many places, the 
most serious problem is money. UNCA has a number of athletic programs 
that require funds, but the only ticket-seller is men's basketball. While the 
Bulldogs have won a respectable ninety-seven games in the past five years, 
their inability to make it to the national tournament has reduced public 
support for the team. 

The Lady Bulldogs, coached by Helen Carroll, scored the greatest 
sports success of the eighties. The basketball team came alive in the second 
half of the 1983-84 season, playing with such intensity that it drew as 

250 : The Roaring Eighties 

many fans as the men's team. Surprisingly, the Lady Bulldogs defeated 
Pembroke to clinch the National Association for Intercollegiate Athletes 
district championship. When they beat a Philadelphia team for the re- 
gional title, they became eligible to compete in the national tournament in 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The fact that they were considered the underdogs in 
all four scheduled games did not bother the players one bit. They were 
determined to win. In the final game, against the University of Portland, 
with the score tied and only a few seconds to go in overtime, point guard 
Trish Wyatt nailed a twenty-foot jump shot that clinched the NAIA Na- 
tional Women's Championship. Center Sheila Ford was named the most- 
valuable player of the tournament, having set all-time records of 4 1 points 
per game and 111 points for the entire tournament. Helen Carroll was 
named coach of the year. A stress-related illness required her to switch to 
intramurals the following year, but it was a superb way to cap her UNCA 
career in intercollegiate sports. The team came home to a wildly enthusi- 
astic campus community and a parade through downtown Asheville, the 
streets lined with cheering fans. 

For several years, UNCA and other institutions of comparable size had 
been discussing the possibility of establishing a Division I conference of 
the National Collegiate Athletics Association in this part of the country. It 
took quite some time to surmount the organizational and administrative 
hurdles, but the Big South Conference became a reality in 1985, with 
UNCA one of the charter members. The conference also included Baptist 
College, Coastal Carolina, and Winthrop College in South Carolina; 
Armstrong State and Augusta College in Georgia; Radford University in 
Virginia; and Campbell University in North Carolina. 

Early in 1985, Ed Harris, UNCA's athletic director, left to take a similar 
position at Western Missouri College. We were fortunate to find Edward 
Farrell. Because he had been Davidson College's athletic director, Farrell 
was familiar with the difficulties of trying to operate a Division I program 
on a limited budget. 

In 1982, the Office of Student Affairs, working in conjunction with Dr. 
William Bruce, from the department of psychology, received one of the 
largest grants in the history of the university. The W K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion awarded $592,000 toward a project aimed at changing students' 
attitudes about their health over a period of several years. It proved a 
great and immediate success. The program later became part of the gen- 
eral education curriculum required of all students, replacing some of the 

The Roaring Eighties : 2.51 

physical education courses. During his first year as chancellor, Dr. Brown 
announced that he would direct new university resources toward three 
"thrust" areas and asked the campus community to recommend the pro- 
grams that would best be served by an additional $50,000 a year. The 
Health Promotion Program was one of three selected. 


In the summer of 1980, Dr. Thomas C. Dula took early retirement. The 
director of university relations had been with A-B College and UNCA 
since 1966, with the exception of time out from 1971 to 1974 to work for 
the Tennessee Military Institute. We had already been communicating for 
a number of years with Dr. Alfred O. Canon, then president of Queens 
College, about a suitable position at UNCA. He had a summer home in 
Montreat and had expressed an interest in living in the area year-round. 
None of the other applicants considered by the search committee could 
match Dr. Canon's many years of experience in university relations and 
fund-raising, and he assumed the position of director on December 1, 
1980. His tide was changed to vice-chancellor shortly thereafter. The 
Office of University Relations is responsible for several important noncur- 
ricular functions, including the alumni association, the UNCA Founda- 
tion, University Graphics, University Publications, the Office of Public 
Information, and community Leadership programs. 

The alumni association had just limped along since its beginnings in the 
early thirties, but the celebration held in 1977 to mark the school's fiftieth 
anniversary sparked the organization, and it has been growing ever since. 
Maryjane Hunter, the association's first full-time director, graduated from 
UNCA in 1978 with a degree in management. During her years as direc- 
tor, she did an excellent job of contacting alumni and encouraging them 
to get involved. When she resigned to start a family, Cissie Stevens, then 
director of grants and contracts, agreed to assume the additional responsi- 
bility of alumni affairs. The association continues to grow under her direc- 
torship, and it now raises enough to contribute to a number of university 

The UNCA Foundation has been one of the university's major affiliates 
since it was established in 1965, with Frank Coxe as the first chairman. 
The organization's biggest problem during the early years was the lack of 

252. : The Roaring Eighties 

full-time staff, since the board usually earmarked any funds it raised for 
scholarships. In spite of the hardship, the foundation did raise approxi- 
mately $700,000 during its first fifteen years. However, it has raised more 
than $1 million in the last five years. Whatever money is not expended 
during the course of a year remains in various accounts to support a wide 
range of university projects. Recent changes to broaden and strengthen 
the board have increased the number of members to thirty-six prominent 
citizens from Asheville, Buncombe County, and beyond. 

The Office of University Relations also includes the Office of Public 
Information. The director, Wallace Bowen, is responsible for writing all 
university press releases — covering everything from scholarship winners 
to innovative academic programs — and maintaining regular contact with 
print and broadcast media, locally and nationwide. 

University Relations also manages the monthly and biannual publica- 
tions that provide an essential communications network for a growing 
campus and keep the public informed about UNCA news and events. 

University Graphics, headed by Sandra Hayes, handles the design, edit- 
ing, typesetting, layout, and printing of most departmental brochures and 
institutional publications. The well-run shop has resulted in better and 
more publications than ever before. 

Of all the programs UNCA has developed to serve the public, probably 
none can surpass the Leadership programs. Based on a model that Dr. 
Canon and Professor Farzanegan had seen in Greenville, South Carolina, 
each program aims to inform participants about the social, political, cul- 
tural, and economic forces that make every community unique. The result 
is a group of citizens who have the background and perspective needed to 
contribute to their community and help shape its future. Approximately 
forty people are selected from a much larger applicant pool. The group 
attends one full-day session a month for an entire year. The first program, 
Leadership Asheville, was established in 1982. UNCA board members 
Morton Cohn and Durward Everett were instrumental in persuading the 
chamber of commerce to cosponsor the program, and it has proved both 
popular and effective. In fact, Hendersonville residents asked UNCA to 
help them set up a similar program, and although it is somewhat smaller 
than Leadership Asheville, it seems to be meeting an important need in 
one of our neighboring cities. 

The Roaring Eighties : 253 


Arts and Humanities 

Humanities Program 
Dr. Sandra Obergfell, Director 

In 1963 the faculty of Asheville-Biltmore College decided on a humanistic 
core for the entire academic program. As a result, the original curriculum 
included an interdisciplinary humanities program of six four-credit-hour 
courses spread over a year and a half, for a total of twenty-four semester 
hours. In the late sixties, the program was reduced by four hours, and by 
four more in the early seventies, as a result of both the separation of the 
major writing component into two other required courses and progres- 
sively improved organization and experience. Since that time, the humani- 
ties program required of all UNCA graduates has consisted of four 
courses of four semester hours each, and it remains the heart of the uni- 
versity's core curriculum. 

Why the centrality of the humanities? Because, as the tide implies, the 
humanities is the story of the human race, what we have done, how we 
have lived, what we have desired, what we have believed. When the hu- 
manities courses were first instituted, the series was widely acclaimed as a 
unique, innovative, experimental course of studies that was truly interdis- 
ciplinary, bringing together elements of world history, literature, philoso- 
phy, the classics, music, and art, with material from the natural and social 
sciences. In the years since that beginning, the humanities sequence has 
remained the foundation for humane studies at UNCA, providing the 
context for what students learn in the liberal arts and sciences. Since its 
inception, the course has been under continuous and intensive review by 
faculty and students; refined and strengthened, it remains unique. 

The four-course sequence begins with "Humanities 124: The Ancient 
World," in which students study materials from earliest times through the 
civilizations of Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Old and New Testament Pales- 
tine, to classical Greece and Rome, with side trips into Asia to encounter 
the civilizations of Persia, China, and India, with their characteristic texts 
and art forms. "The Ancient World" gives students a first review of our 
Western heritage and begins the dialogue between the living and the dead. 
The second course is "Humanities 214: The Rise of European Civiliza- 
tion," which begins with the fall of Rome and progresses through medi- 

254 : The Roaring Eighties 

eval civilization to the Renaissance. The course includes a comprehensive 
study of art and literature and such milestones as the rise of Islam, the 
Protestant Reformation, and the beginning of the endlessly frustrating, 
yet invigorating, conflict between the Christian faith and reason. While 
the focus is on Western civilization as a crucible, students also study the 
civilizations of medieval Africa and the Byzantine empire. Here, as in all 
humanities courses, the aim is to enable students to perceive the network 
of relationships that defines them. These relations extend outward, to 
other people, other cultures. They extend backward — and inward — as 
well. Exposing students to different cultures that have succeeded and de- 
clined makes them more conscious of their own values and more able to 
judge their worth. "Humanities 224: The Modern World" is the third 
course. It traces Western civilization from the beginnings of modern sci- 
ence through the Age of Revolution — the American and the French revo- 
lutions, the Industrial and the Romantic revolutions — and the rise of 
modern institutions, technology, industrialization, Marxism, imperialism 
and its legacies, the alienation of the artist, while insisting on the increas- 
ingly global context of those developments. The course examines modern 
Western culture as it grows out of the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance 
worlds, as the Age of Faith gives way to the Age of Anxiety. At the end of 
the course come two world wars, at once undermining many of the beliefs 
and institutions of the past, setting the patterns of today's civilizations, 
and clarifying the problems humanity faces in the future. The capstone 
course of the sequence, "Humanities 414: The Future and the Individual," 
insists on continuity with the previous courses, demonstrating how pre- 
vious ideas have shaped contemporary society and framed its future pros- 
pects. "The Future and the Individual" assumes that our world is imbued 
with a tradition we cannot ignore and that our future prospects and prog- 
ress — if not survival itself — depend on the resiliency, . . . and our under- 
standing, of that tradition. At the same time, the course seeks to envision 
and understand the possible future of the human race. Through readings 
drawn from many disciplines and expressing a wide range of political, 
moral, and artistic beliefs, the fourth course provides methods of antici- 
pating what is to come and of coping with inevitable challenges to human 
ethical values and ways of living. 

Participation in humanities teaching is evidence of broad interests and 
abilities commensurate with the centrality of the program to the universi- 
ty's educational mission. Moreover, with the continual faculty develop- 

The Roaring Eighties : 255 

ment and scrutiny of humanities premises and methods through faculty 
seminars and internships, humanities appeals to the teacher who is always 
alive to new learning. During the past several years, the program has 
grown to include funds for a library account, as well as for workshops, 
seminars, and travel for faculty members. In 1983 the humanities pro- 
gram received an additional $50,000 when Chancellor Brown adjusted 
the budget to provide extra funding for three "thrust" areas. The money 
has enabled the university to host a number of distinguished visiting 
scholars each year who, in addition to communicating specialized knowl- 
edge to faculty and students, present a well-received series of public lec- 
tures. Thrust funds also go toward faculty development, providing release 
time from teaching to take part in humanities internships and seminars 
directed by on- and off-campus scholars. 

Given the quality of the program that has evolved from the university's 
long-standing commitment to humanities studies, it is not surprising that 
other colleges and universities are now patterning their own programs on 
the model that UNCA has offered for more than two decades, and that 
the humanities core has received recognition statewide and nationwide. 

Department of Art 
Tucker S. Cooke, Chairman 

Until December 1979 the art department had to make do with one large 
room in the Carmichael Building and space in an old supermarket on 
Merrimon Avenue. The new facilities in the Owen Building included stu- 
dios with skylights; an art history study and screening room; private stu- 
dios for seniors; lecture rooms and storage facilities for supplies; studios 
for weaving, ceramics, jewelry, and sculpture; and a darkroom for pho- 

The most important curricular change during the 1980-86 period was 
the professionally oriented bachelor of fine arts program, approved for 
the fall of 1985. Approximately 50 percent of all art majors are in the 
fine-arts track, and the first to earn a bachelor of fine arts degree gradu- 
ated in 1986. In 1980 the department offered twenty-nine studio courses 
to 340 students enrolled. In 1985-86 there were eighty studio and history 
courses and a total enrollment of 670 students. Four full-time faculty and 
four adjunct instructors are able to handle the remarkable growth in the 
number of courses and undergraduates. 

2. s 6 : The Roaring Eighties 

Art graduates have gone to study at many of the nation's most presti- 
gious graduate institutions, including the University of Georgia, UNC- 
Greensboro, the New York School of Design, and Pratt Institute. Student 
works have been shown statewide, and a work painted by Stone Roberts 
of Asheville, who studied with Tucker Cooke each summer throughout 
his college years, was purchased by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 
New York City. 

The departments of art, music, and drama traditionally join forces each 
spring for a monthlong celebration of the arts — one that receives more 
attention on campus and in the community each year. Since 1983 Ashe- 
ville residents have enjoyed the magnificent nativity scene displayed in 
Pack Square every Christmas season, which was painted by Chairman 
Cooke and his students. 

Department of Classics 
Dr. Guy L. Cooper III, Chairman 

A classics department is an essential part of any liberal arts program, even 
though the number of majors is traditionally small. The reason more 
undergraduates do not pursue the discipline is that few careers other than 
teaching exist for classics majors. However, many majors use their studies 
as a springboard to other fields, such as law. Students of all disciplines 
enjoy the courses offered by the department, and every UNCA under- 
graduate in the humanities program has benefited from the faculty's 
knowledge of the ancient world. 

The average SAT score for incoming classics majors for the fall of 1986 
was 1,153, me highest of any department on campus. The students are 
highly motivated and enjoy annual competition for the Frederic Marcus 
Wood, Sr., Latin Prize and the Theophilus Kaires Greek Prize. Since Dr. 
Cooper's arrival, proportionately more graduates of this small department 
have received lucrative scholarships and fellowships to prestigious gradu- 
ate schools nationwide than graduates of any other department of the 
campus. Cooper's reputation among classics scholars is such that his stu- 
dents are welcomed into such schools as the University of California at 
Berkeley, Stanford University, UNC-Chapel Hill, and Duke University. 
The number of students who have attended the University of Zurich as 
Fulbright scholars is remarkable for a small public university. 

The Roaring Eighties : 257 

Department of Drama 
Arnold Wengrow, Chairman 

The role of UNCA's drama department is twofold. Its first function is to 
give majors a solid foundation in a wide range of theater-related fields, 
from writing scripts and acting to designing sets and directing. The de- 
partment's series of plays, musicals, and forum theaters also serves as a 
vital and direct link to the community, and the number of Theatre UNCA 
fans continues to grow. 

The arrival of Chairman Wengrow in 1970, the completion of the Carol 
Belk Theatre in 1977, and the varied talents of the drama faculty have 
resulted in productions that compare favorably with college drama any- 
where. In addition to Wengrow's adapting, staging, directing, and pro- 
ducing talents, Paul Sweeney's genius with lighting and special effects 
adds immeasurably to the quality of Theatre UNCA productions. Actress 
Elaine Hunter Myers has contributed a new dimension to the instruction 
of acting technique and has proved herself to be a remarkably versatile 

During the eighties, performances ranged from American classics such 
as A Streetcar Named Desire to a Wengrow adaptation of Aristophanes's 
The Birds. The chairman deftly modernized the masterpiece in ways the 
world's first comic dramatist would probably have applauded, making it as 
entertaining for Asheville audiences as it was for theatergoers in ancient 
Greece. Productions such as The Dining Room and The Diary of Anne 
Frank also demonstrate the department's versatility. 

The drama department incorporated Tanglewood Children's Theatre 
into its program in the early eighties. Founded in 1959 by John Haber, 
Tanglewood regularly brings together UNCA students, faculty, and area 
youngsters in performances guaranteed to please audiences of all ages. 
Many children have never seen live theater before, and their wholehearted 
enjoyment brings to mind the words of Sara Teasdale: "Children's faces 
looking up, holding wonder like a cup." In addition to providing a forum 
for actors aged eight through eighteen, Tanglewood gives students who 
are working toward teacher certification in drama the chance to work 
direcdy with young children. It also allows drama majors to explore a 
different world of literature through plays like Pinocchio and The Arkansas 
Bear. In 1984, Ernest and Albina Mills, longtime supporters of the uni- 
versity, presented a $30,000 endowment to preserve and enhance Tan- 

258 : The Roaring Eighties 

Beginning with the 198 1 season, UNCA has been associated with the 
Vagabond School of Drama at Flat Rock Playhouse. During the summer 
months, one member of the department teaches and supervises drama 
students from all over the country, thereby allowing those students to 
receive six hours of academic credit for their summer apprenticeships. 

Department of Foreign Languages 
Dr. Henry Stern, Chairman 

The eighties have been a period of growth and transition for the depart- 
ment. The dedication and expertise of the faculty members provide stu- 
dents with a solid background in foreign languages and the inspiration to 
study abroad during the summer months. The department continues to 
work hard to locate scholarship funds to allow its majors to travel and 
study abroad. A number of foreign language majors have received Ful- 
bright scholarships on the basis of academic excellence. Probably the most 
important change in the department in the past several years was the 
reintroduction of the foreign languages requirement to the general educa- 
tion curriculum in 1986. As a result, the curriculum is being revised and 
expanded at all levels in order to accommodate the increased number of 
students enrolling in foreign language courses. 

All faculty members hold doctoral degrees from excellent universities 
and regularly publish articles for scholarly journals and books. Dr. Marcel 
Andrade has recentiy published La Novela Picaresca Espanola and Cultural 
Contrasts: Hispanic-North America and is currently working on a third 
book. Dr. Phillip Cranston has published his translations of the works of 
numerous poets, including Jules Supervielle and Giacomo Leopardi. He 
also publishes his own poetry. Dr. Henry Stern published his second work 
on the Dutch language, Essential Dutch Grammar, in 1984, and his Hand- 
book of English-German Idioms remains an important reference book on 
many college campuses. During 1980-86, Dr. Cranston received a sum- 
mer grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, and Dr. 
Sandra Obergfell and Dr. Stern lectured in Belgium and Germany. In 
1986, Dr. Obergfell was named director of UNCA's humanities program. 

The Roaring Eighties 259 

Department of History 
Dr. Bruce Greenawalt, Chairman 

History, one of the institution's oldest departments, continues to be one 
of the most productive and efficiendy run on campus. Despite the fact 
that history is not one of UNCA's general education requirements, the 
department serves a large student enrollment. In the face of a nationwide 
decline in the popularity of the discipline, UNCA's history department has 
increased the number of its majors by 25 percent during the past six years. 
As of fall 1986, the number of history majors was forty-one. The high 
level of interest in history courses may be attributed in part to the level of 
faculty participation in the humanities program and the fact that the four- 
course sequence is required of every undergraduate. 

Phi Alpha Theta, one of the oldest honor societies on campus, show- 
cases history majors' outstanding research and academic accomplishments. 
The fraternity hosts excellent guest lecturers in the field and helps estab- 
lish closer ties between students and faculty. Several years ago, the national 
headquarters of Phi Alpha Theta named UNCA's chapter the most out- 
standing in North America among colleges with enrollments of fewer 
than 2,500 students. It also received the Special Commendation Award, 
the society's highest honor, for 1984—85. 

Though the department's primary emphasis is on students, the faculty 
of four continues its strong tradition of scholarship and research. From 
1980 to 1985, the department published an average of seven articles or 
manuscripts a year. The faculty are active in the Faculty Senate and on 
other university committees. They are also involved in a wide range of 
civic and cultural activities. 

Dr. Greenawalt founded the Southern Highlands Research Center in 
the late seventies and served as its director for three years. In the fall of 
1980, he organized an extremely informative and well-received China 
symposium. He also regularly submits articles for publication in such 
journals as the Pacific Historical Quarterly and the Journal of Southern 

Dr. Philip Walker, who served previously as department chairman, has 
been the campus Fulbright program adviser for the past twelve years. 
During that time, sixteen UNCA students have received Fulbright schol- 
arships. From 1980 to 1986, UNCA has averaged one Fulbright scholar a 
year. Dr. Walker also sponsored a student trip to the nation's capitol 
during this period of time, and he received a National Endowment for the 

2.6o : The Roaring Eighties 

Humanities scholarship for a summer institute on cartography at the 
Newberry Library in Chicago. 

Dr. Ready, department chairman through 1985, is director of the 
Southern Highlands Research Center established by Dr. Greenawalt. In 
the early eighties, he founded the Center for Jewish Studies and served as 
director for three years. During that time he received a $1,200 grant to 
organize an informative, well-attended workshop on the Holocaust. In 
1983 Dr. Ready and Dr. Kenneth Coleman finished editing Colonial 
Records of Georgia, and the work was published by the University of Geor- 
gia Press. The press nominated him for his excellent work, and he was one 
of three finalists for the historical editing award of the American Histori- 
cal Association. Since then he has published a number of articles, and he 
received the university's Distinguished Teacher Award in 1985. He pub- 
lished Asheville: Land of the Sky, the first comprehensive history of the city, 
the following year. Dr. Ready has advised pre-law students for several 
years and has successfully guided 90 percent of those who complete the 
program into law school, usually the school of their choice. UNCA's pre- 
law candidates in 1986 once again scored fourth in the state on the LSAT, 
preceded only by the students from Duke, Davidson, and UNC-Chapel 

Dr. Ted J. Uldricks's Soviet Diplomacy and Ideology: The Origins of Soviet 
Relations, 191 j- 1930 is an excellent book in the field. His articles have 
appeared in the Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History and a 
number of European journals. He is currendy working on a comprehen- 
sive history of World War II, which, unlike most American studies of the 
war, will include accounts of the Russian and Chinese fronts. In 1980 he 
was invited to attend a seminar at the Summer Research Laboratory of the 
Center for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Illi- 
nois. Later that same year, he read a paper, "The Soviet Union in Interna- 
tional Relations," at an international conference at the University of Bor- 
deaux, and he continues to participate in many conferences and seminars. 
Dr. Uldricks is the faculty adviser for Phi Alpha Theta, and he has chaired 
the University Research Council. 

Ruth Feldman has recendy established a scholarship to be awarded 
annually to an outstanding history major chosen by members of the de- 
partment. It is a singular honor for those students committed to a serious 
study of history. 

The department is justifiably proud that during the eighties its aca- 
demic program has ranked in the top 25 percent of campus departments 

The Roaring Eighties 261 

in terms of centrality to the university's mission, service to majors, impact 
on majors, and overall perception by faculty and peers. 

Department of Literature and Language 
Dr. Margaret Downes, Chairman 

Dr. Downes assumed the role of department chair when Dr. Jeffrey 
Rackham agreed to serve as acting vice-chancellor for academic affairs. 
The department continues to be one of the most outstanding on campus 
under her direction. 

Freshman writing courses became a requirement of all UNCA students 
in the fall of 1986. The focus is the study of the English language as a 
means of gaining understanding of ourselves and knowledge of our cul- 
tural heritage, rather than the rote memorization of rules. The courses will 
help students develop the writing skills necessary for continued self-ex- 
pression and communication with others — skills that will carry over into 
all courses and careers. 

In 1983 the department began offering a bachelor of arts degree in 
communications. Catherine Mitchell, the program's first director, had 
joined the UNCA community a year earlier, and the campus newspaper 
began to improve immediately, with good reason. Professor Mitchell had 
received the Pulitzer prize for investigative reporting of the controversial 
Synanon organization in California. As faculty adviser, she abandoned the 
old Rag and Bone Shop format and began teaching writers, editors, and 
photographers the fundamental skills of good journalism, which they em- 
ployed in the new student newspaper, Kaleidoscope. Her plans for a com- 
plete degree program also included courses in radio and television broad- 
casting. The arrival of Dr. Alan Hantz and Gregory Lisby broadened the 
scope of course offerings to include all forms of media reporting, public 
relations, photojournalism, mass communications history, theory, law and 
ethics, as well as internships for seniors in print and electronic media. 

An increase in the number of literature and language faculty has made 
additional course offerings possible. In 1980 the faculty had consisted of 
seven full-time members and two adjunct instructors. By 1986 the size of 
the faculty had doubled, and ten adjuncts were necessary. The number of 
literature majors had more than doubled, from about 50 to 139, and with 
the hundreds of students fulfilling their general education requirements, 
the department was a busy place. 

In 1980 the only member of the department with a record of scholarly 

262 : The Roaring Eighties 

publication was Dr. Merritt Moseley, Jr. By 1986, however, four members 
had published a total of seven books among them: Dr. Alan Hantz, Dr. 
Jeffrey Rackham, Dr. Catherine Mitchell, and Dr. David Hopes. Hopes 
alone had published three books of poetry. During that same time, he also 
published two plays and received the North Carolina Playwrights' Award 
twice. Others had published essays in such forums as the Chronicle of 
Higher Education and the New Yorker. Almost every member of the depart- 
ment has become active professionally, regularly delivering papers each 
year at regional and national scholarly meetings. Several won grants from 
the North Carolina Humanities Council to produce literary public pro- 
grams, and Dr. Rackham went as a Fulbright scholar to Portugal. 

In addition to departmental duties and scholarly activities, the literature 
faculty has always played an important role in the humanities program, 
and Dr. Downes served as chairman of the program for two years. Dr. 
Gerald Gullickson received the first UNCA Distinguished Teacher Award 
in 1982, and department members continue to receive some of the high- 
est student evaluations on campus. 

Department of Music 
Dr. Joyce Dorr, Chairman 

UNCA waited for nine years before the Board of Governors granted per- 
mission and funding for a degree program in music. When the initial 
request went to the newly formed board in 1973, the institution was 
making do with little more than introductory courses in music apprecia- 
tion, well taught by Dr. Frank Edwinn. In the summer of 1978, when Dr. 
Laurence Dorr assumed the position of vice-chancellor for academic af- 
fairs, his wife, Dr. Joyce Dorr, resigned her position as chairman of the art 
and music department at County College of Morris in Dover, New Jersey, 
to accompany him to Asheville. 

The institution had previously been fortunate to find qualified special- 
ists willing to help with the advance planning of new degree programs. 
Oddly enough, in a city full of talented musicians, none possessed the 
administrative skills to help design a music program. Fortunately for 
UNCA, it did not take Dr. Dorr long to determine what was needed to 
develop a program that would meet the needs of students and area resi- 
dents alike. 

She was placed on a half-time contract in 1979, thereby doubling the 

The Roaring Eighties : 263 

music faculty. Like the princess who spun gold from straw, Dr. Dorr 
began to build her third school of music with a group of enthusiastic 
volunteers. She threw herself wholeheartedly into developing a commu- 
nity band and chorus, and she presented the city with UNCA's first 
Christmas concert. Like Dorr, Patricia Garren, Jackson Parkhurst, Dewitt 
Tipton, and Dr. Marilyn Keiser devoted countless hours to the fledgling 
program. By the time the Board of Governors granted the long-standing 
request in 1982, many new courses had been added to the basic program 
to keep pace with the steady increase in demand. 

Once the board approved the degree program, Dr. Wayne Kirby left his 
position at New York University to join the UNCA faculty. The number 
soon increased to four full-time faculty teaching forty-eight courses a year, 
and the number of majors has grown from twenty-three to more than 

The department's scattered facilities were consolidated in the basement 
of the soon-to-be-renovated Lipinsky Building, but with no classroom 
space, practice rooms, or soundproofing, they were hardly adequate. 
Nonetheless, the department progressed. The band spawned musical spin- 
off groups. There were summer concerts on the quadrangle, Sunday after- 
noon recitals, and concerts given by UNCA faculty, students, and commu- 
nity musicians. Workshops occurred frequently, and those conducted by 
Robert Moog, inventor of the music synthesizer, drew people from great 
distances. The annual Christmas concert soon outgrew Lipinsky Audito- 
rium and moved to the Thomas Wolfe Auditorium, where duplicate per- 
formances were still needed to accommodate the crowds. 

The music department showcased its proficiency with a March 1983 
performance of Arthur Honnager's King David: A Symphonic Song. The 
most ambitious undertaking to that time, it involved a full orchestra and a 
ninety- voice chorus. 

While Lipinsky Building was being renovated, the department's facili- 
ties consisted of trailers and a few classrooms scattered about campus. Dr. 
Kirby taught his courses at Dawn Recording Studio downtown. The 
auditorium was locked up, with the concert piano inside. A lack of instal- 
lation space even forced Dr. Dorr to put the gift of a magnificent pipe 
organ on hold, but the department was flexible and durable. By 1986, the 
number of performances featuring UNCA students and community vol- 
unteers had grown to about thirty a year. Some featured as many as two 
hundred vocalists and instrumentalists on stage. 

264 : The Roaring Eighties 

The Friends of UNCA Music has become an important force behind 
the young program, and the department of music often joins forces with 
the departments of art and drama to produce programs and events that 
delight the community. In 198 1, Dr. Dorr established a two-week Cele- 
bration of the Arts. The annual event has since grown into a monthlong 
cornucopia of assorted programs in cooperation with art and drama, com- 
plete with visiting artists and workshops. 

Department of Philosophy 
Dr. Deryl Howard, Chairman 

The philosophy department, consistent with those at most institutions 
across the United States, is one of the few departments on campus with a 
small number of graduates. Even so, the study of philosophy is an impor- 
tant part of liberal arts education because the courses preserve the princi- 
ples that form the core of Western civilization. Dr. Howard became acting 
chairman in 1977 and assumed the role of chairman in 1978, succeeding 
Dr. James A. Stewart, who had been head of the department for fifteen 
years. The faculty contribute a great deal to the humanities program, and 
Dr. Howard served as program coordinator from 1980 to 1984. Since Dr. 
Laurence Dorr had resigned as vice-chancellor for academic affairs and 
resumed his tenured position as a professor of philosophy, the department 
was able to increase the number of its courses. 

The department offers many courses that have an extraordinary, albeit 
indirect, impact on a wide range of graduates, regardless of major. Most 
focus on the general field of ethics, and courses such as the philosophy of 
law, ethics for the professions, and special topics in medical ethics strike at 
the heart of social problems in America. 

The upshot of Dr. Anthony Coyne's decision to revise the inductive 
logic course was his textbook, An Introduction to Inductive Reasoning, 
which has become an important part of the introductory course. In 1985, 
Dr. Ileana Grams was appointed director of the Jewish Studies Center, a 
newly formed branch of the Southern Highlands Research Center di- 
rected by Dr. Milton Ready The center has already hosted a symposium 
for those in the Southeast who are interested in the history of the region's 
Jewish population. 

Members of the philosophy department have served on every key cam- 
pus committee during the past six years. A philosophy faculty member is 

The Roaring Eighties : 265 

usually elected to the Faculty Senate; Dr. Coyne is currently serving as 
chairman. In recent years, Dr. Howard has served on the search commit- 
tee for the new chancellor, worked on the general education core curricu- 
lum, and chaired the committee responsible for planning a master of 
liberal arts degree program at UNCA. 

Professors Coyne, Grams, and Howard have delivered twenty papers to 
state and regional organizations in the past six years, and Dr. Coyne 
regularly reviews current books on logic and the foundations of mathe- 
matics. Dr. Howard recendy published an article in the International 
Philosophical Quarterly and has twice been selected to participate in Na- 
tional Endowment for the Humanities summer institutes for philosophi- 
cal studies at Berkeley and at Santa Clara University. Dr. Grams received a 
fellowship in 1985 to attend a summer institute on Judaism in Late Antiq- 
uity at Brown University. 

For a small department, philosophy clearly has a disproportionately 
large, but welcome, influence on the campus, and its prodigious scholar- 
ship reflects well on the university. 

Mathematics and Natural Sciences 

Atmospheric Sciences Program 
Dr. Edward Brotak, Director 

The presence of the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville has long 
fostered interest in the field among area residents. In February 1980, the 
Board of Governors granted our request for an interdisciplinary degree 
program in atmospheric sciences. The NCDC helped a great deal to get 
the program up and running. In fact, two NCDC scientists, Dr. Nathaniel 
Guttman and Dr. W. James Ross, established the climatology track and 
began teaching classes while the search went on for a program director. 

Dr. Edward Brotak, who holds a doctorate in the field from Yale Uni- 
versity, accepted the position in the fall of 198 1. He arrived in time to 
assist Dr. Ross in a three-week climatological data workshop held in late 
August to train Third World climatologists to process, compile, store, and 
publish data, as well as establish climatological data station networks. The 
World Meteorological Association and the National Oceanic and Atmo- 
spheric Administration sponsored the workshop, and UNCA hosted men 
and women from twenty-five countries. 

266 : The Roaring Eighties 

Dr. Brotak moved quickly to add a weather forecasting track soon after 
he arrived. The Taylor Instrument Company donated most of the equip- 
ment used in the meteorology laboratory, which provides majors with 
invaluable hands-on experience. A weather station soon went up on the 
highest part of campus, near the upper tennis courts, to provide accurate 
daily weather readings. The program receives the support of several other 
departments, especially mathematics, physics, chemistry, and computer 
science. Specialists from the National Climatic Data Center continue to 
serve as part-time faculty, and in 1984 Dr. Huo-Jin Huan from Purdue 
became the program's second full-time professor. 

That year the young program already boasted 28 majors and served 217 
students. By 1986 the number of majors had grown to 41. Cooperative 
and internship programs enable students to work at the NCDC, the Na- 
tional Weather Service, and radio and television stations from Johnson 
City to Atlanta. Every senior is required to submit a major research paper, 
and several of the papers have merited publication. All atmospheric sci- 
ences graduates have immediately found positions in their field or gone 
on to reputable graduate schools. 

It is interesting to note that this program has the highest percentage of 
women among meteorology programs nationwide. Moreover, although 
local interest continues to run high, the program has attracted the largest 
percentage of out-of-state students at UNCA. 

Department of Biology 
Dr. Alan E. Comer, Chairman 

Consistent with the university's growth from 1980 through 1986, the 
biology department grew from five to six faculty members and saw a 50 
percent increase in the number of majors. Faculty and student research 
activity remained an important component of the department's changing 
curriculum and became a part of the whole university mission. As with so 
many UNCA departments, the biology department matured during this 
critical period. 

After years of faculty stability, the department underwent significant 
staff changes from 1980 to 1986. Dr. Alan Comer, who came to UNCA 
with six years of teaching experience, replaced entomologist Larry Rowlet. 
That this foreshadowed profound changes in the department's emphasis is 
reflected in his winning a research grant and publishing a research article 

The Roaring Eighties 267 

during his first year at the university. The hiring of Dr. Gregg Kormanik 
shortly thereafter further strengthened the department's commitment to 
scholarship among its faculty. Dr. Kormanik has maintained an impressive 
publication record and was the recipient of the university's single largest 
NSF research grant. In 1984 the death of Dr. Harry Johnston, an effec- 
tive teacher and a powerful personality, presented the department with an 
unexpected and unwelcome challenge. In response, the department hired 
Dr. Betsy Wilson Coleman, the first female biology faculty member at 
UNCA. Dr. Coleman came from a strong research background at the 
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle 
Park. Her expertise in the techniques of molecular genetics places the 
department on the very forefront of developments in this exciting dis- 

Throughout this period of growth and change, the department's 
strength continued to reside in its effective teaching. Dr. James Perry, 
chairman for most of the period, served as an example for the new facul- 
ty. His superior teaching and eager service to the university effectively 
pointed the way for the newer instructors. Dr. John McCoy was the de- 
partment's field zoologist and one of its most influential and important 
teachers. His impact on students was made clear when he retired in 1986 
and was selected to receive that year's Distinguished Teacher Award. John 
Bernhardt serves as the health professions adviser and human biology 
instructor. He has maintained a remarkable record of medical school ad- 
mission: no UNCA student who has applied to medical school has failed 
to gain entry. 

Dr. Perry chose to return to the faculty in 1984, and Dr. Comer became 
the new chairman. Dr. Perry had led the department for sixteen years and 
helped it to develop into one of the university's largest and strongest. He 
was a remarkable leader whose legacy is a hardworking and enthusiastic 
faculty, talented and interested majors, and an enviable reputation for his 
department. Dr. Comer is a strong chairman who has continued to up- 
grade the department, and his work in the humanities program has not 
only been instructional to all the students but has aroused an interest in 
biology that has expanded the department's enrollment. 

2.68 : The Roaring Eighties 

Department of Chemistry 
Dr. Dexter Squibb, Chairman 

The chemistry department has long been recognized as one of the univer- 
sity's strongest, most stable departments. Only two faculty members have 
left the department since Dr. Squibb became chairman in 1954. One, Dr. 
Lloyd Remington, retired in 1985 after twenty-one years of service, and 
he still assists his colleagues as professor emeritus. Today the faculty num- 
bers five, with the anticipation of adding a sixth member soon. A group 
of adjunct instructors, including area M.D.'s, dentists, and Ph.D.'s who 
are specialists in various fields of chemistry, assist the faculty whenever 

In addition to a bachelor of science in chemistry, the department offers 
a B.S. with a concentration in clinical chemistry. Another option is a 
bachelor of arts degree. Many students who pursue this track go into high 
school teaching and professions in industry. The degree options afford 
students greater scope in career opportunities and advanced studies. Em- 
phasis is also being placed on the expansion of evening courses for the 
benefit of local chemists. 

Chemistry majors are well grounded in the concepts of general, or- 
ganic, inorganic, analytical, and physical chemistry, as well as in labora- 
tory and research techniques. Students who demonstrate the ability and 
desire to pursue a particular area of chemistry in depth can take advantage 
of an independent study program. The majority of chemistry majors en- 
roll in the department's premedical program or specialize in areas of ad- 
vanced chemistry to prepare for careers in government, industry and edu- 
cation. In 1986 the department had twenty-nine majors. Since upper-level 
courses are traditionally small, the faculty is able to give students a great 
deal of individual attention, which helps explain their high rate of accep- 
tance at outstanding graduate and professional schools. More than 70 
percent continue their studies at the advanced level. In the past ten years, 
five have received Fulbright scholarships to study at the Universities of 
Mainz, Marburg, Munich, and Chelsea. During this same period of time, 
seven students received summer grants to study and do research in Eu- 
rope. All majors take the Graduate Record Examination, and their mean 
score continues to be considerably higher than the national average. 
UNCA's chemistry students also rank favorably on the American Chemi- 
cal Society's standardized examinations. Dr. Leo Bares, a specialist in 

The Roaring Eighties : 269 

inorganic chemistry who joined the faculty in 1979, was instrumental in 
obtaining ACS accreditation for the department. 

The department strives to keep pace with new and improved instru- 
mentation for teaching and research. It is an uphill battle, but ingenuity, 
careful budgeting, and grants amounting to almost $500,000 have en- 
abled the department to supply its laboratories with near state-of-the-art 
equipment, including several sophisticated spectrometers. Chemistry labs 
have also been computerized. Space for the department will more than 
double with the completion of the multimillion-dollar science facility un- 
der construction. Dr. John Stevens chairs the committee responsible for 
planning the expanded research and teaching facility. 

By the late seventies, Dr. Remington's environmental research and Dr. 
Stevens's Mossbauer Effect Data Center were attracting considerable at- 
tention to research activities at UNCA. By the mid-eighties, two pro- 
grams to promote research opportunities for undergraduates had been 
established, and a third was in the developmental stage. The National 
Science Foundation, the American Chemical Society, the Research Corpo- 
ration of America, the North Carolina Board of Science and Technology, 
and the National Bureau of Science are among the granting agencies 
providing financial support for the undergraduate research programs. 

From 1980 to 1986, 80 percent of chemistry's junior and senior majors 
were involved in research projects, and many collaborated with faculty 
members on papers and publications. All majors participate in research 
seminars, in which they hear lectures from faculty, visiting professors, and 
scientists and have the opportunity to present their own papers. In keep- 
ing with the international scope of chemistry, the department has hosted 
many foreign scientists, including visitors from Europe, China, and Zaire. 
Some are on campus for a short time, others are in residence for one or 
more years. They are drawn by the various research projects going on at 
the university, especially those relating to Mossbauer spectroscopy. 

Dr. Bares has developed a very active program in organometallic syn- 
thesis research. One of the department's two new faculty members, 
Charles James, is exploring the application of spectroscopy to the study of 
other molecular structures. Dr. Debra Van Engelen is setting up an active 
research program in collaboration with UNCA's environmental studies 
program. It should also be noted that Dr. Stevens's Mossbauer research 
program is now a largely collaborative effort with Dr. Katherine Whatley 
in the physics department. 

270 : The Roaring Eighties 

Faculty members are active in the Faculty Senate, and the department is 
well represented on all major committees. The entire department actively 
promotes the annual Science Day activities established by Dr. Stevens to 
benefit high school students. Though their emphasis is on teaching, fac- 
ulty members regularly publish papers and participate in professional 
meetings at the regional, national, and international levels. Four have 
taught and done research in Europe. Since 1980, Chairman Squibb has 
published or revised six textbooks and manuals on general chemistry, or- 
ganic chemistry, and biochemistry that are used in teaching UNCA 
courses. In 1983 he received the UNCA Distinguished Teacher Award. 
For the past eight years he has edited the Western Carolinas section of 
Periodic News^ an American Chemical Society publication. For almost the 
same length of time, he has served as a consultant to the Southern Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Schools, and he is a member of the National 
Editorial Board of the American Institute of Chemists. In addition to 
directing the Mossbauer Effect Data Center, Dr. Stevens serves on the 
editorial boards of several international journals, including Magnetic Reso- 
nance Renews. He has been a member of the international advisory boards 
of more than half a dozen conferences and has organized two national 
chemical conferences. To his credit he has more than fifty publications and 
has given talks in more than fifteen countries. 

Department of Computer Science 
Dr. Wayne Lang, Chairman 

When Dr. Wayne Lang joined UNCA in 1979 as the first director of the 
Computer Center, the number of computer science courses offered in- 
creased considerably. Once Dr. Joseph Daugherty and Mary Lynn Manns 
joined the staff in 1981, plans for a computer science program began to 
take shape. 

The General Administration approved the degree program in June 
1983 . That fall, Dr. Lang became chairman of the newly created computer 
science department, and its first graduates received their bachelor of sci- 
ence degrees the following May. During the past five years, the number of 
graduates has averaged twenty-two per year, and the number of declared 
majors has remained close to one hundred. 

Libby Driggers joined the department in 1984, after fourteen years in 
industry. Her command of information systems made it possible to split 

The Roaring Eighties : 271 

the major into two fields of concentration: information systems and com- 
puter systems. Charles Massey and Dr. Mark Boyd joined the staff in 
1985. David Miller, a physics professor retired from the University of 
Illinois system, has served as a full-time lecturer since 1983. 

Although the program is rather new, some of its graduates have al- 
ready moved into significant managerial and supervisory roles in their 
professional fields. From the very start, students have learned about differ- 
ent topics by creating their own programming projects. This hands-on 
understanding of microcomputer and minicomputer systems is one of the 
department's strongest points. Students also receive the benefit of special- 
topics courses in VLSI design, networking distributed processors, artifi- 
cial intelligence, and expert systems. 

Engineering Program 
Dr. Raul Alvarez, Coordinator 

In 1980, arrangements were finalized with the School of Engineering at 
North Carolina State University for a two-plus-two program that enables 
students interested in the field to do their first two years of course work at 
UNCA. Those who qualify are then eligible to complete their studies on 
the NC State campus. 

Dr. Richard McCormack was the program's first coordinator. His en- 
thusiasm did a lot to boost enrollment, and he enlisted the support of 
such departments as mathematics, chemistry, and physics to give aspiring 
engineers the background they need. NC State professors taught four 
basic engineering courses. Approximately eighty students were participat- 
ing in the program by the time McCormack left in 1983 to take a position 
with an Asheville firm. The number of interested students grew to more 
than one hundred under his successor, Dr. Raul Alvarez. Between fifteen 
and twenty students a year go on to pursue their studies at the NC State 
School of Engineering. They all have a grade point average considerably 
higher than the 2.80 minimum required for transfer. 

In 1984, at the urging of local industries, Dr. Alvarez established a 
master's degree program in industrial engineering taught by faculty from 
Raleigh. Local pressure from community leaders, industry officials, and 
legislators for an engineering program also resulted in the inclusion of 
UNCA in the proposed microelectronics link with seven constituent insti- 
tutions. The two-way televideo conference center planned for the new 

272 : The Roaring Eighties 

science facility will enable UNCA students to attend undergraduate and 
graduate courses being taught at NC State without having to leave the 
UNCA campus. The network should greatly expand the number of engi- 
neering courses offered, increase the degree programs available from sister 
institutions, and reduce the amount of commuting now being done by 
NC State faculty. 

Environmental Studies Program 
Dr. Gary L. Miller, Director 

It took close to a decade to receive approval for an environmental studies 
program. Even though the program was formed only in 1983, it attracted 
forty majors by 1986. The departments of biology, chemistry, and physics 
contribute substantially to the interdisciplinary program, and departments 
such as management and those in the social sciences add their expertise to 
the four major tracks offered: pollution analysis and control, ecology and 
environmental biology, energy and waste management, and natural re- 
sources management. Students also have the opportunity to design tracks 
tailored to their individual interests, and some have specialized in environ- 
mental journalism, human ecology, and zoological park and nature center 
management. Dr. Miller also receives the assistance of adjunct faculty who 
are experts in various aspects of the field. The Southeastern Forest Experi- 
ment Station located on campus is also a strong supporter of the interdis- 
ciplinary program. 

Research skills are an important part of environmental studies. Students 
take advantage of the facilities in the Rhoades Science Building, and the 
parks, rivers, and woodlands of western North Carolina provide ideal 
natural laboratories for undergraduate and faculty research. The results of 
student and faculty studies have already been published in several schol- 
arly journals. 

All majors must complete internships at one or more government or 
private environmental agencies in order to graduate. The program is often 
in the news because of its role in a number of local issues, and it has 
received several grants, including major project funding from the Envi- 
ronmental Protection Agency. Given the growing number of environmen- 
tal concerns and the increase in public awareness, the department finds it 
difficult to keep up with the demand for interns and graduates. 

The Roaring Eighties : 2.73 

Department of Mathematics 
Dr. David Kay, Chairman 

The role of the mathematics department at UNCA is central to the success 
of many other programs on campus. It is also an increasingly popular 
program: in fact, the number of majors more than doubled during the 
early eighties. Even though UNCA received approval in 1983 for a sepa- 
rate computer science degree program, the department still has responsi- 
bilities to many more students than its own majors. These include the 
vast number of management and two-plus-two engineering students who 
require courses that the department offers, as well as an expanded remedi- 
ation program to assist students returning to school after years away from 
the classroom and the growing number of incoming freshmen whose 
math placement scores indicate that their skills are inadequate for college- 
level courses. The hope is that recently strengthened high school curricu- 
la will better prepare incoming freshmen for mathematics at the univer- 
sity level and eliminate the need for a number of expensive remediation 

Dr. David Kay joined the department as its new chairman in 1983. His 
experiences at the University of Oklahoma's larger and more diverse pro- 
gram enabled him to establish smoother working relationships with other 
departments. New faculty have expanded the areas of expertise within the 
department, benefiting math majors and serving the UNCA community. 

Department of Physics 
Dr. Michael Ruiz, Chairman 

The eighties have been a period of remarkable growth and change for a 
department that has had an excellent record of leadership since it became a 
major field of concentration in 1965. 

Dr. Michael Ruiz took over as head of the department after serving as 
acting chairman from 1979 to 1980, while Chairman Robert Cole was on 
leave to Evergreen State College. At thirty, Dr. Ruiz was one of the 
youngest professors ever to assume a departmental chairmanship at the 
institution. Since then, he has hired an outstanding faculty of experimen- 
talists who can teach undergraduate theory courses and assist with the 
design and development of advanced laboratories. Budgetary increases 
during the early eighties have facilitated expansion. The department has 
also been highly successful in receiving external grants. 

274 : The Roaring Eighties 

Dr. Charles Bennett and Dr. Katherine Whatley joined the faculty in 
1982. With assistance from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Dr. Ben- 
nett established an experimental laser optics laboratory. He also played an 
instrumental role in setting up the environmental studies program. Work- 
ing in conjunction with Dr. John Stevens in the chemistry department, 
Dr. Whadey has developed a first-class nuclear laboratory, partially funded 
by a $32,000 grant from the National Science Foundation. 

A fourth member joined the faculty in 1984. Dr. Thomas Myers soon 
established an experimental solid-state physics laboratory with the assis- 
tance of a $20,000 grant from the Research Corporation of America. 
Together, Professors Bennett and Myers received a highly competitive 
grant of $32,000 from the National Science Foundation for instrumenta- 
tion to upgrade the experimental physics laboratories. Dr. Randy Booker, 
a molecular physicist, replaced Myers in 1986 when he left to take a 
position with General Electric. 

Consistent with the departmental philosophy that scientific knowledge 
should be available to all students, Dr. Ruiz developed several popular 
courses for non-science majors : astronomy, the physics of light and visual 
phenomena, and the physics of sound and music. 

The faculty is committed to teaching outside the department as well. 
They are actively involved in the humanities program and the allied fields 
of engineering, atmospheric sciences, and environmental studies. Dr. Ruiz 
played an important role in the early eighties in the establishment of the 
atmospheric sciences program, and he holds an adjunct professorship in 
NC State's School of Engineering for his work in engineering statics and 
dynamics in the two-plus-two program. 

The department has accomplished a major objective in uniting the edu- 
cational tools of teaching and undergraduate research. From 1980 
through 1986, a number of physics majors participated in undergraduate 
research projects and presented a total of thirty-four papers at regional 
and national meetings such as those held by the Society of Physics Stu- 
dents and the North Carolina Academy of Science. In many instances, 
distinction for best paper awards went to UNCA students. 

In 1985, Dr. Ruiz approached Dr. John Stevens with the idea of a 
campuswide undergraduate research program. Stevens had experimented 
with the idea on a smaller scale in the seventies and was interested in 
codirecting the multidisciplinary program. It has the support of most of 
the departments, as well as of Chancellor Brown, who designated it one of 

The Roaring Eighties : 275 

the three distinctive areas to receive an additional $50,000 in thrust fund- 
ing for three years. 

In addition to their excellent departmental work, interdisciplinary com- 
mitments, and committee assignments, the physics faculty enrich the cam- 
pus and the community with their special talents. Dr. Whatiey is an ac- 
complished actress, and Dr. Bennett has composed and presented musical 
scores in collaboration with Dr. Wayne Kirby. After years of study with a 
concert pianist, Dr. Ruiz's lecture-recitals add a lot to the humanities 
program and the Celebration of the Arts festival. His performances are 
also in great demand by community organizations. 

Social Sciences 

Department of Economics 
Dr. Shirley C. Browning, Chairman 

There were twenty economics majors in 1980, but that number more than 
doubled in the next six years. There have been five to six full-time faculty 
and one to three adjuncts for the past several years, with hopes to add a 
seventh position justified by record enrollment. In 1985 and 1986, the 
department had the largest average class size on campus — twenty-seven 
students — which is far too large for effective teaching, particularly at the 
upper levels. The department also provides introductory courses required 
for several other departmental majors, as well as a large number of 300- 
and 400-level courses. The majority of the management tracks require a 
significant amount of course work in economics. 

In their senior year, all majors must submit a departmentally approved 
research paper detailing a viable topic and demonstrating their grasp of 
research methodology. The senior research seminar has produced many 
excellent papers between 1980 and 1986, four of which were published. 

It has been noted that UNCA's economics department was the first in 
the state to establish an area Center for Economic Education in coopera- 
tion with the National Council on Economic Education in New York and 
the recendy formed North Carolina Council on Economic Education in 
Greensboro. The center provides basic economics training for teachers in 
grades K-i 2, utilizing seminars, workshops, in-service training, and assis- 
tance in curriculum development. The center now takes its program to 
every school district in seventeen western North Carolina counties. While 

276 : The Roaring Eighties 

participants occasionally come to the UNCA campus, it is much more 
common for the economics faculty to travel to the schools. The center also 
serves as a resource library of books, films, pamphlets, and simulation 
games for in-class use. 

Dr. Joseph Sulock is responsible for raising funds to support the Crystal 
Ball Series, an annual program that focuses on economic forecasting and 
features economists of national reputation. The informative and increas- 
ingly popular series is underwritten by the university and a number of 
local organizations, making it free to the public. 

The economics faculty is active in the humanities program and plays an 
important role on key campus committees. Dr. Browning has served five 
times as chairman of the Faculty Senate and has chaired the Faculty As- 
sembly, a group that represents all sixteen campuses of the University. He 
received an American Council on Education fellowship on institutional 
leadership in 1983-84, and he has been involved in a two-year project for 
the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, examining 
the direction of higher education among member institutions. 

Faculty members submitted more than twenty-five articles for publica- 
tion in nationally respected economics journals during 1980—86. They 
have also read a number of papers before such organizations at the South- 
ern Economics Association and the American Economics Association. 
The two most prolific writers during this period were Dr. Sulock and Dr. 
Luther Lawson, whose teaching and scholarship record earned him a 
coveted General Administration degree-completion grant to finish his 
doctorate in 1982-83. Dr. Sulock has published an instructor's manual 
for a major text in public finance and recentiy undertook the writing of a 
casebook in managerial finance. 

The economics faculty gladly speak to civic groups and serve on a wide 
range of boards and commissions. Both Dr. Browning and Dr. Pamela 
Nickless are invaluable members of United Way's Consumer Counseling 
Service. Dr. Nickless serves on the Asheville Board of Adjustment, in 
addition to several city-county boards. Both she and Dr. Lawson assist 
Junior Achievement, a nonprofit economics-education organization that 
teaches basic business principles to young people. Professors Browning, 
Sulock, and Lawson are often asked to contribute their expertise on a 
wide range of economic issues. For several years now, Dr. Sulock has been 
a chief fund-raiser and recruiter for United Way's Big Brother-Big Sister 
Program. Clearly, the economics faculty provide dedicated teaching, cam- 

The Roaring Eighties : 277 

pus leadership, solid scholarship, and practical service to area residents 
and the public schools. 

Department of Education 
Dr. Lance Gentile, Chairman 

When Asheville-Biltmore College became a senior institution in 1963, the 
decision was made to require all students interested in becoming teachers 
to earn their degrees in specific academic disciplines, in addition to taking 
required certification courses, rather than to grant a degree in education. 
Support for that decision remains virtually unanimous. As noted earlier, 
Dr. Whidey Ayers's statistical analysis in 1979 of student SAT and NTE 
scores revealed that UNCA ranked first among the sixteen state institu- 
tions in effectiveness of teacher training. Since then, the faculty has grown 
to include a specialist in every area of certification. In the spring of 1986, 
on the section of the NTE that measures the level of professional educa- 
tion, UNCA students scored highest among undergraduates at any public 
or private institution in the state. As a result, a number of other colleges 
and universities have studied the UNCA program. 

Certification requirements vary from twenty-four to twenty-seven 
hours for middle school and high school preparation to forty-six hours 
for teaching children in grades K— 6. Preparation for elementary school 
teaching emphasizes reading and basic skills, classroom management, and 
diagnosing various learning problems; those interested in teaching at the 
upper levels take more courses in their chosen disciplines. Certification 
courses and internships with professionals in local schools add at least one 
full semester to the average four-year degree program, and it takes many 
students five years to graduate with a bachelor's degree and their teacher 
certification. The students recognize that the extended time results in 
superior teaching, and many are offered positions at the schools where 
they intern. 

Both the Board of Governors and the North Carolina State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, the agency that approves certification pro- 
grams, support our method of teacher education. During the 1980—81 
academic year, the Department of Public Instruction and the UNCA aca- 
demic policies committee approved the psychology/reading certification 
program as a degree track of the psychology department. The collabora- 
tive program was the result of work directed by Dr. Verna Bergemann, 

278 : The Roaring Eighties 

chairman of education until 1985, and Dr. Lisa Friedenberg of the psy- 
chology department. 

Stability was a mark of the education faculty during this period. Dr. 
Bergemann served as chairman from 1977 until her retirement in 1985. 
Dr. Lance Gentile, who took over as chairman in 1986, sees no reason to 
alter any of the department's long-standing philosophies. Dr. Gwendolyn 
Henderson, a specialist in mathematics and science education, joined the 
faculty in 1980, along with Dr. Arthea Reed. The department hosted 
visiting professor Dr. Joe Harris of the New University of Ulster, Co- 
leraine, Northern Ireland, when he exchanged positions with Dr. Ted 
Shoaf during the 1980-81 academic year. In 1984 Dr. James E. McGlinn 
became the fifth member of the faculty and the coordinator of the college 
skills program. 

Dr. Bergemann served on the North Carolina Competency Commis- 
sion, the State Department of Public Instruction Quality Assurance 
Program, and the State Evaluation Committee on Teacher Education 
throughout most of her tenure at UNCA. She was a founding member 
of the Great Smokies Council of the International Reading Association. 
UNCA and GSCIRA cosponsored the first in a series of Young Authors 
Conferences to train teachers in developing writing workshops for their 
classrooms. They also sponsored the first Young Authors Conference for 
250 local students in grades K-12. During the 1981-82 academic year, 
the new organization received grants for the Young Authors Project from 
the North Carolina Humanities Council, the International Reading Asso- 
ciation, and the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. In 1983 two of the 
funding agencies renewed their grants. The following year the NCHC 
awarded the project two additional grants, and the funds paid for bring- 
ing authors of children's books and books for young adults to the UNCA 
campus and area public schools. 

During 1982-83, Dr. Bergemann wrote Wise Whfs for Oral Reading 
and Writing for Remediation for the North Carolina State Department of 
Public Instruction. "Directed Research in Education, K-12," a collabora- 
tive instructor-student teacher research course for seniors, was added to 
the curriculum that same year. 

Dr. Henderson began her six-year term on the UNC Faculty Assembly 
in 198 1. That same year, she coauthored^l Development and Implementa- 
tion Plan for a Support System for Beginning Teachers with Dr. Bergemann 
and became a consultant for the State Department of Public Instruction. 

The Roaring Eighties : 279 

The following year she became a consultant and member of the advisory 
board for the National Science Foundation. She also received a grant to 
direct a summer institute at UNCA for area science teachers, and she 
coordinated and edited the program review for the State Department of 
Public Instruction, which once again approved all the university's certifi- 
cation programs. 

Dr. Reed served on the North Carolina Internship Council from 1980 
to 1985. In 1982 she began codirecting the Mountain Area Writing 
Project of North Carolina and National Writing Projects, jointly spon- 
sored by UNCA and WCU. She has been the editor of The ALAN Review, 
the adolescent literature journal of the National Council of Teachers of 
English, since 1984. She recently published Reaching Adolescents: The 
Young Adult Book and the School. She was also named a Ruth and Leon 
Feldman Professor. 

The department's workshops and seminars continue to benefit local 
educators. The faculty regularly publish articles and study guides and 
deliver papers at professional conferences, helping to acquaint colleges 
nationwide with the teacher education program at UNCA. 

Department of Management 
Dr. A. Thomas Hollingsworth, Chairman 

The management department is the largest department at UNCA. It is 
broad-based, with a variety of bachelor of science degree programs, in- 
cluding business management and administration, industrial and engi- 
neering management, personnel management, financial management, 
general management, public administration management, and health care 
administration. The department also offers a degree program in account- 
ing that includes financial accounting and managerial accounting tracks. 
Most of the specialized programs were part of the original department, 
which began in 1974, but some have been added since then, and all the 
programs have been greatiy expanded. The most recent addition is the 
certificate in health care management, designed to further educate indi- 
viduals employed in the health care field. 

In 1974 it was decided that management majors should take the same 
general education courses required of all students, including the four- 
course humanities sequence. The full cooperation of the mathematics, 
economics, psychology, sociology, and computer science departments has 

280 : The Roaring Eighties 

been crucial to the education of management students. Majors therefore 
have the advantage of a much broader general education than those 
graduating from schools offering undergraduate degrees in business ad- 
ministration. The department presented its first class of 35 graduates in 
the spring of 1979. The number of majors jumped to 145 the following 
year, and by 1986 it had risen to 582. The department also advises more 
than 150 potential majors. 

Chairman Donald Hart suffered a heart attack in 198 1 and decided to 
take early retirement in late May. Since there was not enough time to find 
his replacement before the fall semester, Dr. Robert Williams agreed to 
serve as acting chairman. The doctor in chemistry had been an executive 
with the international Celanese Corporation for twenty-five years, during 
which he addressed a wide variety of managerial situations in the States 
and abroad. He proved to be an excellent administrator and consented to 
serve a second year. He preferred, however, to teach, and a search commit- 
tee selected Dr. A. Thomas Hollingsworth as the new chairman. His expe- 
riences in establishing a department of management at a new university in 
Saudi Arabia and his work at the University of South Carolina had fully 
prepared him to take over the program at UNCA. 

The department's internship program for seniors has proved valuable 
for students and the business and industrial communities alike. Many 
graduates find positions where they intern. William Hackney, a retired 
Sears executive, is responsible for intern placement, and a faculty member 
carefully supervises each intern. Even with the rapid growth of the depart- 
ment, there is no shortage of organizations interested in UNCA interns. 

Since the Asheville-Hendersonville-Brevard triangle is recognized na- 
tionwide as a retirement mecca, UNCA has benefited from the expertise 
of a number of outstanding corporate executives, several of whom have 
doctorates or were teachers before they entered the more lucrative private 
sector. Some have taken early retirement and will hopefully continue to 
teach for several years. Some are full-time faculty members; others are 
adjunct instructors. Both the department and the university are working 
hard to establish a relatively permanent faculty of specialists in all areas of 
the multifaceted field. Additional faculty members are being added as 
quickly as possible to accommodate the growing enrollment. 

The department-sponsored Visiting Executive Program enhances edu- 
cational opportunities for students, benefits recent graduates and is much 
appreciated by those in business, industry, and finance. The executives, 

The Roaring Eighties 281 

who meet with students, faculty, and members of the community during 
their campus visits, have been some of the most successful business leaders 
in the state and the nation. 

The department actively participates in the Faculty Senate, as well as in 
numerous campus committees and task forces. Many management profes- 
sors are also humanities instructors. During the past six years, the depart- 
ment has provided dozens of well-attended, public management develop- 
ment programs, seminars, and workshops. The number of public speeches 
and problem-solving sessions with area firms runs into the hundreds. 
Almost without exception, faculty members are active board members 
and advisers of United Way, cultural organizations, local hospitals, the 
chamber of commerce, and western Carolina industries. They share their 
knowledge with the Mountain Area Health Education Center, serve as 
arbitrators for the Better Business Bureau, donate their time to the Volun- 
tary Income Tax Assistance Program, and consult with other companies 
and organizations in need of their expertise. 

The management faculty are active scholars. In the years between 1980 
and 1986 they published three books or monographs and presented nu- 
merous papers at local meetings and before such scholarly associations as 
the Southern Academy of Management and the National Academy of 
Management. Numerous articles were accepted for publication in several 
widely circulated journals, including the Journal of International Business 
Studies. Dr. Hollingsworth also served as associate editor of the Journal of 
Business Research. 

The faculty's record of scholarship and service to campus and commu- 
nity is impressive, but their chief concern remains teaching and advising 
undergraduates. The department sponsors the business fraternity chapter 
of Delta Sigma Pi and the Accounting Club. Eighty percent of the 1985— 
86 members of the Circle K Service Club were management/accounting 
majors. It is also a matter of pride that management/accounting majors 
presendy make up more than a quarter of the Chancellor's Colloquium. 
The department has grown so large that it must now publish a newsletter 
to keep students, graduates, and friends of the program informed about 
current events and departmental plans. 

UNCA's accounting program currently holds the record for the number 
of students that pass the demanding CPA exam. There is no higher praise 
than when students joke after the grueling experience that the CPA exam 
was not nearly as difficult as Professor Martha Marshall's exams. 

282 : The Roaring Eighties 

Department of Political Science 
Dr. Bahram Farzanegan, Chairman 

The department of political science has had the advantage of a long- 
standing nucleus of senior faculty members, as well as a remarkably versa- 
tile faculty of four, who can cover the full range of courses offered. Dr. 
Gene E. Rainey, twice department chairman and twice chairman of the 
Faculty Senate, is an expert in the field of international relations who 
teaches a number of courses in American politics. Dr. William Sabo, 
whose chief interest is the American presidency, is especially knowledge- 
able about defense policies, budgeting, and the political maneuvering tied 
to national defense commitments. As a result of his political expertise, he 
serves as an analyst for WLOS-TV on election nights and whenever there 
is the need for an examination of particular political developments. Dr. 
Dwight Mullen's area of expertise is the politics of Third World nations 
and their relationships with other countries and the United States — a field 
that, until recendy, received little attention outside the nation's major 
learning centers. His arrival added a valuable dimension to the study of 
political science at UNCA, and he quickly joined his colleagues on the 
speaking circuit. 

The department provides many informative lectures and series through- 
out the area. There are currendy more than one thousand active members 
of the Great Decisions Program managed by Dr. Bahram Farzanegan and 
supported by professors from a number of institutions and area residents 
who are knowledgeable in many fields. Isothermal Community College, 
in Spindale, North Carolina, recendy established a discussion group, and 
other community colleges have asked to participate as well. 

The department has made the best possible use of three Breman Profes- 
sors. In 1980, Ambassador J. Owen Zurhellen, Jr. — vice-president of the 
Foreign Policy Association, former ambassador to Surinam, and former 
deputy assistant secretary of state for East Asian affairs — spent several 
weeks on campus conducting student seminars, lecturing, and leading 
discussion groups on a wide range of international topics of interest to 
students, faculty, and the public. In 198 1, Malcolm Toon, newly retired 
ambassador to the USSR and former ambassador to Israel, spent hours 
after his on-campus lectures, classes, and civic meetings answering ques- 
tions. The following year, the department hosted Ambassador Lawrence 
A. Pezzulo, who had just returned from his post in Nicaragua. Like 

The Roaring Eighties : 2.83 

Toon, he was besieged by questions from students and area residents 
during his weeks on campus, all wanting to learn everything they could 
about Nicaragua after the revolution and its dealings with the United 
States, the Soviet Union, Cuba, and its immediate neighbors. All three 
ambassadors were tireless, informative speakers who expanded the under- 
standing of UNCA students and those who attended the public lectures 
they presented. 

In 1982, Dr. Farzanegan and his colleagues completed comprehensive 
planning for "People and Issues," an eight-week series devoted to domes- 
tic concerns. Funds for the program came from the chamber of commerce, 
the Board of County Commissioners, the League of Women Voters, and a 
number of grants. The text for the series was produced locally. Dr. Ted 
Uldricks of the history department edited Basic Issues 1982: Fundamental 
Problems in Contemporary Society, with contributions from Dr. Shirley 
Browning and Dr. Joseph Sulock in economics, Dr. William Haas in 
sociology, and Dr. Gwendolyn Henderson in education. The National 
Domestic Policy Association studied the highly successful series as a 
model for other programs. 

The faculty's high profile of public service has in no way inhibited the 
steady growth of the department. The number of majors increased from 
twenty-two in 1980 to three times that many by the fall of 1986. It is 
possible that excitement generated in area high schools by the simulation 
and gaming mentioned earlier has led to increased interest in the field. In 
1984 Dr. Sabo received the UNCA Distinguished Teacher Award, and 
student evaluations testify to the effective, dedicated teaching that is a 
hallmark of the department. 

In addition to political science courses, the humanities core, and pro- 
grams for high schools and the general public, the faculty are active schol- 
ars and members of professional organizations. They all attend and often 
read papers at the North Carolina and the Southern Political Science 
Associations meetings. Dr. Rainey recentiy presented a paper at the Inter- 
national Studies Association. He manages to balance his teaching load 
with a number of civic activities as well, and he is working on his third 
major book, a history of world politics. He has edited Carolina Politics and 
Politics and Policy, the journal of the North Carolina Political Science Asso- 
ciation. He is also an association board member. 

Dr. Farzanegan has been president of the North American Simulation 
and Gaming Association since 1979. In 1980 the organization's annual 

284 : The Roaring Eighties 

meeting attracted more than four hundred professors from around the 
country and six foreign nations. N AS AG A voted to move its national 
headquarters to UNCA in 198 1. Three years later, the university became 
the repository of its archives of games and publications. Dr. Farzanegan 
has twice been invited to present a lecture series at the U.S. Naval 
Academy. During the 1983-84 academic year, he was in New York as 
educational director for the Foreign Policy Association, and he received its 
Distinguished Service Award shortly thereafter. 

Department of Psychology 
Dr. Theodore Seitz, Chairman 

In the eighties the department of psychology continued to build upon the 
solid foundation established in the previous decade. More than half the 
present faculty has been in place since the seventies: Chairman Ted Seitz in 
clinical psychology, Dr. William Bruce in health and adult development, 
Dr. Lisa Friedenberg in child development, Dr. Gene Schultz in cogni- 
tive psychology, and Dr. Ann Weber in social psychology. As enrollment 
mushroomed, so did the department. The number of declared majors 
increased 40 percent — to 140 — between 1980 and 1986. Approximately 
four times that number were enrolled in psychology courses required by 
nine other degree programs. Additionally, some of the psychologists are 
members of the humanities program faculty. As the second-largest depart- 
ment on campus grew to eight-and-a-half faculty members, Dr. Seitz 
maintained the standards of excellence he had established when he began 
recruiting faculty in the late seventies. As a result, UNCA students are 
taught by faculty who have received doctoral and postdoctoral training 
from some of the nation's most prestigious institutions. 

The strength of the department was rewarded with the first endowed 
professorship in the university's history — the Sara and Joseph Breman 
Professorship of Social Relations. Dr. James Kantner filled the position 
for the 1982-83 academic year. That same year, Dr. Allen Combs joined 
the faculty, contributing his biopsychology expertise to the department. A 
scholar of considerable breadth, Professor Combs is currentiy completing 
a book on one of Carl Jung's theories of synchronicity. 

After the department revised its criteria for the endowed chair, it began 
the search for an outstanding teacher with a solid research background 
who would be capable of upgrading the level of undergraduate research at 

The Roaring Eighties : 285 

UNCA. In 1984, Dr. Charles Prokop was recruited from the Texas Tech 
University School of Medicine to become the Breman Professor of Social 
Relations. Three years before coming to UNCA, the clinical and medical 
psychologist had published an award-winning book in collaboration with 
Dr. L. A. Bradley, Medical Psychology: Contributions in Behavioral Medicine. 
In 1985 he contributed to Behavioral Assessment in Behavioral Medicine, a 
book that explores the behavioral assessment of chronic pain. In 1986 Dr. 
Prokop and members of the department coauthored and presented three 
papers at regional and national professional meetings. He has completed a 
textbook on health psychology and has made a number of individual 
presentations and published several articles in the Journal of Consulting 
and Clinical Psychology and The Psychiatric Hospital. His record of research 
and collaborative publishing with scholars from other universities con- 
firms his reputation as an outstanding scholar. His interest in involving 
students in research projects and his ability to work with them at the 
undergraduate level have led many majors into new and exciting areas of 
the science. He is involved in the university's young undergraduate re- 
search program, has been elected to the Faculty Senate, and is an officer of 
the Western North Carolina Psychological Association. 

In 1985, Dr. Tracy Brown, a specialist in experimental and cognitive 
psychology, replaced Dr. Gene Schultz, who left to take a position with 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. 

UNCA received its largest grant to date in 1982 through the com- 
bined efforts of the psychology department, the Office of Student Affairs, 
and the Mountain Area Health Education Center. The W. K. Kellogg 
Foundation awarded $592,000 to establish a Health Promotion Program 
that would educate UNCA students and family physicians training at 
MAHEC about healthy lifestyles. Dr. Bruce, the primary author of the 
proposal, became the program's first director, dividing his time equally 
between UNCA and MAHEC. Vice-Chancellor for Student Affairs Eric 
Iovacchini and Dr. Don Cassata from the UNC-Chapel Hill School of 
Medicine coauthored the grant. Dr. Walker Buckalew joined the program 
as coordinator and instructor in January 1983. A number of faculty from 
the psychology department participate in teaching and research. 

In 1985 Dr. Bruce received a two-year, $87,000 grant from the Z. 
Smith Reynolds Foundation to establish a Health Promotion Service for 
members of Asheville's black community, a concept that has received 
strong public support in the design and implementation stages. 

286 : The Roaring Eighties 

In cooperation with the department of education, psychology offers a 
track that leads to a bachelor's degree in the discipline and certification in 
reading for grades K-12. Dr. Friedenberg supervises the track, which she 
cocreated with Dr. Verna Bergemann, and she has, for the most part, 
overhauled the developmental and related courses in psychology. She is 
also the faculty adviser for Psi Chi. The chapter presents cash awards each 
year to the student who submits the best research proposal and to the 
most outstanding senior member of Psi Chi. 

Dr. Ann Weber is in demand as a public speaker and is also frequentiy 
interviewed by the local media. Her understanding of the psychology of 
close personal relationships and breakups is of tremendous interest to her 
students and the public alike. She has conducted counseling sessions, 
assertiveness training workshops, and simulation seminars for dozens of 
organizations and firms. Her day-and-a-half "simulation of society" work- 
shops are an important part of the retreats at the beginning of each Lead- 
ership Asheville and Leadership Hendersonville program. She serves on 
the editorial boards of the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology and the 
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships and is a consulting editor/ 
reviewer for half a dozen prestigious publishing houses. She is also a 
member of the National Science Foundation review panel for undergradu- 
ate research experiences. 

Faculty members are very active in the community. Professors Frieden- 
berg, Bruce, and Prokop serve as research consultants and board members 
for the Upstream Program, now a United Way agency, which focuses on 
prenatal and parenting education, as well as the counseling and support of 
mothers who are at risk. Dr. Friedenberg coauthored a proposal for a 
Kate B. Reynolds Health Care Trust Grant funded in 1982 to benefit the 
program. She has served as a board member of Big Brother-Big Sister for 
several years and has submitted a grant proposal to fund the agency's 
projects. Psychology faculty also serve on the boards of the Red Cross, 
the Mental Health Care Association, Status of Women, the Council on 
Aging, Planned Parenthood, and Asheville's Task Force on Child Abuse. 

Ten to 17 percent of the graduates each year are psychology majors. 
More than 60 percent go on to graduate school, and an alumni survey 
revealed that nearly all graduates who go straight into careers after leaving 
UNCA work at jobs related to their major field of study. 

Clearly this cohesive department built on its tradition of strong teach- 
ing and service to campus and community during the first half of the 

The Roaring Eighties : 287 

Department of Sociology 
Dr. Walter Boland, Chairman 

From its inception, the sociology department has concentrated on a hu- 
manistic interpretation of the cross-cultural analyses begun by pioneers of 
the discipline. The program is highly structured, exposing majors to the 
field's body of accumulated knowledge and theories and giving them a 
chance to participate actively in the solution of social problems. Students 
learn how to run basic analytical studies and gain an understanding of 
theory and statistics that prepares them to begin working with individuals 
and groups beset by the problems that face a culturally and economically 
diverse society. 

By 1980 the number of majors had dropped below thirty, a decrease 
that was consistent with a nationwide trend at the time. When Dr. Boland 
resumed the chairmanship, however, he began working hard to boost the 
number of sociology majors. With the efforts of a dedicated faculty and 
the willingness of students to take part in a wide range of civic issues, the 
department increased the projected number of majors to nearly eighty by 
the fall of 1986. The only problem with the recent growth has been the 
serious overloading of course sections. 

Teaching is not limited to the classroom, since many students use Ashe- 
ville and the surrounding area as a laboratory. Sociology majors partici- 
pate in internships at as many as thirty area agencies, including the police 
department and many agencies affiliated with United Way. For the most 
part, they focus on helping individuals, families, and groups deal with 
the problems of addiction, physical abuse, financial worries, and the 
criminal justice system. They are taught to present themselves as mem- 
bers of the community who want to make a difference rather than as 
detached sociologists who are merely collecting data — an approach that 
differs from that of most undergraduate sociology programs at much 
larger institutions. 

The department is justifiably proud of its student interns and their 
scholarship. An especially outstanding example is Judy Nagle, one of Dr. 
Phyllis Betts's students, who in 1985 received a Z. Smith Reynolds Foun- 
dation grant to begin a study entitled 'Women at Work: A Comprehen- 
sive Survey Profiling the Buncombe County Experience." The scope of 
the study, which was cosponsored by the Board of County Commission- 
ers, the YWCA, and the Women's Resource Center, gready exceeds expec- 
tations for undergraduate research, and this comprehensive study will be 

288 : The Roaring Eighties 

published. Dr. Betts has provided excellent guidance for many special 
research projects. The same praise applies to all the other members of the 

Dr. Boland periodically serves on the Asheville City Council. Ap- 
proachable and practical, he is one of the council's most valuable mem- 
bers. He serves on a number of other civic boards and has been president 
of the Family Counseling Service for several years. Dr. Betts, who pres- 
endy heads UNCA's honors program, is much in demand as a public 
speaker. Her service on many boards, including the YWCA, made her 
aware that the city had no mechanism for dealing with battered wives and 
their abused children. She provided the leadership for establishing shel- 
ters, and Helpmate was quickly accepted as a United Way agency. 

Keith Bramlett is in charge of the criminal justice track. Many of his 
students intern at the police department, where they learn not only about 
laws and their application but also about dealing with prisoners, their 
victims, and the families involved. It is hoped that such an approach will 
have a positive impact on the rate of recidivism. Bramlett and his students 
helped establish the Rape Crisis Center and continue to counsel rape 

Dr. William Haas supervises the gerontology track. He is president of 
the Council on Aging and serves on the board of Western North Carolina 
Health Delivery. He teaches about the growing number of problems re- 
lated to the aging population and enables his students to deal with older 
Americans sensitively, rather than as theorists studying an isolated seg- 
ment of society. 

In early 1984 Dr. Boland and Dr. Haas mapped out a proposal for a 
Center for Creative Retirement. Chancellor Brown immediately recog- 
nized the plan's potential for assisting large numbers of retirees from all 
socioeconomic backgrounds to live fuller lives that would, in turn, enrich 
the community itself. As soon as time allowed, he began working to build 
a base of funding and support to make the goals of the sociology depart- 
ment a reality. 

The faculty has an excellent record of scholarship. Members of the 
department regularly present papers to academic societies and publish in 
numerous journals, including the American Sociological Review. 

The institution will soon graduate its sixtieth class, but it is far from 
completion. The nature of higher education requires constant change to 

The Roaring Eighties : 289 

accommodate the ever-expanding frontiers of knowledge. The school's 
foundations are solid. Many of its battles will never have to be fought 
again. Looking back to the dreams of A. C. Reynolds and the small group 
that met in Thomas Howerton's living room in the winter of 1926, it is 
easy to see how much is owed to an endless list of citizens who were 
determined to turn a tiny county junior college into a center of learning in 
western North Carolina and a respected campus of the University of 
North Carolina system. No less is owed the faculty and students who took 
a chance on a small and struggling school. 

This review of the departmental highlights for a six-year period mirrors 
the growth that has taken place since the institution became a senior 
college more than two decades ago. Progress has seemed painfully slow at 
times, and there have been hurdles along the way. Nevertheless, the over- 
all picture is one of a university that will continue its mission of providing 
students with a strong liberal arts education — the best foundation for a 
wide range of careers, graduate and professional schools, and a lifetime of 
learning. The university has never lost sight of the need to be of public 
service, and even though it remains predominantly an undergraduate in- 
stitution, the addition of select graduate programs is having an increas- 
ingly positive impact on the campus and in the community. UNCA has 
attracted an outstanding faculty and administration, people who are dedi- 
cated to the dream of continuing to build in Asheville an institution that is 
recognized nationwide as a unique center of learning. 



Enrollment Trends of the University of North Carolina System 
Office of Institutional Research 





T TXT/" 1 

Head Count Head Count 


Head Count 



Fall 1972 

Fall 1980 

A all A 70U 

iy/2— IVoU 

rail IVoo 





































































































Constituent Institutions of the UNC System 

1. UNC-Asheville 

2. UNC- Wilmington 

3. Fayetteville State University 

4. NC State University 

5. UNC-Charlotte 

6. NC School of the Arts 

7. Winston-Salem State University 

8. East Carolina University 

9. NC Agricultural & Technical State 

10. UNC-Chapel Hill 

11. Elizabeth City State University 

12. Pembroke State University 

13. Appalachian State University 

14. UNC-Greensboro 

15. NC Central University 

16. Western Carolina University 



The University of North Carolina atAsheville 
Boards of Trustees 

1980- 81 

Carl W. Loftin, Chairman 
Karl H. Straus, Vice-Chairman 
Julia G. Ray, Secretary 
Dr. Francis A. Buchanan 
Cecil T. Cantrell 
Morton S. Cohn 
Francine Delany 

1981- 82 

Carl W. Loftin, Chairman 
Karl H. Straus, Vice-Chairman 
Nancy W. Robinson, Secretary 
Thomas C. Arnold 
Dr. Nilous M. Avery 
Cecil T. Cantrell 
Morton S. Cohn 

1982- 83 

Karl H. Straus, Chairman 
Durward R. Everett, Jr., Vice- 

Nancy W. Robinson, Secretary 
Thomas C. Arnold 
Dr. Nilous M. Avery 
Cecil T. Cantrell 

1983- 84 

Thomas C. Arnold, Chairman 

James E. Ellis, Vice-Chairman 

Nancy W. Robinson, Secretary 

Dr. Nilous M. Avery 

Kenneth L. Cagle, SGA President 

Cecil T. Cantrell 

E. Charles Dyson 

James E. Ellis 

Durward R. Everett, Jr. 

David F. Felmet 

Brett W. Pangle, SGA President 

Bernard R. Smith 

Maurice H. Winger, Jr. 

James E. Ellis 
Durward R. Everett, Jr. 
David F. Felmet 

Kerry D. Lonon, SGA President 
Dr. John H. Russell 
Bernard R. Smith, Jr. 

Morton S. Cohn 
James E. Ellis 
David F. Felmet 

James L. Guilmartin, SGA President 

Carl W. Loftin 

Dr. John H. Russell 

Bernard R. Smith, Jr. 

Durward R. Everett, Jr. 
Carl W. Loftin 
George H. Pressley 
Dr. John H. Russell 
Douglas Van Noppen 
Harriette G. Winner 


Appendixes : 295 

1984- 85 

Thomas C. Arnold, Chairman (July- 
December 1984) 

James E. Ellis, Chairman (January- 
May 1985) 

Durward R. Everett, Jr., Vice- 

Nancy W. Robinson, Secretary 

Lonnie D. Burton 

Kenneth L. Cagle, SGA President 

1985- 86 

Durward R. Everett, Jr., Chairman 
Richard B. Wynne, Vice-Chairman 
Harriette G. Winner, Secretary 
Lonnie D. Burton 
G. John Coli, Jr. 
E. Charles Dyson 

1986- 87 

Durward R. Everett, Jr., Chairman 

Richard B. Wynne, Vice-Chairman 

George H. Pressley, Secretary 

Lonnie D. Burton 

G. John Coli, Jr. 

E. Charles Dyson 

Ken Hardy, SGA President 

Cecil T. Cantrell 
E. Charles Dyson 
Carl W. Loftin 
George H. Pressley 
Dr. John H. Russell 
Douglas Van Noppen 
Harriette G. Winner 
Richard B. Wynne 

Jesse I. Ledbetter 

George H. Pressley 

Neal D. Rhoades, SGA President 

O. E. Starnes, Jr. 

Wilma Dykeman Stokely 

Douglas Van Noppen 

Jesse I. Ledbetter 
Duane McKibbin 
O. E. Starnes, Jr. 
Wilma Dykeman Stokely 
Douglas Van Noppen 
Harriette G. Winner 


Accounting Club, 281 
Adams, Gary, 90 
Adams, Kenneth, 190 
Adams et al. v. Weinberger et al. 

(1977), 191, 232-36 
Adams-Ramsey Bill, 210 
Adams v. Richardson (1972), 18 9-9 1 , 

Admissions standards, 175 
Aiken, Gary, 189, 194 
Aiken, Nora, 194 
ALAN Review, The, 279 
Alexander, Perry, 1 1 
Alley, Peggy, 61 

All-State Junior College Football 

Team, 28 
Alpha Delta Pi, 248 
Alpha Phi Omega, 130 
Alpha Xi Delta, 248 
Alumni association, 25-26, 81, 129, 


Alvarez, Raul, 271 

American Association of University 

Women, 26, 41 
American Chemical Society, 78, 268- 

69, 270; Stone Award, 225 

American Enka Corporation, 29, 88, 
180, 211 

American Institute of Chemists, 217, 

Anders, Dave, 128 

Andrade, Marcel, 168, 258 

Andrews, Ike, 153 

Angels of Biltmore, 34, 35 

Anthony, Lee, 84 

Antiwar rallies, 59, 86, 112 

Appalachian State Teachers College, 
*7, 96, 97, 138, 140 

Appalachian State University, 103, 105 

Archie, William, 51, 59, 60, 141 

Arnold, Thomas, 243 

Art Alumni Association, 193, 207 

Art department, 128, 188, 199, 218, 
220, 246-47, 255-56 

Asheville-Biltmore College, 10-n, 
13, 14-15; accreditation, n, 19, 
24, 25-26, 57, 74, 84-85, in, 
125; moved to Merrimon Avenue, 
15-16, 17; Board of Trustees, 18- 
19, 20, 22, 23, 40-41, 42, 43-44, 
45, 46, 48, 54, 58, 63, 68, 70, 77, 
87, 94, 95, 106; city of Asheville 


298 : Index 

funding, 18-21, 26; facility needs, 
22, 23, 28, 29, 31, 36; board of di- 
rectors, 27, 29, 33, 35, 36, 40; 
moved to Seely Casde, 29—3 1,32— 
34; state funding, 37, 38-39, 49- 
50, 53, 58, 68, 71, 78, 79, 81, 89; 
local bond funding, 39-40, 41,45- 
47, 50, 53, S^, 67, 70; moved to 
North Asheville, 41-45, 47-48; 
building construction, 45, 46-47, 

50, 58, 68-71, 74, 79, 89; admis- 
sion of black students, 46, 72; ex- 
panded to four-year institution, 50, 

51, 52- 5 53-55, 56, 57-58, 71, 93, 
140; liberal arts program, 59-62, 
63—65, 66—67, IO °, 12-6; academic 
year, 61, 63, 66, 67, 85; first senior 
class, 71-72; self-study committee, 
84; merger with UNC, 89, 92, 93- 
95, 97-98, 99-107, 126-27, 143, 
144, 163 

A-B College Foundation, 76-77 
A-B Libbers, 34 

Asheville-Buncombe Technical Col- 
lege, 229-31 
Asheville Chamber Music Society, 80 
Asheville Chamber of Commerce, 41, 

Asheville Citizen, 2, 3, 6, 23, 27, 30, 
87, 104, 106, 167, 209—10 

Asheville City Council, 2, 19, 20, 24, 
26, 105, 288 

Asheville City School Board, 2, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 14-15, !6, 2-2. 

Asheville Junior College. See College 
of the City of Asheville 

Asheville Normal and Teachers Col- 
lege, 13-14, 15, 22 

Asheville Optimists Club, Tip-off 
Tournament, 87, 165, 196, 208 

Asheville Symphony Orchestra, 75 

Athletics, 7, 23, 77, 169, 249; scholar- 
ships, 23, 28-29, 34, 2.25; women's, 
169, 194, 206, 225, 249-50. See 
also Basketball; Football; Swim team 

Atmospheric sciences program, 265- 

Ayers, Whidey, 212-13, 2 77 

Badget, Sam, 123 

Baha'i, 79-80, 216 

Baker, Henry, 12, 46 

Baldwin, Garza, Jr., 171 

Ballard, Carl, 128 

Bares, Leo, 227, 268-69 

Barker, John, 1 1 1 

Barnes, John M., 40 

Barnshack, Ralph, 34 

Barry, Rick, 124 

Barthel, John, 85, 182 

Baseball, A-B College, 23 

Basketball, 6; A-B College men, 12, 
2-3, 2-8, 34-35, 67, 77, 86-87, 90, 
91; UNCAmen, 121-22, 128, 
129-30, 165, 169, 208, 224, 249; 
summer camp, 124; UNCA women, 
168, 206, 249-50 

Bauman, Sally, 214 

Beam, Hugh, 102, 153 

Belford, Thomas, 195 

Belk, Carol, 211 

Belk, Carol, Theatre, 188, 207, 210- 

11, 2.57 
Belk, Irwin, 210, 211 
Bell, C. Ritchie, 78 
Bell, Terrell, 235 
Bennett, Charles, 274, 275 
Benton, John Keith, 3 1 
Bergemann, Verna, 182, 277-78, 286 
Bergman, Jules, 216 
Bernhardt, John, 200—201, 267 
Betts, Phyllis, 206, 247, 287, 288 

Index : 299 

Big South Conference, 250 
Biltmore High School, 2-9, 133 

Biltmore Junior College, 7-10 
Biltmore Players, 10 
Biology department, 130, 266-67 
Bishop, Edwin, 119 
Black Arts Festival, 186 
Black Awareness Week, 168, 169, 199 
Black Mountain News, 55 
Black Students Association, 168-69, 

Blake, John, 223-24 

Blanton, G. Hoyle, Jr., 171, 225-26 

Blowers, Malcolm, 214 

Blue, Clifton, 5 5 

Blue Ridge Technical College, 231 
Bluets, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 18, 25, 34, 83 
Bly, Joe, 207-8 
Bobo, Helen, 72 

Boland, Walter, 124, 161, 193, 287, 

Bonarrigo, Nicholas, 25 

Bond referendums, 2-3 ; for A-B Col- 
lege, 39-40, 41, 4h 44, 45-47, 50, 
56, 67, 70; statewide, 188, 199, 

Booker, Randy, 274 

Boozer, Howard, 141 

Botanical Gardens Association, 77-78, 

86, 200 
Bourne, Robert, 123 
Bowen, Wallace, 252 
Boyd, Albert, 46 
Boyd, Mark, 271 
Bradley, L. A., 285 
Braggio, John, 207 
Bramlett, Keith, 288 
Branham, George, 84 
Breman, Sara and Joseph, Fund, 174 
Breman, Sara and Joseph, Professor- 

ship of Social Relations, 198, 215, 

223, 224, 282, 284, 285 
Brian, George, Jr., 78 
Bridges, John, 18, 46 
Briggs, Bruce, 102 
Brooker, Wilfred L., 2, 3 
Brookshire, H. G., 8, 9, 10 
Brotak, Edward, 265, 266 
Brown, Bobby, 168—69 
Brown, C. Fred, 9, 22, 23, 24 
Brown, David G., 243—46, 251, 255, 

274-75, 288 
Brown, Larry, 124 
Brown, Tracy, 285 
Brown, W. Vance, 2 
Browning, Shirley C, 124-25, 165, 

182, 193, 195, 212, 225, 275, 276, 


Brown v. Board of Education ofTopeka 

(1954), 46, 189, 236 
Bruce, William, 250, 284, 285, 286 
Bryan, Virginia (later Schreiber), 5, 7, 

11, 12, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 


Bryant, Victor, 138, 144, 148 

Buchanan, Francis, 171, 192, 194 

Buckalew, Walker, 285 

Buncombe County Board of Commis- 
sioners, 15-16, 30, 283, 287-88 

Buncombe County Children's Home, 
15—16, 17, 134 (illus.) 

Buncombe County Junior College, 2— 
3,4-5, 6-7 

Burdette, Pat, 18-19, 2 °, ZI 

Burney, John, 105 

Bushey, Glenn L., 24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 

32, 33-34, 38, 43, 49, 50, 52-, 93, 

Byers, J. W, 22, 23, 40, 43, 44 
Bynum, Curtis, 8, 9, 79 
Byrd, Audrey, 168-69, x ^7 

300 : Index 

Cagle, Kenneth, 249 

Caldwell, George, 22 

Caldwell, John T., 48 

Calfee, John E., 13, 14 

Califano, Joseph, 233, 235 

Campbell College, 87 

Campus Commission on Student Ser- 
vices, 208 

Campus Community Concert Band, 

Campus Crier, 25, 28, 34, 46, 73 

Campus Forum, 176—77 

Candler, Coke, 45 

Canon, Alfred O., 251, 252 

Canterbury Tales (Chaucer), 223 

Cantrell, Cecil, 212 

Carlyle, Irving E., 51, 140 

Carlyle Commission. See Governor's 

Commission on Education beyond 

the High School 
Carmichael, Oliver Cromwell, 59-60, 


Carmichael, Oliver Cromwell, Hu- 
manities Building, 58, 69-70, 74, 
80, 245, 255 
Carmichael, William, Fund, 122 
Carolina Junior College Conference, 

Carr, Robert, 191 
Carroll, Helen, 249, 250 
Carroll, John, 22, 29 
Carson, Carol, 78, 81 
Carter, Jimmy, 23 5 
Cassata, Don, 285 
Caudill, Harry, 187 
Celebration of the Arts, 264, 275 
Center for Creative Retirement, 288 
Center for Economic Education, 212, 

Champion Paper and Fibre Company, 

Chancellor's Colloquium, 244, 281 

Chancellor's Committee on Curricu- 
lum Reform, 175 

Chappell, Fred, 1 20 

Charlotte College, 27, 37, 38, 39; ex- 
panded to four-year institution, 5 2, 
53, 54, 55, 7i, 93, 140; merged 
with UNC, 94-96 

Chemistry department, 78, 268-70 

Childs, Edward P., 13 

Chunn's Cove, 30, 36, 42 

Circle K Service Club, 281 

Civil Rights Act (1964), 189, 197, 

Clarke, Harry, 180, 182 
Clarke, Patsy, 131, 182, 188 
Classics department, 82, 256 
Clubb, Oliver, 76 

Cochran, Thomas, 189, 206, 222, 246 
Cochran, William, 75, 89, 177 
Code of The University of North Caro- 
lina, 113, 157, 171-72-, ^03, 204, 

Cogburn, Max, 1 8 
Cohn, Morton, 226, 252 
Cole, Robert, 222, 273 
Cole, Taylor, 63 
Coleman, Betsy Wilson, 267 
Coleman, Kenneth, 260 
Coleman, R. L., Company, 47 
College of the City of Asheville, 2, 5-7 
Colton, Marie, 239 
Colvard, Dean, 240 
Coman, Herbert, 24, 25, 32, 35 
Combs, Allen, 284 
Comer, Alan E., 246, 266-67 
Committee of the Tenured Faculty, 

Communications program, 261 
Community College Act (1957), 38— 
39, 40,41, 56,58 



Community colleges, 38, 39, 52-53, 

Computer Center, 121, 128, 180, 216, 

222, 239, 247-48 
Computer science department, 270-71 
Conder, F. L., 2 
Cone, Bonnie, 5 1 
Conley, S. B., 4 

Consent Decree, North Carolina v. De- 
partment of Education ( 1 9 8 1 ) , 235 

Continuing education, 183 

Cooke, Tucker S., 182, 255, 256 

Cooper, Guy L., 175, 256 

Corcoran, Ted, 71 

Cordell, Mary. See Nesbitt, Mary 

Coughlin, Desmond, 174 

Council of Chairmen, 221 

Counseling center, 73 

Courtney, Smiley, 29 

Cowan, J. Gerald, 44, 54, 58 

Coxe, Frank, 1, 76, 251 

Coyle, Francis, 121, 128 

Coyne, Anthony, 264-65 

Cranston, Mechthild, 182 

Cranston, Phillip, 168, 182, 258 

Crawford, I. C, 153 

Crawford, Narvel Jim, 239 

Crutcher, Harold, 217 

Crystal Ball Series, 276 

Curriculum, 3, 6, 8, 26, 27, 67, 74; 
core program, 60-62, 64, 65, 115- 
16, 246—47, 253; expansion of, 
117, 125, 160-61, 167, 171, 173, 
175, 198, 244, 255, 258 

Dailey, Ruben J., 46 
Dalton, Don, 71, 78 
Dameron, Virginia, 40, 41, 43, 58 
Daugherty, Joseph, 270 
Daughton, Robert, 87, 182, 194 

Davidson, Betsy, 170 
Davies, G. Hinton, 92 
Davies, John Paton, 76 
Dawson, Raymond, 204, 213-14 
Deason, Paul Thomas, 125, 168, 176, 

i79, 193-94, i97, 2.22, 225 
Debate club, 25, 28, 34 
DeBruhl, Claude, 8, 35, 102, 105, 

150, 153, 175-76 
Degree programs, 160, 161, 167, 173, 


Degree requirements, 27, 60-62, 63, 

64, 115-16, 246-47, 253 
Delany, Beatrice Francine, 72-73, 78, 


Delta Sigma Pi, 281 

Demmon, Dr. and Mrs. E. L., 77 

Dent, Theodore, 102 

Desegregation, 46, 189-91, 232-37 

Diamond, Denise, 83, 90 

Diamond, Jill, 90 

Distinguished Service Award, 200, 

211, 212, 242 
Distinguished Teacher Award, 260, 

262, 267, 270, 283 
Dormitories, 70-71, 73, 79, 85, 114- 

15, 173-74, 183, 210, 226, 239, 


Dorr, Joyce, 227, 229, 262-63, 264 
Dorr, Laurence, 218, 220-22, 229, 

231, 246, 262, 264 
Downes, Margaret, 261-62 
Drama club, 10, 18, 27, 34 
Drama department, 78, 131-32, 188, 

207, 223, 256-58 
Driggers, Libby, 270-71 
Dula, Martha, 73 

Dula, Thomas C, 73, 84, 85, 179, 

181, 196, 251 
Duncan, Edwin C, Jr., 58 
Dupree, Franklin, 235 

302 : Index 

Dykeman, Wilma. See Stokely, Wilma 

Easley, John, 46 

East Carolina Teachers College, 97, 
138, 140, 142; medical school, 95- 
96, 143 

Economics department, 275-77 
Education department, 63, 116, 120, 

Edwards, Lee H., 12 
Edwards, Lee H., High School, 12, 21 
Edwinn, Frank, 128, 186, 262 
Ehle, John, 1 8 
Elderhostel Program, 219 
Elingburg, Ray, 78, 81 
Elizabeth City State University, no, 

126, 140 
Ellington, Douglas, 3 
Ellis, James, 226 

Elmore, Bruce A., 12, 58, 167, 212 
Engineering program, 239, 271-72 
Enright and Associates, 244, 245 
Enrollment: Biltmore College, 6, 8; 
A-B College, n, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 
22, 25, 26, 27, 35, 49, 52; and ex- 
pansion and merger, 53-54, 85, 93- 
94; UNCA, 124, 175, 182, 183, 
188, 196, 198, 214, 228, 239-40, 
241, 244-45, 2.93 ; Consolidated 
University, 144, 158; Graduate Cen- 
ter, 241 

Environmental sciences program, 173, 

Equal Employment Opportunity 

Commission, 205 
Ervin, Sam, 82-83 
Etheridge, Mrs. Howard G., 10 
Everett, Durward, 226, 252 

Faculty, 6-9, 15, 49, 109, 171, 174, 
221-22, 245, 246, 254-55; hirings, 
3, 22-23, 85, 89, 124-25, 167-68, 
189, 206, 214; and accreditation, 
11, 23-24, 57-58, 60; salaries, 21, 
85—86, 113— 14, 125—26, 167; com- 
mittees, 33, 74-75, 9I-92-, 165; 
faculty/student ratio, 64, 149, 160, 
161—62, 163—64; academic calendar 
and, 66, 67, 85-86; discussion pan- 
els, 83; doctoral degrees, 100, 173; 
evaluation of, 1 1 2-1 3 ; and student 
government, 114, 118, 166, 179; 
blacks, 127, 169; tenure, 172-73, 
178, 192—93, 202—5; publication, 
175, 258, 259, 260, 261-62, 265, 
270, 276, 281, 285, 287-88; volun- 
tary courses, 1 8 2-8 3 . See also 

Faculty Senate, in, 112, 113, 123, 
125, 194-95, 201-2; formation of, 
92, 108-9; committees, 92, 109, 
195, 240, 246; relations with stu- 
dents, 114, 115, 118; and academic 
curriculum, 117, 166, 179, 230, 

Fall, Barnard, 76 

Farnsworth, James, 8 1 

Farrell, Edward, 250 

Farzanegan, Bahram, 83, 117, 176, 

187, 207, 208-9, 2.27-29, 252, 


Fayetteville State University, no, 126, 

Felder, Nathaniel, 186 
Feldman, Leon, 174, 211 
Feldman, Ruth, 174, 211, 260 
Feldman, Ruth and Leon, Professor- 
ship, 279 
Feldman Scholarship, 174 
Felmet, David, 192, 212, 226 

Index : 303 

Ferguson, James S., 83, 240 

Ferguson, Sam, 179 

Fields, Emmett, 57 

Financial aid, 173, 211, 241-42 

Fish, James, 46 

Fishburne, Janie, 170 

Flat Rock Playhouse, 258 

Fleck, Douglas, 185 

Florence Art Odyssey, 218 

Football, 6, 12, 23, 24-25, 27, 28-29, 

34, 35 
Ford, Sheila, 250 
Ford, Thomas G., 40 
Foreign Affairs Forum, 75-76, 122, 

130-31, 177, 178, 209 
Foreign language requirement, 62, 

116, 246-47 
Foreign languages department, 258 
Foreign Policy Association, 177-78, 


Foster, Dales Y., 29 

Foster, Frank C, 14 

Foster, George, 28 

Foster, Mrs. S. D., 26 

Frady, Barbara, 200 

Frady, Carolyn, 214 

Friday, William C., 51, 139, 142, 213- 
14, 239, 242-43; and establishment 
of UNCA, 95, 98, 99-101, 105, 
107, 113; and UNCA program, 
116-17, 118-19, 127, 161, 162; 
and funding and budgets, 122, 124, 
125; and university restructuring, 
146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 233; 
and WCU Oteen classes, 177, 181, 
215, 240, 241; and desegregation, 

^33-34, 2-36 
Frie, James, 227 

Friedenberg, Lisa, 214, 277-78, 284, 

Friends of UNCA Music, 264 

Froelich, Jacob, 148 
Frye, Henry, 243 

Fulbright scholarships, 256, 258, 259, 

262, 268 
Fuller, R. Buckminster, 80 
Fulton, Dudley, 84 

Fund-raising, 76-77, 174, 251-52. See 
also Bond referendums 

Gainey, Pat, 174 
Gambill, Ilene, 26 
Gardner, O. Max, 137-38, 147 
Gardner- Webb College, 25, 27, 165 
Garren, Claude, 78, 81 
Garren, Patricia, 229, 263 
Gasperson, Ray, 161, 169 
Gentile, Lance, 277, 278 
GI Bill. See Servicemen's Readjustment 

Gibson, Mickey, 90, 91, 121, 122, 

128, 129, 165 
Giezentanner, John, 25, 35 
Gilbert, Clarence, 22, 23-24 
Gillum, Michael, 85, 192, 221 
Gilpin, Mary, 168 
Gilpin, Peter R., 77, 174, 216-17 
Giovanni, Nikki, 169 
Glee club, 26, 34 
Glubb, Sir John, 89-90 
Goalsby, Dan, 67 
Godwin, Cathleen, 22 
Godwin, Phil, 147, 154 
Godwin, Winfred, 240 
Goldofsky, Boris, 75 
Golf team, 87, 128 
Goodman, Paul, 244 
Goodson, W. Arthur, 14-15 
Gordon, Larry, 78 
Gore, Daniel J., 61 

Governor's Commission on Education 
beyond the High School, 51-54, 

304 : Index 

55, 85, 93, 96, in, 140 
Governors Dormitory Village, 71, 

1 14-15, 249 
Grading system, 67, 113 
Graduate Center, 245 
Graduate programs, 100, in, 120, 

137-38, 140, 173, 188, 240-41, 


Graham, Frank Porter, 72, 138 

Graham, Fred, 102 

Grambling College, 91, 121 

Grams, Ileana, 189, 264, 265 

Gray, Gordon, 138-39 

Great Decisions Program, 177-78, 

208-9, 2.27-28, 282 
Greenawalt, Bruce, 83, 211, 259, 260 
Greene, Jerry, 206, 208, 224 
Greene, Raphael, 82 
Greenwood, Gordon, 7, 46, 55, 81, 

101-2, 239, 245 
Gregory, Dick, 131 
Greir, Joseph, 65 

Grier, Deborah ("Dee"), 131, 170 
Grove, E. W., 29 

Grove Arcade Building, 217-18, 244 
Gudger, Lamar, 150, 153, 175-76, 

Gullickson, Gerald, 262 

Guttman, Nathaniel, 265 

Gymnasium, 46-47, 50, 65, 67, 89; 
named Charles Justice Sports, 
Health and Recreation Center, 196 

Haas, William, 283, 288 

Haber, John, 257 

Hackney, William, 280 

Haines, John R., 175 

Hall, James M., Jr., 12 

Hall, Linda, 249 

Hampton, Natalie, 22, 23 

Han am an, William W, 22, 24, 32 

Handicapped access, 185-86 

Hantz, Alan, 261, 262 

Harbin, Tom, 90 

Harkins, Herschel, 102, 105, 153 

Harrington, Bruce, 123 

Harris, Ed, 71, 78, 168, 250 

Harris, Joe, 278 

Harris, W Randall, 14-15, 22 

Hart, Donald, 185, 189, 229, 280 

Hart, Parker T., 122 

Hartman, Robert Lee, 67, 169, 194, 

206, 224 
Hawkins, Dula, 58 
Hawkins, Michael, 174 
Hayes, Hubert, 36, 78 
Hayes, Leona, 78 
Hayes, Sandra, 252 
Haynes, Harvey, 229 
Health Promotion Program, 247, 

250-51, 285 
Healy, Rod, 90, 121-22, 130 
Helms, Jesse, 228 

Henderson, Gwendolyn, 278-79, 283 
Hensley, Margaret, 26 
Herring, Lucy, 216 
Hewlett, Addison, 102 
Highlander, 5 

Highsmith, J. Henry, n, 21 
Highsmith, William Edward, 72, 81, 
88, 124, 127, 170, 187, 201, 202, 
229, 248; elected president of A-B 
College, 50-51; and expansion to 
four-year institution, 51, 54, 84; 
and academic curriculum, 60-61, 
65, 88, 120, 215; and merger with 
UNC, 97-99, 101, 122-23; elected 
chancellor ofUNCA, 106; and 
WCU Oteen Center, n 8-19, 177, 
181; and budgets, 125-26; and re- 
structuring, 161-62; retirement, 

Index : 305 

Highsmith, William E., University 

Center, 248 
Hill, George Watts, 101 
Hill, Watts, Jr., 95, 140-41, 144-46 
History Association, 207 
History department, 207, 259-61 
Hobbs, Bruce, 185 
Holden, Ray, 128 

Hollingsworth, A. Thomas, 279, 280, 

Holman, Hugh, 192 

Holshouser, James, 171, 201 

Honeywell, Hildegard, 22-23 

Honnager, Arthur, 263 

Honors program, 247 

Hopes, David, 262 

Horton, Bill, 1 1 

Horton, Doris, 103 

Howard, Deryl, 168, 241, 264, 265 

Howerton, Thomas M., 3-4, 289 

Howington, Doc, 3 2-3 3 

Huan, Huo-Jin, 266 

Humanities program, 61—62, 86, 

115-16, 244, 245, 246-47, 253-55 
Hunt, James B., 212, 234 
Hunter, Maryjane, 251 
Huskins, Jay, 103 
Hyde, Lynn, 170 

Images, 83 
Infirmary, 89, 168 
Institute Montpelier, 197 
Instrument of governance, 165-66, 
174, 176 

International relations club, 1 2, 26, 27 
Inter-nation simulations, 1 17-18, 
176, 209. See North American Sim- 
ulation and Gaming Association 
Iovacchini, Eric, 223, 248-50, 285 
Irish- American Colloquium, 197-98, 

Jackson, Walter C, 31 

James, Charles, 170, 269 

James, Mrs. M. A., 22, 23, 29 

Jarrard, Norman, 61 

Jenkins, Leo, 51, 95, 96, 97, 142 

Jenkins, William S., 35, 43-44, 88 

Jewish Studies Center, 260, 264 

Johnson, Elma, 182 

Johnson, U. Alexis, 76, 130-31 

Johnston, Harry, 85, 193, 267 

Johnston, Joseph, 128 

Jones, Donald, 36, 46 

Jones, G. Andrew, 123, 148-49 

Jones, Luther, 186 

Jones, Olivia, 182 

Jones, Peggy, 85 

Jones, W. A., 15 

Jones, W. H., 4 

Justice, Charles ("Choo-Choo"), 25, 

Justice, Charles, Sports, Health, and 

Recreation Center, 196 
Justice, William S., 78 

Kaempfer, W. W, 60, 65, 75, 83, 87- 

Kagel, Joe, 130 

Kaires, Theophilus, Greek Prize, 256 
Kaleidoscope, 261 
Kantner, James, 284 
Kaplan, Eugene V., 44 
Kaplan, Richard, 12 
Kay, David, 273 
Kdan, Betty, 193 
Keiser, Marilyn, 263 
Kellogg, W K., Foundation, 250, 285 
Kent State University, 86, 120-21, 

Kephart, Chauncey, 186 
Kerr, Clark, 243 
Kilgore, Sandra, 169 



Kimberly estate, 43, 44 

Kindley, Randall, 208 

King, Arnold K., 99-100, 104, 105- 

6, 108, 119—20, 126—27, 161, 213, 


King, J. Bertram, 114, 176, 188, 220, 

King David: A Symphonic Song (Hon- 

nager), 263 
Kirby, Russell, 147 
Kirby, Wayne, 263, 275 
Kormanik, Gregg, 267 
Kramer, George, 168, 193 

Laboratory requirement, 62, 116, 

Lambert, Frank, 32 
Lancaster, George, 194 
Lancaster, Robert, 63 
"Land Use Master Plan," 245 
Lang, Wayne, 247, 270 
Latham, R. H., 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18- 

20, 21, 22 
Lathrop, Virginia, 72, 101, 148 
Lavin, Andre, 227 
Laweral, Pat, 182 
Lawrence, Thomas, 1 3 
Lawrence Hall, 14, 15, 134 (illus.) 
Lawson, Luther, 214, 276 
Lea, Tom, 223 

Leadership Asheville, 252, 286 
Leadership Henderson ville, 252, 286 
League of Women Voters, 41, 227, 

Lee, Chris, 128 

Lee, L. Lyons, 18, 20 

Lee, Linda, 78 

Lehmkuhl, William M., 58 

Leonard, Richie, 145 

Lester, Charles, 63 

Liberal arts master's program, 241 

Library: A-B College, 9, 18, 26, 47. 
62. See also Ramsey, D. Hiden, 

Lipinsky, Louis, Sr., 40, 41, 45, 54, 
58, 70 

Lipinsky, Louis, Student Center, 46 
47, 67-68, 70, 77, 86, 186, 226, 
239, 242, 263; Auditorium, 67, 
74, 76, 80, 188, 207, 226 

Lipinsky, Morris, 46 

Lisby, Gregory, 261 

Literature and language department 
62, 120, 261—62 

Lloyd, Charles A., 7, 11, 13, 14, 46 

Lloyd, Charles, Jr., 46 

Loftin, Carl, 212, 226 

Lord, Anthony, 68, 79 

Lord's Drug Store, 17-18 

Love, Leroy, 1 1 

Love, Sadie June, 1 2 

Lowrance, Adele, 15, 23, 32 

LS AT rankings, 260 

Luther, Mrs. T Allen, 14-15 

McClendon, L. P., 48, 51 
McCormack, Bichard, 227, 271 
McCoy, John J., 60, 61, 267 
McDonald, Sharyn, 248 
McDowell, Eugene, 241 
McDowell Technical College, 231 
McEniry, Hugh, 177 
McGee, William, 68 
McGlinn, James E., 278 
McGough, Morris, 41 
McGovern, Eleanor, 187 
McGuire, Samuel, 29, 3 2 
Mcllheny, James ("Red"), 90, 91, 12 

122, 128, 129-30, 165 
McKinnon, Joseph, 36-37 
McPeters, Clyde, 199 
Mallory, A. E, 84 

Index : 307 

Management Association, 207, 217 
Management department, 88, 185, 

217, 220, 229-31, 279-81 
Management program, 120, 173, 

179-80, 182, 198-99 
Mann, E. Ray, 15 
Manns, Mary Lynn, 270 
Markowitz, Sadie, 10 
Marshall, Martha, 281 
Mars Hill College, 7, 25, 27, 90, 227- 


Martin, Fred, 78-79 

Martin, Perry, 147, 155 

Martin, Sally, 78 

Masqueteers, 12 

Massey, Charles, 271 

Maston, Sandy, 78 

Mathematics department, 239, 273 

Mathematics requirement, 62, 116, 

Matthews, Sidney, 82, 83 
Mayland Technical College, 231 
Mebane, William, 217 
Memorial Mission Hospital, 1 3 
Merchant, Lawrence C, 40 
Merrill, Edward, 22 
Merrill, W. Ernest, 11, 15 
Merrimon, Terry, 91 
Meteorology program, 217, 218, 265- 


Meyers, Don, 107 
Millar, Sam, 85 

Millard, David, Junior High School, 
8-10, 12-13, 19, 80, 133 (illus.) 
Miller, David, 247-48, 271 
Miller, Gary L., 272 
Miller, George, 153 
Miller, J. Alfred, 40, 42-43 
Miller, John, 22 

Miller, Mary, 24, 32, 34, 49, 84 
Mills, Albina, 257 

Mills, Ernest, 211, 242, 257 
Mills Foundation Scholarships, 242 
Millstead, Charles, 128 
Milner, Clyde A., 31 
Minerals Research Laboratory, 197 
Mitchell, Catherine, 261, 262 
Mock, William, 1 29 
Moe, Doug, 1 24 
Mollegen, Albert, 75 
Monmouth State College, 91 
Montgomery, Betsy, 131, 185, 194, 

Montieth, Larry, 227 

Moog, Robert, 263 

Moore, Dan K., 69, 71, 79-80, 81, 

94, 95, 96, 97-98, 99, 140 
Morgan, B. F, 23, 27 
Morgan, Charles, Jr., 234-35 
Morgan, Clarence, 9, 26, 29 
Morgan, William H., 21-22 
Morris, Sarah, 229-30 
Morro, Dierdre, 223 
Moseley, Merritt, Jr., 246, 261-62 
Moser, Artus, 25, 32, 34 
Moss, Frank, 71 
Moss, Ralph, 78 

Mossbauer Effect Data Center, 184, 

269, 270 
Mountain Area Health Education 

Center (MAHEC), 176, 281, 285 
Mullen, D wight, 282 
Mullin, M. H., 30 
Music club, 34 

Music department, 239, 242, 256, 

Music program, 120, 173 
Myers, Elaine Hunter, 257 
Myers, Thomas, 274 

NAACP Legal Defense Fund, 190, 
191, 232, 235 

308 : Index 

Nagle, Judy, 287-88 

Nash, Arnold, 106 

National Association for Intercolle- 
giate Athletes (NAIA), 91, 121, 
129, 185, 198, 250 

National Climatic Data Center, 80, 
217-18, 244, 265, 266 

National Collegiate Athletics Associa- 
tion (NCAA), 250 

National Endowment for the Humani- 
ties, 259-60, 265 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, 265 

National Science Foundation, 121, 
128, 187, 267, 269, 274, 279, 286 

National Teacher Examination, 212- 

13, *77 
Natural sciences, 62, 245 
Nesbitt, Martin, Sr., 8, 22, 23, 33, 46, 


Nesbitt, Martin, Jr., 226, 239 
Nesbitt, Mary Cordell, 8, 26, 226 
Neuse, John, 88 

New University of Ulster, 197-98 

Nickerson, Kenneth, 84 

Nickless, Pamela, 276 

North American Simulation and Gam- 
ing Association (NASAGA), 207, 
228, 283-84 

North Carolina Advisory Budget 
Commission, 65, 81, 142, 145, 158, 
159, 163; and construction funds, 
79, 89, no, 124, 129, 150, 183, 

North Carolina Agricultural and Tech- 
nical University, 191, 232 

North Carolina Agriculture and Tech- 
nical College, 97, 140 

North Carolina Association of Student 
Governments, 199-200, 249 

North Carolina Board of Higher Edu- 

cation, 40, 45, 48, 59, no-ii, 161, 
190; creation of, 37-38, 139; and 
new UNC campuses, 52, 94, 96, 98, 
99, 103, 105; and A-B College 
four-year program, 54, 58, 60, 63, 
64-65, 67, 69, 82, 98, 163; conflict 
with Consolidated University, 109- 
10, 114, 117, 123, 139-41, 146; 
and UNCA, 119, 125-26, 127; re- 
structuring and, 143-44, x 45> I 5 2 - - 
53, 154, 155-56 
North Carolina Central College, 97, 

North Carolina College for Women, 
52, 138 

North Carolina Department of Proper- 
ty Control, 68, 244 

North Carolina Department of Public 
Instruction, 11, 26, 277, 279 

North Carolina Education Computing 
Service, 128, 176 

North Carolina General Assembly, 
143; A-B College funding, 37, 38, 
39, 58, 65, 68, 71, 73, 81, 84; and 
A-B College four-year program, 54, 
56, 67, 85-86, 126, 163; and Con- 
solidated University, 56-57, 138, 
141-42; and new UNC campuses, 
92, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 
105, 106, 107, 123; and Board of 
Higher Education, no-n, 139, 
141, 144, 154; UNCA capital fund- 
ing, 114, 129, 132, 150, 175-76, 
210, 226, 242; university restructur- 
ing, 137, 145, 146-55, 156, 158, 
159, 161-62, 163, 173, 238-39; 
and school desegregation, 189, 234, 
235, 236 

North Carolina Playwrights' Award, 

North Carolina Political Science Asso- 

Index : 309 

ciation, 187, 283 
North Carolina School of the Arts, 75, 

no, 143, 153, 155, 156 
North Carolina State College, 27, 5 2, 

55-56, 137-38, 139 
North Carolina State University, 5 6, 

95, 146, 148, 150, 184, 197, 206, 

247; veterinary school, 191, 232; 

joint engineering program with 

UNCA, 227, 239, 241, 271-72 
North Carolina Symphony Orchestra, 


Nursing program, 120, 200-201 

Obergfell, Sandra, 253, 258 
Occupational Safety and Health Ad- 
ministration (OSHA), 183 
Ochsenreiter, Michael, 223 
Office of Financial Aid, 173, 241 
Office of International Studies, 218 
Office of Public Information, 252 
Office of Student Affairs, 248-51, 285 
Office of University Relations, 251-52 
Ogden, Doan, 77 
Olson, Virginia, 1 69-70 
Omicron Delta Epsilon, 9 1 
Omnibus Higher Education Act 

(1963), 38, 54-56, 93, 94, 95, 140 
Orleans, Jeffrey, 204 
Oteen Veterans Administration Hospi- 
tal, WCU Center, n 8-1 9, 160, 
165, 177, 181, 188 
Overlook Mansion. See Seely Castle 
Owen, Cary, 171, 192, 212 
Owen, Charles D., 220 
Owen, Charles D., Art and Manage- 
ment Building, 188, 199, 220, 231, 
239, 255 
Owen, Guy, 1 20 
Owen, Jackson, 35, 73, 168 
Owen, James, 46 

Owen, L. A., 29 
Owl, Frell, 171, 192 
Oxford University, 89, 90-91, 120, 
124, 179, 180, 185, 197, 219 

Pack Memorial Library, 9, 18, 74 

Parker, A. Kern, 248 

Parker, Cora, 44 

Parkhurst, Jackson, 263 

Parkins, Ivan, 60, 61, 83 

Parsons, Joseph Max, 32, 49, 58, 61, 

73, 168 
Pate, James A., 75 
Patton, George, 195 
Patton, Joe, 128 

Peace, Rev and Mrs. Lewis McKend- 

rick, 13 
Pearsall, Thomas, 93 
Pembroke State University, no, 126, 

140, 250 
Perry, James, 85, 200, 211, 267 
Pezzulo, Lawrence A., 282-83 
Phaup, John, 8 1 

Phi Alpha Theta, 91, 184, 210, 216, 
224, 259 

Phillips, Robert F. ("Robin"), 39, 40, 

41,43,45, 54, 115 
Phillips, Robert F, Administration 

Building, 74, 115, 124, 183 
Philosophy department, 264-65 
Phi Theta Kappa, 34 
Physical education requirement, 62, 


Physics department, 273-75 
Pierce, Gordon, 89 
Pi Lambda Phi, 248 
Piner, J. W., 123 

Political science department, 117, 176, 

227, 282-84 
Ponder, Graham, 10 
Pott, William, 88-89 

310 : Index 

Pow, Alex, 103-6, 118, 119, 165 
Pratt, John, 190, 191, 232-33, 235 
Prevost, J. Aaron, 58, 99 
Prevost Committee, 99-100, 104, 

105, 108, 116 
Proffitt, Carl C, 10 
Prokop, Charles, 285, 286 
Psi Chi, 91, 286 
Psychology department, 284-86 
Puhan, Alfred, 76 
Purks, Harris, 37, 39 

Quinn, Barbara, 225 

Rabin, Yitzhak, 122 

Rackham, Jeffrey, 246, 261, 262 

Rag and Bone Shop , 223, 261 

Rainey, Gene E., 117, 161, 177, 178, 
187, 192, 208-9, 2.16, 282, 283 

Ramseur, David, 189 

Ramsey, Claude, Jr., 58, 104 

Ramsey, D. Hiden, 15, 37, 39, 69 

Ramsey, D. Hiden, Library, 74, 84, 
135 (illus.), 183, 212, 216; con- 
struction of, 58, 68-69; gifts to, 79; 
funding, 126, 149, 160, 161-62, 
163-64; addition to, 242 

Ramsey, Gertrude, 8, 40, 43 

Ramsey, Harry, 181, 196 

Ramsey, Jim, 154, 155 

Ramsey, Liston, 188, 239 

Rankin, William, 103 

Ray, Julia, 171, 212, 226 

Ready, Milton, 168, 169, 186, 197, 
219, 260, 264 

Reece, William J., Jr., 41 

Reed, Arthea, 278, 279 

Reed, Richard, 89, 192, 221 

Reeves, William, 46 

Regional universities, 96-98, no, 
in, 114, 127, 142, 146, 152-53, 

Regional University Act (1967), 97- 
98, 100 

Reid, Cecil L., Academic Award, 72, 

200, 225 
Reid, Paul, 98 

Remington, Lloyd, 180, 197, 268, 

Research: grants, 121, 130, 184, 185, 
187, 228, 250, 258, 260, 262, 267, 
269, 274, 279, 285; student, 130, 

Reynolds, A. C, Citizenship Award, 

83, 88, 179, 219 
Reynolds, Alonzo Carlton, 3, 4, 6, 7, 

8, 9-10, 11, 42, 289 
Reynolds, Evelyn, 10 
Reynolds, John M., 40, 41, 42-43, 

45, 50 ? 5i, 54, 58, 99, 102, 104-5, 


Reynolds, Russell, 214 

Reynolds, Z. Smith, Foundation, 278, 

285, 287 
Rhoades, Verne, 44-45, 70 
Rhoades, Verne, Science Building, 47, 

70, 74, 79, I", 2.39, 2.42, 272 
Richards, W. W, 44 
Richardson, Elliot, 190 
Ridgemnner, 73-74, 80-81, 108, 169, 

174-75, 176, 179, 189, 2.23 
Riesman, David, 243 
Riggs, Gregg, 131 

Riggs, Roy A., 60, 73, 84, 87-88; as 
vice-chancellor, 125, 127, 161, 170, 
176, 197, 201, 202, 206, 208 

Roberson, T. C, 23, 40 

Roberts, Albert H., 1 1 

Roberts, E. B., 14-15 

Roberts, Landon, 43, 44 

Roberts, Stone, 256 

Robinson, H. F. ("Cotton"), 180-81, 

Robinson, Richard, 204 

Index : 311 

Robinson, Robin, 63 
Rockwell, Paul, 89 
Rogers, Sandra, 168 
Rosenblat, Howard, 85, 168 
Ross, W. James, 265 
Rowlet, Larry, 266 
Royalle, Christelle, 210 
Rubin, Louis O., Jr., 192 
Ruiz, Michael, 273, 274, 275 
Russell, Mrs. Robert, 10 

Sabo, William, 227, 282, 283 
Said, Abdul, 122 
Salisbury, Harrison, 169 
Sandburg, Carl, 29 
Sanders, Doris, 8 1 
Sanders, John, 153 

Sanford, Terry, 48, 51, 52, 54, 58, 140 

Sarrano, Juan, 82 

Schaffhausen, Roxanne, 189 

Schandler, Aaron, 227 

Schandler, Joseph, 8 1 

Schapiro, Gene, 207 

Scholarships, 27, 34, 174, 211, 225, 

241, 242, 251-52; athletic, 23, 28- 

29, 34, 225; art, 128; Fulbright, 

256, 258, 259, 262, 268 
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 100, 

126, 173, 206, 212-13, 247, 2.56, 


Schreiber, Virginia Bryan. See Bryan, 

Schultz, Gene, 284, 285 

Science Day, 217, 270 

Science department, 242 

Science requirement, 62, 246-47 

Seism, Thomas, 214 

Scott, Charlie, 124 

Scott, Robert, 123—24, 129; and cre- 
ation of UNCA, 99, 102-3, 104, 
107, 123; and university restructur- 
ing, 143-44, 145, 146, 147-49, 

150, 152, 154, 155 
Seely, Evelyn, 29, 30, 32, 33 
Seely, Fred, Sr., 29, 32 
Seely, Fred, Jr., 29, 30 
Seely Castle, 1, 29, 30-31, 32.-33, 35, 

36, 42-43, 44, 47, 50, 135 (iUus.) 
Seitz, Theodore, 221, 284 
Serota, Cornelia Ann, 22, 24, 32, 49 
Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI 

Bill, 1944), 22, 23, 26, 138, 173 
Sex discrimination, 197, 203-4, 2 °5 
Sgan, Arnold, 182, 193 
Shinn, Mr. and Mrs. Tom, 77 
Shoaf, Ted, 88, 278 
Shorb, Ellis, 60, 61, 83, 88, 169, 182 
Shuford, John, n-12, 46 
Shuster, Lee, 90 
Sigma Mu Pi, 34 
Simpson, Peggy, 8 1 
Simulation program, n 7-1 8, 176, 

187, 207, 209, 283 
Singletary, Otis A., 50-51 
Six Associates, 42, 44, 45, 46-47, 68 
Sluder, Sandra, 88 
Smart, Solon D., 58 
Smathers, William M., 2, 10, 14 
Smith, Bernard, 171, 192, 194 
Smith, Lynn, 223 
Smith, McNeil, 153 
Smith, Robert Lee, 22, 23, 24, 26, 30, 

3i, 33 
Snelgrove, C. P., 84 
Social sciences program, 245 
Social sciences requirement, 62, 116, 


Sociology department, 287-88 
Southeastern Forest Experiment Sta- 
tion, 272 

Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, 24, 25-26, 57, 74, 84-85, 
in, 125, 270 

Southern Highlands Research Center, 

312 : Index 

211, 216, 259, 260, 264 
Speaker Ban Law (1963), 56—57 
Speirs, Ed, 85 

Spring Wildflower Pilgrimage, 200, 

Squibb, Dexter, 78, 217, 225, 268, 

Starnes, O. E., Jr., 41, 43-44 

Steen, Claude, 168 

Stephen E Austin College, 130 

Stephenson, Florence, Hall, 1 3 

Stern, Henry, 189, 258 

Stevens, Cissie, 251 

Stevens, John G., 89, 121, 184, 216, 

217, 247-48, 269, 270, 274 
Stevens, John S., 102, 105, 151, 153, 

Stevens, Virginia, 121 
Stevenson, J. J., Jr., 7, n, 14, 15, 17, 

Stevenson, Zollie, 179, 205 

Stewart, Brenda, 187 

Stewart, James A., 75, 92, 109, 179, 
182, 197, 200, 219, 264; and Ox- 
ford program, 89, 90-91, 124, 185, 

Stewart, Rhonda, 168 
Stoessel, Walter, 76 
Stokely, Wilma Dykeman, 12, 46, 86, 

Strain, Sally, 78 
Straus, Karl, 192, 244, 294 
Student activities, 5, 27, 28, 118 
Student activity fees, 166, 169, 174, 
194, 208 

Student Government Association, 27, 
127, 129, 161, 166, 168, 169, 171, 
174-75, 178, 189, 194, 199, 208, 

Students, 9-10, n-12, 17-18, 26- 
27, 41, 53, 90, 175; veterans, 22, 

23, 25, 26, 35, 51, 138, 179; gov- 
ernment, 34, 77, 80, 109, 114, 118, 
166, 248-49; high school, 52, 217, 
225; and academic curriculum, 60- 
61, 64-65, 66, 244; faculty/student 
ratio, 64, 149, 160, 161-62, 163- 
64; and dormitories, 70-71; Viet- 
nam War protests, 83, 86, 112, 
120-21; SAT scores, 100, 173, 206, 
212-13, 2 47> 2 56, 277; on faculty 
and university committees, 114, 
118, 127—28, 165, 166; research, 
130, 274—75; financial aid, 173, 
211, 241-42; strike over tenure 
denials, 178-79; WCU program, 
196; nontraditional, 241, 243-44, 
249; art works, 256 

Student Senate, 77, 114, 118 

Student services and affairs, 73, 197, 
208, 248-51 

Student Union Board, 248 

Sullivan, Mrs. S. B., 2 

Sulock, Dorothy, 206 

Sulock, Joseph, 189, 276, 283 

Sultan, Norman, 128 

Summey, Gwen, 219 

Summit, n, 25, 34, 84, 169 

Sumner, C. A., 17, 23 

Swain, Robert, 239 

Swalin, Benjamin, 207 

Sweeney, Paul, 210-11, 257 

Sweet, Gordon, 57, 84 

Swim team, 131, 185, 198 

Talman, Fleming, 45 

Tanglewood Children's Theatre, 257 

Taylor, Charles, 102 

Taylor, Don, 36 

Taylor, Evelyn, 199 

Taylor, Ferebee, 153 

Taylor, Maxwell D., 76 

Index : 313 

Taylor, Pat, Jr., 147 

Taylor, Roy A., 7, 25, 81, 209, 212, 

216; in General Assembly, 37, 46; 

on board of trustees, 40, 41, 43; in 

U.S. Congress, 171, 199 
Taylor, Roy A., Public Speaking 

Award, 199 
Taylor Instrument Company, 266 
Teal, John, 84 

Tennent, Charles G. ("Buzz"), 21, 87, 

Tennent, Charles G., Park, 87 
Tenure Policies and Regulations, 202, 

203, 204 
Theatre UNCA, 132, 257 
Theta Chi, 248 
Thines, Rob, 29 
Thomas, Joab, 227 
Thompson, J. J., 180, 197 
Thunderland (Hayes), 36 
Thurman, William, 82, 182 
Tipton, Dewitt, 263 
Tipton, Johnny, 27 
Tomberlin, R. A., 24 
Tone, Fred, 194 
Toon, Malcolm, 76, 282-83 
Triangle Universities Computation 

Center, 121, 128, 247 
Trullinger, Robert, 89, 184, 208, 216- 

17, 221 

Tuition, 7, n, 21, 22, 49, 149-50, 
158, 164, 242 

Uldricks, Ted J., 260, 283 
Undergraduate Research Organiza- 
tion, 217 
U.S. Department of Education, 235 
U.S. Department of Health, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare (HEW), 127, 197, 
2 3 4 _ 35; Office of Civil Rights 
(OCR), 190, 191, 205, 232, 233 

U.S. Forest Service, 218, 228 

U.S. Supreme Court, 46, 235-36 

University Graphics, 252 

University of North Carolina, 27, 37— 
38, 57, in, 112, 119, 138, 164, 
212-13; desegregation, 46, 189, 
231-32, 233, 234, 235, 236; Car- 
lyle Commission and, 52, 55, 140; 
A-B College merged with, 89, 92, 
93-95, 97-98, 99-107, 108, 113, 
126-27, 143, 144, 163; conflict 
with Board of Higher Education, 
109-10, 114, 117, 123, 139-41, 
146; budgets, 110, 142, 149, 158— 
59, 188, 238-39; restructuring and, 
138-39, 144-45, 148, 151, 152-- 
53, 155, 156-57; public television, 
183-84; tenure policy, 203; Faculty 
Assembly, 225 

— Board of Governors for the Univer- 
sity: establishment and powers of, 
155-60, 163, 164-65, 167, 171- 
73, 238-39; and UNCA program, 
171, 175, 177, 179, 193, 198, 217, 
241, 242, 262, 263, 265, 277; and 
desegregation, 190, 191, 232, 233, 
234-35, 236; and tenure policies, 
192, 193, 202-3 

— Board of Trustees of the Consolidat- 
ed University, no, in, 112, 113, 
115, 139, 141-42, 143; and estab- 
lishment of UNCA, 93, 99-100, 
101, 102, 103, 106, 117; restructur- 
ing and abolition of, 145-46, 147- 
48, 150, 152, 154, 156 

— General Administration, 122, 123, 
147, 177, 213, 240, 276; and 
UNCA program, 108, 118, 160, 
161, 167, 245, 270; and budgeting, 
no, 244; and Board of Higher 
Education, 114, 117; restructuring 

314 : Index 

and, 151, 155-56, 157, 161, 163; 
and tenure policy, 172-73, 192-93, 
204, 205; and desegregation, 190, 
191, 232, 234, 236 
University of North Carolina at Ashe- 
ville (UNCA), 107, 108, 195, 207, 
210, 212-13, 216, 228, 288-89; 
educational program and mission, 
109, 1 1 6-1 7, 118, 126-27, 132, 

149, 160-62; self-study, in, 125; 
academic calendar, 113-14, 125, 
167, 240; building construction, 
114-15, 175-76, 183, 188, 220, 
226, 231, 239, 242; WCU Oteen 
Center conflict, 118— 19, 123, 160, 
165, 177; grants to, 121, 128, 197, 
199, 245, 257, 269, 274, 278, 285; 
administration, 122-23, 2-21-23, 
239-40, 242-46; first graduation, 
123—24; land acquisition, 125, 244, 
245; budgets, 125-26, 129, 149, 
182—83, 189, 210, 255; restructur- 
ing and, 137, 149, 150, 160-62, 
163-65, 171; Board of Trustees, 

161, 171-72., 173, i75, 177, 178, 
191-92, 194, 203-4, 2.26, 242, 
248, 294-95; tenure controversy, 
172-73, 178, 192-93, 202-5; joint 
WCU program, 180-82, 183, 184, 
188-89, J 96, 2.09, 214-15, 240- 
41; desegregation, 190, 231-32, 
233, 237; and sex discrimination, 
197, 203-5; fiftieth anniversary, 
199, 209, 211, 216, 251. See also 
Asheville-Biltmore College; 
UNCA and Affiliates Park, 245 
UNCA Foundation, 174, 242, 251-52 
University of North Carolina at Chap- 
el Hill, 52, 64, 95, 120, 137-38, 

150, 184, 206, 241, 247; medical 
school, 96, 138; law school, 138; re- 

structuring and, 146, 148, 149; 
School of Public Health, 176 

University of North Carolina at Char- 
lotte, in. See also Charlotte College 

University of North Carolina at 
Greensboro, 75, 95, 116, 148, 206, 

University of North Carolina at Wil- 
mington, 106, in, 1 16-17, 126. 
See also Wilmington College 

University Planning Council, 240, 246 

Vagabond School of Drama, 258 
Vanderhorst, Mary Jan, 224 
Vandermeer, Jozef, 206 
Van Engelen, Debra, 269 
Vaughn, Sarah, 17 

Veterans, 22, 23, 25, 26, 35, 51, 138, 

Vidich, Arthur, 215 

Vietnam War, 75-76, 83, 123, 131; 

student protests, 59, 86, 112 
Vinson, James, 180, 182, 193, 216, 

218, 222, 247 
Visiting Executive Program, 280-81 

Wagoner, William, 98-99, 102, 106 
Walker, Philip, 60, 61, 80, 83, 88, 

182, 193, 259-60 
Wallace, Herbert, 25 
Walton, Thomas, 81 
Warren, Larry, 189 
Warren, Lindsey, 106, 144, 146, 148 
Warren Commission, 144-48, 151, 


Warren Wilson College, 15, 168, 227- 

Washington and Lee University, 90 
Watkins, Floyd, 192 
Weaver, W. T, Boulevard, 44-45, 47, 

Weaver, W. T, Park, 25, 28 

Index : 315 

Webb, Louis, 74, 84 

Weber, Ann, 284, 286 

Weede, Fred L., 9 

Weepers, 34 

Weir, Weldon, 45, 47 

Weizenblatt, Sprinza, 211 

Wells, Frank, 9 

Wells, Reeves, 32 

Wengrow, Arnold, 125, 131, 132, 

187, 188, 192, 207, 210-11, 223, 


Weshner, Margaret, 227 

West, Cameron, 102, 103, 141, 143- 

44, 145, 146 

Western Carolina Industries, 4 1 

Western Carolina Teachers College, 27, 
96, 97, 98, 138, 140 

Western Carolina University, 102, 
104-6, 129-30; Oteen Center in 
Asheville, 118-19, 123, 160, 165, 
177; merger with UNCA program, 
180-82, 183, 184, 188-89, 196, 
209, 214—15, 240-41; School of 
Nursing, 200 

Whatley, Katherine, 269, 274, 275 

Whisnant, Charleen, 120 

White, Barrington R., 198, 200 

White, Thomas J., 79, 81, 89, 94 

Whitman, Ainsley, 68, 79, 211-12 

Who's Who in American Colleges and 
Universities, 78 

Wilder, Francis S., 15 

Wilder, Thornton, 207 

Wiley, Bell I., 210 

Wilkerson, Sylvia, 83 

Williams, Jonathan, 83-84 

Williams, Louise, 22 

Williams, Robert, 229, 231, 280 

Wills, James, 92 

Wilmington College, 27, 37, 38, 39, 
87; expanded to four-year institu- 
tion, 52, 53, 54, 55, 71, 93, 140; 

merged with UNC, 97, 98-99, 100, 

101, 103, 105, 143, 144 
Wilsman, Karl, 35, 73 
Wilson, Jack, 8 5 

Winger, Maurice, Jr., 171, 192, 194, 

212, 220 
Winner, Dennis, 239 
Winston-Salem State University, no, 

126, 140 

Wishart, Lutrelle, 24, 25, 32, 34, 49, 
80, 182 

WLOS-TV, 128, 216-17, 282 
Wolfe, Fred, 192 

Wolfe, Thomas: seventy-fifth anniver- 
sary, 192 

Wolfe, Thomas, Auditorium, 263 

Women, 249, 266; swim team, 131, 
185, 198; basketball team, 168, 
206, 249-50; athletic programs, 
169, 194, 206, 225 

Wood, Frederic Marcus, 85, 182, 184- 

Wood, Frederic Marcus, Latin Prize, 

Wood, Olin, 229-30 
Wood and Cort, 245 
Woody, Floyd, 24, 32, 34, 35 
World Meteorological Association, 80, 

Worley, A. L., 32 

Wright, Blanton, 1 8 

Wright, Edward N., 10, 11 

Wright, Elizabeth, 32, 34, 72, 225 

Wright, Kenneth, 178 

Wright, Manly E., 44, 72, 107, 212, 

224-25; on board of trustees, 40, 

45, 58, 101, 102, 104; and Carlyle 

Commission, 52, 54, 93 
Wright, Manly E., Award, 225 
WUNF-FM, 128-29, 168, 189, 206, 


Wutschel, Alice, 73, 85, 168, 199, 

316 : Index 

206, 209, 219 
WWNC radio, 27, 34 
Wyatt, Trish, 250 
Wynne, Richard, 25, 46 

Zageir, Coleman, 79, 174, 187, 211 
Zageir, Coleman, Social Sciences 

Building, 89, 124, 150, 175-76, 

183, 187, 245 
Zageir, Helen, 174, 187, 211 
Zerfoss, Lester, 88, 180, 185, 200 
Zimmerman case, 5 
Zumberg, Tom, 185, 200 
Zurhellen, J. Owen, Jr., 282 

(continued from front flap) 

As a result, UNCA's reputation as a public in- 
stitution that provides a high-quality under- 
graduate liberal arts education now reaches far 
beyond its mountain setting. 

Dr. William Edward Highsmith, president 
and chancellor for 22 years, received his Ph.D. 
in history from Louisiana State University. 

ISBN 0-9629356-0-3 

The University of 

North Carolina at Asheville 

One University Heights 
Asheville, NC 28804-3299 

Jacket illustration: UNCA's Phillips Administration 
Building, with Mt. Pisgah in the background. 
(Photograph: Benjamin Porter) 

Since the William E. Highsmith University Center opened 
its doors in the fall of 1982, it has been the heart of student 
life at UNCA and the site of numerous student- oriented 
events and activities. In addition to the campus bookstore, 
dining hall, meeting rooms, and snack bar and game room, 
the center houses the offices of Multicultural Student Affairs, 
the Student Government Association, Student Development, 
Adult and Commuter Services, and Underdog Productions 
(a student-run programming organization). 
Photograph: Lin Barber 

The University of North Carolina at Asheville 
One University Heights, Asheville, NC 28804-3299 

Printed in U.S.A.